January 24, 1939|
|Died||March 23, 2011
|Genres||New Age spirituality and metaphysics|
José Argüelles, born Joseph Anthony Arguelles (//; Rochester, Minnesota January 24, 1939 – March 23, 2011), was an American New Age author and artist. He was the founder of Planet Art Network and the Foundation for the Law of Time. He held a Ph.D. in Art History and Aesthetics from the University of Chicago and taught at numerous colleges, including Princeton University and the San Francisco Art Institute. He was the twin brother of poet Ivan Argüelles. As one of the originators of the Earth Day concept, Argüelles founded the first Whole Earth Festival in 1970, at Davis, California. He was most famous for his leading role in organizing the 1987 Harmonic Convergence event and for inventing the perpetual Dreamspell calendar, released with a Time Shift in 1992.
As a painter and visual artist, he provided illustrations for numerous books, as well as mural paintings at different universities. However, his scope as an artist included his education as an Art History Professor, and his views on art as a "psychophysical aesthetic" can be found in his doctoral dissertation Charles Henry and the Formation of a Psychophysical Aesthetic (Chicago University Press, 1972). When teaching as a professor in the University of California, Davis - one of his final exams to his students was to create "something they believed in" - this became a living art event which eventually became the basis for the annual Whole Earth Festival, still held today at the University of California, Davis. After experimenting with LSD in the mid-1960s, Argüelles produced a series of psychedelic art paintings that Humphrey Osmond—who originally coined the word "psychedelic"—named "The Doors of Perception" (after Aldous Huxley's 1954 book of the same name, itself a title drawn from William Blake's 18th-century poem). In a 2002 interview Argüelles says of his artwork, "as fantastic as painting was, it was a limited medium in terms of audience."
Argüelles viewed his role as a visionary: “My job as a visionary is to envision the best possible outcome for humanity,” Argüelles explained to his biographer, Stephanie South. He envisioned that "Time is Art" for the Planetary Art Network slogan, suggesting that time is a vehicle for our creative experience.
José Argüelles was one of the principal organizers of the Harmonic Convergence event on August 16–17, 1987, which was the first globally synchronized meditation on dates Tony Shearer identified in his book Lord of the Dawn (1971). Argüelles' The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology, was published in concert with the Harmonic Convergence in 1987. In The Mayan Factor Argüelles devises a numerological system by combining elements taken from the pre-Columbian Maya calendar with the I Ching and elements of Earth's rich shamanic heritage unified by shared numerics and geometry. These were interspersed with parallel concepts drawn from modern sciences such as "genetic codes" and "galactic convergences". The book first popularized the Hunab Ku design as a symbol within New Age discourse, which Argüelles had first seen woven into a blanket. Many tribes among the Maya wove histories and lineages into blankets as records. Mexican anthropologist Domingo Martínez Parédez ( 1904–1984 ) wrote about the symbol as Hunab Ku, which literally means sacred measure, in his 1953 publication Hunab Kú: Síntesis del pensamiento filosófico maya. Argüelles produced "Dreamspell: The Journey of Timeship Earth 2013" and a game/tool "Telektonon: The Talking Stone of Prophecy". The former is the source of Arguelles' 13 Moon/28 Day Calendar. This calendar begins on July 26 (heliacal rising of the star Sirius) and runs for 364 days. The remaining date, July 25, is celebrated in some quarters as the "Day out of Time/Peace through Culture Festival". - celebrated in over 90 countries around the world.
The Law of Time 
In his 2002 book Time and the Technosphere, Argüelles devises and promotes a notion that he calls the "Law of Time", in part framed by his interpretations of how Maya calendrical mathematics functioned. In this notional framework Argüelles claims to have identified a "fundamental law" involving two timing frequencies: one he calls "mechanised time" with a "12:60 frequency", and the other "natural [time] codified by the Maya [that is] understood to be the frequency 13:20". To Argüelles, "the irregular 12-month [Gregorian] calendar and artificial, mechanised 60-minute hour" is a construct that artificially regulates human affairs, and is out-of-step with the natural "synchronic order". He proposes the universal abandonment of the Gregorian calendar and its replacement with a thirteen moon, 28 day calendar, in order to "get the human race back on course" by the adoption of this calendar of perfect harmony so the human race could straighten its mind out again."
