Joseph Delaney (1904 – November 21, 1991) was an African-American artist who became a part of the New York art scene at the time of the Harlem Renaissance.
He was born in Knoxville, Tennessee, one of ten children of a Methodist minister. He was the younger brother of Beauford Delaney, with whom he shared an interest in drawing. After a period spent working as a bellhop, Joseph took to hoboing. In 1930, he went to New York City to study at the Art Students League, where his first teacher was Alexander Brook. He subsequently became a student of Thomas Hart Benton, who he later cited as a major influence, saying, "Benton will be with me always".
Joseph Delaney lived and worked in New York until 1986, when he returned to Knoxville to become an artist-in-residence at the University of Tennessee, a position he held until his death in 1991.
The Art Institute of Chicago, the Knoxville Museum of Art, the Museum of the City of New York, the Indianapolis Museum of Art, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum are among the museums holding works by Joseph Delaney.