|Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן, Nehar haYarden
Arabic: نهر الأردن, Nahr al-Urdun)
|Name origin: Hebrew: ירדן (yardén, descender) < ירד (yarad, to descend)|
|Country||Israel, Palestine, Jordan|
|Regions||West Asia, Eastern Mediterranean littoral|
|- left||Banias River, Dan River, Yarmouk River, Zarqa River|
|- right||Hasbani or Snir River (Lebanon and Israel), Iyon/Ayun Stream (Lebanon and Israel)|
|Landmarks||Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea|
|- location||Anti-Lebanon Mountain Range at Mount Hermon, Golan Heights|
|- elevation||2,814 m (9,232 ft)|
|- elevation||-416 m (-1,365 ft)|
|Length||251 km (156 mi)|
The Jordan River (American English) or River Jordan (British English) (Hebrew: נהר הירדן Nehar haYarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن Nahr al-Urdun, Greek: Ἰορδάνης Iordánēs) is a 251-kilometre (156 mi)-long river in West Asia flowing to the Dead Sea. Israel and Palestine border the river to the west, while Jordan lies to its east. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan takes its name from this river.
The streams coming together to create the River Jordan in its upper basin are, west to east:
- The Ayun (Hebrew: עיון Ayun, Arabic: دردره Dardara or براغيث Braghith - on old PEF maps as Nahr Bareighit in its lower part and Wadi el-Kharrar in the Merj 'Ayun area), which flows from Lebanon.
- The Hasbani (Arabic: الحاصباني Hasbani, Hebrew: either שניר Snir or Hatzbani), which flows from Mount Lebanon.
- The Dan (Hebrew: דן Dan, Arabic: اللدان Leddan), whose source is also at the base of Mount Hermon.
- The Banias (Arabic: بانياس Banias, Hebrew: either Banias or חרמון Hermon), arising from a spring at Banias at the foot of Mount Hermon.
South of the Sea of Galilee it receives the waters of further tributaries, the main ones being:
The river drops rapidly in a 75-kilometre (47 mi) run to swampy Lake Hula, which is slightly above sea level. Exiting the lake, it drops much more in the 25 kilometres (16 mi) down to the Sea of Galilee. The last section has less gradient, and the river meanders before entering the Dead Sea, about 422 metres below sea level, which has no outlet. Two major tributaries enter from the east during this last section: the Yarmouk River and Zarqa River.
Its section north of the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) is within the boundaries of Israel, and forms the western boundary of the Golan Heights. South of the lake, it forms the border between the Kingdom of Jordan (to the east) and Israel and Palestine (to the west).
In 1964, Israel began operating a pumping station that diverts water from the Sea of Galilee to the National Water Carrier. Also in 1964, Jordan constructed a channel that diverted water from the Yarmouk River, another main tributary of the Jordan River to the East Ghor Canal. Syria has also built reservoirs that catch the Yarmouk's waters. Environmentalists blame Israel, Jordan and Syria for extensive damage to the Jordan River ecosystem.
In modern times, the waters are 70% to 90% used for human purposes and the flow is greatly reduced. Because of this and the high evaporation rate of the Dead Sea, as well as industrial extraction of salts through evaporation ponds the sea is shrinking. All the shallow waters of the southern end of the sea have been drained in modern times and are now salt flats.
Small sections of the northernmost portion of the Lower Jordan, between the Sea of Galilee and the confluence with the Yarmouk River, have been kept pristine for baptisms. Most polluted is the 100 kilometre downstream stretch - a meandering stream from the confluence with the Yarmouk to the Dead Sea. Environmentalists say the practice has almost destroyed the river's ecosystem. Rescuing the river could take decades, according to environmentalists. In 2007, Friends of the Earth Middle East (FoEME) named the Jordan River as one of the world's 100 most endangered ecological sites, due in part to lack of cooperation between Israel and neighboring Arab states. The same environmentalist organization said in a report that the Jordan River could dry up by 2011 unless the decay is stopped. The flow rate of the Jordan River once was 1.3 billion cubic metres per year; as of 2010, just 20 to 30 million cubic metres per year flow into the Dead Sea. For comparison, the total amount of desalinated water produced by Israel by 2012 will be about 500 million cubic metres per year.
The waters of the Jordan River is an important water resource for Israel and, to a much lesser extent, for Jordan. The National Water Carrier, completed in 1964, delivers water from the Sea of Galilee to the Israeli coastal plain. Jordan receives water from Israel since the 1994 Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty through a pipeline from the Sea of Galilee.
Conflict about the waters of the Jordan River was a contributing factor to the Six-Day War when Syria attempted to divert some of its headwaters in collaboration with Lebanon and Jordan. The diversion works would have reduced the water availability for Israel's carrier by about 35%, and Israel's overall water supply by about 11%. In April 1967 Israel conducted air raids into Syria to halt this work, and two months later the Six Day War followed. The use of Jordan River's water was cited as a cause of the war by Ariel Sharon, who said,
People generally regard June 5, 1967, as the day the Six Day War began. That is the official date, but in reality it started two and a half years earlier on the day Israel decided to act against the diversion of the Jordan River.