Argüelles stated that his tools and calendar were not the Mayan Calendar, yet some critics claimed[who?] that his new interpretation merely co-opts an ancient tradition by recasting it in New Age terms. In rigorous debate, Mayan Elder, Spiritual Leader and anthroplogist Carlos Barrios of Guatemala reported numerous alterations of the Mayan calendar by authoritative scholars. Argüelles' approach could be defined as a synthesis. Many religious and spiritual concepts throughout history have involved the eclectic syncretism of one or more previously existing worldviews. Many of Dreamspell's influences come from non-Maya sources, such as the 13-moon/28-day calendar, Ben Franklin's magic square of 8, the I Ching, numerology, and assorted mystical and pseudohistorical works like Erich von Däniken's earlier Chariots of the Gods?. Argüelles' calendar is based on a different day-count than the traditional Maya calendar. For example, in the traditional count January 1, 2005 is 5 Muluk, while in the Dreamspell it is 2 Etznab. This is attributed to a change of 52 days in the count that Argüelles made to accommodate the Time Shift in 1992. As mathematician Michael Finley notes:
"Since the 365 day Maya haab makes no provision for leap years, its starting date in the Gregorian Calendar advances by one day every four years. The beginning of Argüelles' year is fixed to July 26. Thus his count of days departs from the haab as it was known to Maya scribes before the Spanish conquest. Argüelles claims that the Thirteen Moon Calendar is synchronized with the calendar round. Clearly, it is not."
Argüelles' 13 Moon Calendar with a July 26 new year maintained the same symmetrical cross-referencing of year bearers the ancient Maya used. The first day of the year in both the 13 Moon Calendar and the Maya’s Haab always begins on one of only four glyphs, called year bearers. In the Mayan calendar the first day of the year on the Haab consistently corresponds with one of four glyphs derived from the T'zolkin, called year bearers. The year bearer glyph from the T'zolkin is used to identify the character of the 365 day year that follows. In this way the T'zolkin and Haab are continuously cross-patterned with each other in an ongoing matrix, but fully synchronize only once in 52 years.
Much confusion among Mayanist scholars has resulted from discrepancies in changes in glyphs used for year bearer throughout Mesoamerica. In different regions and time periods, the Maya used different year bearer glyphs indicating counts for the T’zolkin and/or Haab were anciently changed. Local autonomy in stylization and preferences was the rule of thumb in Native America, in contrast to the centralized bureaucracy that developed under Rome in Europe. The term "federal" used in organizing America's colonies and Constitution was borrowed from Native American governance.
In defense Argüelles has stated that his calendar is "correct and biologically accurate...for the whole planet". 
Planet Art Network 
Argüelles co-founded the Planet Art Network (PAN) with Lloydine in 1983 as an autonomous, meta-political, worldwide peace organization engaging in art and spirituality. Active in over 90 countries, PAN upholds the Nicholas Roerich Peace Pact and Banner of Peace, symbolizing "Peace Through Culture".
The Planet Art Network operates as a network of self-organized collectives, centralized by a shared focus of promoting the worldwide adoption of Argüelles' Dreamspell 13-Moon/28 day Calendar. The network upholds the slogan "Time is Art", suggesting that time is a vehicle for our creative experience, instead of the familiar saying "Time is Money".
The British anthropologist Will Black conducted research into Jose’s Arguelles’ Planet Art Network for several years. In his 2010 book Beyond the End of the World – 2012 and Apocalypse Black documents a general loss of interest in Dreamspell and in PAN in recent years. Black points out that as general interest in the 2012 phenomenon increased as a result of the proximity of the “end date”, the significance of PAN and the value placed on Arguelles’ ideas waned. Although Argüelles and his Dreamspell system was instrumental in encouraging people to consider the meaning of 2012, further investigation by individuals tended to cause people to look beyond Jose’s system, according to Black. In fact, interest in 2012 snowballed so rapidly in the last few years that many of those who latterly became interested in 2012 may have been quite oblivious to the early contribution of Argüelles.
A broad survey of public opinion and study to determine the sociological impact of the Dreamspell and 13 Moon Calendar have never been conducted.
First Noosphere World Forum 
At the time of his death, he was the director of the Noosphere II project of the Foundation's Galactic Research Institute, inclusive of the First Noosphere World Forum, a project that involves creating a dialogue that unifies a network of organizations working to promote a positive shift of consciousness by 2012 with the vision of the whole earth as a work of art.
- Argüelles, José (1972). Mandala. Shambhala Publications.
- Argüelles, José (1975). The Transformative Vision: Reflections on the Nature and History of Human Expression. Shambhala Publications.
- Argüelles, José (1987). The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology. Inner Traditions/Bear & Company. ISBN 0-939680-38-6.
- Argüelles, José (1988). Earth Ascending: An Illustrated Treatise on Law Governing Whole Systems. Inner Traditions/Bear & Company. ISBN 0-939680-45-9. (note - the 1st edition of this book was published in 1984, prior to The Mayan Factor, by Shambhala Publications)
- Argüelles, José (1989). Surfers of the Zuvuya: Tales of Interdimensional Travel. Inner Traditions/Bear & Company. ISBN 0-939680-55-6.
