José Miaja

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This name uses Spanish naming customs; the first or paternal family name is Miaja and the second or maternal family name is Menant.
José Miaja
Miaja.jpg
General Miaja, in 1936.
Birth name José Miaja Menant
Born 20 April 1878
Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
Died January 14, 1958(1958-01-14) (aged 79)
Mexico
Allegiance  Spanish Republic
Service/branch Escudo de España (República).PNG Spanish Republican Army
Rank General
Battles/wars

Rif War
Spanish Civil War

Awards

Royal and Military Order of Saint Hermenegild-Grand Cross.svgOrder of Saint Hermenegild

Laureada de Madrid-fondo blanco.pngLaureate Plate of Madrid

José Miaja Menant (20 April 1878 in Oviedo, Asturias – 14 January 1958 in Mexico) was an officer in the army of the Second Spanish Republic.

Early life[edit]

He entered the Infantry Academy at Toledo in 1896. His first post was in Asturias. Miaja was later transferred to Melilla where he served in the Moroccan War of 1900, achieving the rank of major comandante in 1911, and rising to General in 1932. Despite Miaja's membership of the right-wing Unión Militar Española, in 1935 conservative minister of War, José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, sent him to Lérida, a relatively obscure posting far from the capital, an indication that he did not have the full confidence of the government.

Spanish Civil War[edit]

At the start of the military rebellion that lead to the Spanish Civil War, he was stationed in Madrid, remaining loyal to the Republican government and was appointed Minister of War.[1] In November 1936, he was named commander of the Junta de Defensa (Defense Council) for Madrid, when the government evacuated the capital before the imminent arrival of Nationalist troops. With Vicente Rojo Lluch as chief-of-staff, he managed to halt the Nationalists at the river Manzanares at the Battle of Madrid.[2]

As a Spanish Republican Army commander of the Central Zone, he directed the battles of the Jarama, Guadalajara and Brunete.[3] He later supported the rebellion led by Segismundo Casado against the communist government in March 1939, heading the Council of National Defense (Consejo Nacional de Defensa).[4] He was awarded the Laureate Plate of Madrid for his role during the Siege of Madrid.[5]

Exile[edit]

After the end of the Civil War, he went to Gandia, where he boarded a British ship that took him into exile, first to Algeria and France, then to Mexico,[6] where he died on 14 January 1958.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Alpert, Michael ; El Ejército Republicano en la Guerra Civil, Siglo XXI de España, Madrid, 1989 ISBN 84-3230-682-2
  • Carlos Engel, Historia de las Brigadas Mixtas del Ejército Popular de la República, Ed. Almena. Madrid 1999, ISBN 84-922644-7-0
  • Ramón Salas Larrazábal, Historia del Ejército Popular de la República. La Esfera de los Libros S.L. ISBN 84-9734-465-0
  • Suero Roca, M. Teresa; Militares republicanos de la Guerra de España. Ediciones Península Ibérica, Barcelona, 1981. ISBN 84-297-1706-4
  • Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. 2001. London

References[edit]

  1. ^ Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, Revolution & Revenge. Harper Perennial. London. 2006. p.111
  2. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. Penguin Books. London. 2006. pp.171-185
  3. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. Penguin Books. London. 2006. pp.278-279
  4. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. Penguin Books. London. 2006. p.393
  5. ^ Antonio López Fernández, General Miaja, defensor de Madrid. Editorial Gregorio del Toro, Madrid 1975
  6. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. Penguin Books. London. 2006. p. 412