Joseph J. Sullivan
|Joseph J. Sullivan|
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
|Other names||Sport Sullivan|
|Known for||Black Sox Scandal|
Sullivan was a known gambler in the Boston area who reportedly bet heavily on the 1903 World Series and was arrested for gambling on baseball in 1907. In 1919, Sullivan was living in the Boston suburb of Sharon, Massachusetts. In September 1919, Sullivan met with Chicago White Sox' first baseman Charles Arnold 'Chick' Gandil at Boston's Hotel Buckminster and conspired with Gandil to perpetrate a fix of the 1919 World Series. It has been disputed which of the two men initiated the meeting. Gandil had known Sullivan since 1912, and he later maintained that Sullivan approached him concerning the plot to throw the series. At Sullivan's suggestion, Gandil recruited several teammates to intentionally lose the games. Sullivan met with noted organized crime boss Arnold Rothstein, who agreed to bankroll the fix for $80,000. Rothstein provided an initial $40,000 for Sullivan to distribute to the involved players; however Sullivan kept $30,000 for his own wagering and gave only $10,000 to Gandil.
After the scheme had been exposed, Sullivan did not testify in front of the Chicago grand jury hearing in October 1920, because William J. Fallon, the lawyer of Arnold Rothstein, persuaded Sullivan not to do so. If Sullivan did testify, it would probably expose the fact that Rothstein has been the one providing the money for the Black Sox players to fix the Series. Still, he was later indicted on nine counts of conspiracy to defraud. Sullivan reportedly was paid by Rothstein to flee to Mexico so that he would not go to Chicago to testify in front of the Grand Jury. Sullivan was never arrested nor appeared at the trial, which started in June 27, 1921. The trial ended in an acquittal for all the defendants.
He was also mentioned (despite not appearing as a character) in Boardwalk Empire.
- The Boston Globe, October 13, 1903
- The Boston Globe, July 10, 1907
- Eliot Asinof, Eight Men Out: The Black Sox and the 1919 World Series, Holt, (May 1, 2000), pp6-8
- Daniel A. Nathan, Saying It's So: A Cultural History of the Black Sox Scandal, University of Illinois Press, 2006, p114 ISBN 0-252-07313-4
- Linder, Douglas "The Black Sox Trial: An Account", University of Missouri - Kansas City Law School, 2001
- Eliot Asinof, Eight Men Out: The Black Sox and the 1919 World Series, Holt, (May 1, 2000), p212
- Eliot Asinof, Eight Men Out: The Black Sox and the 1919 World Series, Holt, (May 1, 2000), p239
- "White Sox Players are All Acquitted by Chicago Jury", The New York Times, August 3, 1921
- David Pietrusza, Rothstein: The Life, Times, and Murder of the Criminal Genius Who Fixed the 1919 World Series, 2003, 2011, page 382
- Brendan C Boyd, Blue ruin : a novel of the 1919 World Series, Norton, 1991, ISBN 0-393-03020-2
- Daniel A. Nathan, Saying it's so: a cultural history of the Black Sox scandal, University of Illinois Press (2002), p.164
- "White Sox Baseball Players Conspire", Great Events from History: Modern Scandals, Salem Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-58765-468-8