- Argüelles, José; Miriam Arguelles, Chogyam Trungpa (Foreword) (1995). Mandala. Shambhala. ISBN 1-57062-120-9.
- Argüelles, José (1996). The Arcturus Probe: Tales and Reports of an Ongoing Investigation. Light Technology Publishing. ISBN 0-929385-75-6.
- Argüelles, José (1996). The Call of Pacal Votan: Time is the Fourth Dimension. Altea Publishing. ISBN 0-9524555-6-0.
- Argüelles, Jose (2002). Time and the Technosphere: The Law of Time in Human Affairs. Inner Traditions/Bear & Company. ISBN 1-879181-99-1.
- Argüelles, Jose (2011). Manifesto for the Noosphere: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Consciousness. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-303-8.
Articles and Anthologies
- Argüelles, Jose (1995). GALACTIC HUMAN HANDBOOK: Entering the New Time - Creating Planetary Groups, Part 2. Altea Publications. ISBN 0-9524555-5-2. (Part 1 was written by Sheldan Nidle, and a printing error resulted in some missing and duplicated pages in Part 1 of some early editions.)
- Fox, Margalit (April 2, 2011). "José Argüelles, New Ager Focused on Time, Dies at 72". The New York Times.
- "Valum Votan/José Arguelles Has Ascended". http://www.lawoftime.org/. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- Dreamspell: The Journey of Timeship Earth 2013
- South, Stephanie 2012 Biography of a Time Traveler - the Journey of Jose Arguelles
- Arguelles, Jose Mandala 1972 (The psychedelic mandala-like paintings of Jose Arguelles are reproduced on color plates in the back of the book)
- Moynihan 2002
- 2012: Biography of a Time Traveler: The Journey of Jose Arguelles
- Hess 1993: 72
- Mutch, Stella. "A Day Out of Time". Going Coastal Magazine. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
- Terminology and statements in quotation marks taken from 2002 interview with Argüelles, as transcribed in Moynihan (2002)
- Moynihan (2002)
- Feder 1990: 189; Hess 1993: 72–73
- Quotation is from Finley (2002)
- Indian Givers: How Native Americans Transformed the World, Jack Weatherford; 1988, First Three Rivers Press
- Anastas, Benjamin (2007-07-01). "The Final Days" (reproduced online). The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2008-05-18.
- Barkun, Michael (2003). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23805-2. OCLC 51305869.
- Feder, Kenneth L. (1990). Frauds, myths, and mysteries: science and pseudoscience in archaeology. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing. ISBN 0-87484-971-3. OCLC 20692716.
- Finley, Michael (2002). "Jose Arguelles' Calendrical Dreams". The Real Maya Prophecies: Astronomy in the Inscriptions and Codices. Maya Astronomy. Archived from the original on 2007-09-06. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
- Hess, David J. (1993). Science in the New Age: the paranormal, its defenders and debunkers, and American culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-13820-8. OCLC 27811150.
- Lamy, Philip (2001). "Ufology". In Brenda E. Brasher. Encyclopedia of Fundamentalism. New York: Routledge. pp. 410–413. ISBN 0-415-92244-5. OCLC 46792684.
- Moynihan, Michael (November–December 2002). "Visionary of the New Time: Michael Moynihan Speaks With José Argüelles" (online republication). New Dawn magazine 75. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- Sitler, Robert K. (February 2006). "The 2012 Phenomenon New Age Appropriation of an Ancient Mayan Calendar". Novo Religio (Berkeley: University of California Press) 9 (3): 24–38. doi:10.1525/nr.2006.9.3.024. OCLC 86912726.
- South, Stephanie (March 2009). 2012: Biography of a Time Traveler, The Journey of Jose Arguelles. New Jersey: New Page Books. ISBN 978-1-60163-065-0. OCLC 2008054800.
- Upton, Charles (2001). The System of Antichrist: Truth & Falsehood in Postmodernism & the New Age. Ghent, NY: Sophia Perennis. ISBN 0-900588-30-6. OCLC 45799654.
- York, Michael (1995). The Emerging Network: A Sociology of the New Age and Neo-Pagan Movements. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8000-2. OCLC 31604796.
- Foundation for the Law of Time
- Noosphere Forum
- 13 moon calendar
- counterresponses to Argüelles' defense of his interpretation
- Distinguishing Dreamspell from the Maya calendar
- the Key to Dreamspell, another critical analysis refuting the claims made
- Planet Art Network
- Video interview with Valum Votan by the Transcendent Nation Foundation on the question of "how to save the world"