In the Hebrew Bible the Jordan is referred to as the source of fertility to a large plain ("Kikkar ha-Yarden"), and it is said to be like "the garden of God" (Genesis 13:10). There is no regular description of the Jordan in the Bible; only scattered and indefinite references to it are given. Jacob crossed it and its tributary, the Jabbok (the modern Al-Zarqa), on his way back from Haran (Genesis 32:11, 32:23-24). It is noted as the line of demarcation between the "two tribes and the half tribe" settled to the east (Numbers 34:15) and the "nine tribes and the half tribe of Manasseh" that, led by Joshua, settled to the west (Joshua 13:7, passim).
Opposite Jericho, it was called "the Jordan of Jericho" (Numbers 34:15; 35:1). The Jordan has a number of fords, and one of them is famous as the place where many Ephraimites were slain by Jephthah (Judges 12:5-6). It seems that these are the same fords mentioned as being near Beth-barah, where Gideon lay in wait for the Midianites (Judges 7:24). In the plain of the Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan, is the clay ground where Solomon had his brass-foundries (1 Kings 7:46).
In biblical history, the Jordan appears as the scene of several miracles, the first taking place when the Jordan, near Jericho, was crossed by the Israelites under Joshua (Joshua 3:15-17). Later the two tribes and the half tribe that settled east of the Jordan built a large altar on its banks as "a witness" between them and the other tribes (Joshua 22:10, 22:26, et seq.). The Jordan was crossed by Elijah and Elisha on dry ground (2 Kings 2:8, 2:14). God thrived through Elisha performing two other miracles at the Jordan: God healed Naaman by having him bathe in its waters, and he made the axe head of one of the "children of the prophets" float, by throwing a piece of wood into the water (2 Kings 5:14; 6:6).
The New Testament states that John the Baptist baptised unto repentance in the Jordan (Matthew 3:5-6; Mark1:5; Luke 3:3; John1:28). These acts of Baptism are also reported as having taken place at Bethabara (John 1:28).
The New Testament speaks several times about Jesus crossing the Jordan during his ministry (Matthew 19:1; Mark 10:1), and of believers crossing the Jordan to come hear him preach and to be healed of their diseases (Matthew 4:25; Mark 3:7-8). When his enemies sought to capture him, Jesus took refuge at Jordan in the place John had first baptised (John 10:39-40).
Because the Israelites made a difficult and hazardous journey from slavery in Egypt to freedom in The Promised Land, the Jordan can refer to freedom. The actual crossing is the final step of the journey, which is then complete.
Because of the baptism of Jesus, water from the Jordan is employed for the christening of heirs and princes in several Christian royal houses, such as the cases of Prince George of Cambridge, Simeon of Bulgaria or James Ogilvy.
In popular culture
The Jordan River, due primarily to its rich spiritual importance, has provided inspiration for countless songs, hymns, and stories, including the traditional African-American spiritual/folk song "Michael Row the Boat Ashore". It is mentioned in the songs "Eve of Destruction", "Will You Be There", and "The Wayfaring Stranger" and in "Ol' Man River" from the musical Show Boat. "The Far Side Banks Of Jordan" by Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash on June's Grammy Award-winning studio album, Press On, mentions the Jordan River as well as The Promised Land.
Jordan River just south of the Bnot Ya'akov Bridge (May 2009)
- Klein, Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English, The University of Haifa, Carta, Jerusalem, p.264
- Plushnick-Masti, Ramil (10 September 2006). "Raw Sewage Taints Sacred Jordan River". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "Endangered Jordan", Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish Congress, September, 2007
- Jordan River could die by 2011
- Mehr, Farhang, The politics of water, in, Antonino Zichichi, Richard C. Ragaini, eds., International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 30th session, Erice, Italy, 18–26 August 2003, Ettore Majorana International Centre for Scientific Culture, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pie. Ltd., 2004, p.258, 259
- "Appendix C: Historical review of the political riparian issues in the development of the Jordan River and basin management". Murakami. 1995.
- Cf. Acts 19:4
- Kate Connolly, "Once upon a time in Bulgaria", The Guardian, 20 June 2001.
- "Baptized". Time (magazine). May 22, 1964. Retrieved 2008-03-11. "water from the River Jordan was sent for the occasion;"
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jordan River.|
- SMART - Multilateral project for sustainable water management in the lower Jordan Valley
- Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE), Jordan River Dispute
- "Map of the River Jordan and Dead Sea: And the Route of the Party Under the Command of Lieutenant W.F. Lynch, United States Navy" is a map from the mid-19th century of the River Jordan and Dead Sea
- "The Jordan River" in which John the Baptist baptized his cousin Jesus of Nazareth. (Yardenit.com)