Josep Caixal i Estradé
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He studied at Tarragona, where he taught the Holy Scriptures, and obtained a canonry (1831). He was professor of philosophy at the University of Cervera. During the first Carlist War, he was exiled to Montalban, Guyana.
On November 30, 1851 he is named as the successor of Simó de Guardiola as bishop of Urgell. In 1853 he becomes the bishop of Urgell and therefor co-prince of Andorra. In that time he is considered as a very conservative catholic. In 1855 he has to defend himself against the charge of conspiring, that the governor of Catalonië had made. In 1867 he protests in Madrid against the confiscation of goods of the Church and the abusive use of it by the Spanish government.
He attended the First Vatican Council during 1869-1870 (Vaticanum I), where he participated in the drafting of the structure of faith, and in discussions on the infallibility of the Pope, and the composition of the Church, as well as other issues of disciplinary nature.
Ideologically a Carlist, driven by a strong and energetic spirit, he clashed seriously with the liberal authorities. During the reign of Amadeus I, he represented the ecclesiastical province of Tarragona (1870-72) in the Madrid Senate and became well known for his defense of Catholic unity in Spain.
Once the Republic was proclaimed (1873), he moved to Andorra, and from there to Navarre, in order to serve in the field as vicar general to the Carlists who had taken arms. When they later occupied the Seu d'Urgell (1874), the Bishop Caixal returned to the city to join in its defence until his imprisonment in Alacant (1875), under the victorious occupiers led by Martínez de Campos.
He afterwards travelled to Rome, but thereafter the Spanish government denied him permission to return to Spain. Pope Pius IX gave him the title of honorary Roman, and he became an aide to the Pontifical Throne. He died in Rome, and was buried at the Seu d'Urgell.
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