Joseph I of Portugal

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Joseph I
D. José I de Portugal.jpg
Joseph I; Miguel António do Amaral.
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Reign 31 July 1750 – 24 February 1777
Predecessor John V
Successor Maria I and Peter III
Spouse Mariana Victoria of Spain
Issue
Detail
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
Infanta Mariana Francisca
Infanta Doroteia
Benedita, Princess of Brazil
House House of Braganza
Father John V of Portugal
Mother Maria Anna of Austria
Born 6 June 1714
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 24 February 1777(1777-02-24) (aged 62)
Royal Palace of Sintra, Sintra, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Royal Pantheon of the Braganza Dynasty

Joseph I (Portuguese: José I, Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛ], 6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777), "the Reformer" (Portuguese: "o Reformador"), was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 31 July 1750 until his death.

Early life[edit]

Dom Joseph in his youth days as Prince of Brazil, by Domenico Duprà

He was the third child of King John V of Portugal and his wife Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria. Joseph had an older brother, Peter (but he died at the age of two), an older sister and three younger brothers. At the death of his elder brother, Joseph became Prince of Brazil as the heir-apparent of the king, and Duke of Braganza.

Joseph was devoted to hunting and the opera.[1] Indeed, he assembled one of the greatest collections of operatic scores in Europe.

Marriage[edit]

On 19 January 1729, Joseph married a Spanish Infanta, Mariana Victoria of Spain, daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, and his elder sister Barbara of Portugal married the future Ferdinand VI of Spain. Mariana Victoria loved music and hunting,[2] but she was also a serious woman who disliked the King's affairs and did not hesitate to expose them to acquaintances. Joseph and Mariana Victoria had four daughters, two stillborn sons, one stillborn daughter and a miscarriage in 1750.

Reign[edit]

He succeeded to the Portuguese throne in 1750, when he was 36 years old,[3] and almost immediately placed effective power in the hands of Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better known today as the Marquis of Pombal.[4] Indeed the history of Joseph's reign is really that of Pombal himself. King Joseph also declared his eldest daughter Maria Francisca as the official heiress of the throne, and proclaimed her Princess of Brazil. By this time, the king did not believe he would have a son.[citation needed]

Marquis of Pombal[edit]

The powerful Marquis sought to overhaul all aspects of economic, social and colonial policy to make Portugal a more efficient contender with the other great powers of Europe, and thus secure his own power status as a result. A conspiracy of nobles aimed at murdering King Joseph and the Marquis gave Pombal the opportunity (some say, the pretext) to get rid of the Távora family, and to expel the Jesuits in September 1759, thus gaining control of public education and a wealth of church lands and ushering Portugal, which had been a backwater dominated by the High Aristocracy and a very conservative brand of Catholicism, into the Enlightenment age.

Legacy and Death[edit]

The reign of Joseph was also famous for the great Lisbon earthquake of November 1, 1755, in which around 100,000 people died.

The earthquake caused Joseph to develop a severe case of claustrophobia and he was never again comfortable living within a walled building. Consequently, he moved the royal court to an extensive complex of tents in the hills of Ajuda.

The capital was eventually rebuilt at great cost, and an equestrian statue of King Joseph still dominates Lisbon's main plaza.

Joseph I monument in Lisbon

With Joseph's death on 24 February 1777 the throne passed to his daughter Maria I and brother/son-in-law Peter III. Pombal's iron rule was sharply brought to an end, because she hated him very much for his arrogance and violent behaviour.

Issue[edit]

Joseph I fathered four surviving children by the Queen, all daughters.

  1. Maria I of Portugal (17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) married Infante Peter of Portugal and had issue. Later queen of Portugal.
  2. Mariana Francisca of Portugal (7 October 1736 – 6 May 1813), potential bride for Louis, Dauphin of France, but her mother refused to consent to the marriage, died unmarried.
  3. Infanta Doroteia of Portugal (21 September 1739 – 14 January 1771), potential bride for Philippe Égalité but she refused to marry him, died unmarried.
  4. Infanta Benedita of Portugal (25 July 1746 – 18 August 1829) married Infante Joseph, Prince of Beira, no issue.

Titles, Honours, and Styles[edit]

Titles and Styles[edit]

Honours[edit]

Ancestors[edit]

See also[edit]

Joseph I of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: June 16 1714 Died: February 24 1777
Regnal titles
Preceded by
John V
King of Portugal and the Algarves
1750–1777
Succeeded by
Maria I and Peter III
Portuguese royalty
Preceded by
John
Prince of Brazil
Duke of Braganza

1714-1750
Succeeded by
Maria

References[edit]

  1. ^ History of Portugal: Pamphlet Collection. CUP Archive, 1937. Accessed September 2012.
  2. ^ History of Portugal: Pamphlet Collection. CUP Archive, 1937. Accessed September 2012.
  3. ^ History of Portugal: Pamphlet Collection. CUP Archive, 1937. Accessed September 2012.
  4. ^ History of Portugal: Pamphlet Collection. CUP Archive, 1937. Accessed September 2012.