Joseph Erlanger (January 5, 1874 – December 5, 1965) was an American physiologist.
Erlanger was born on January 5, 1874, at San Francisco, California. He completed his B.S. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley and completed his M.D. in 1899 from the Johns Hopkins University. Erlanger worked as Assistant in Physiology, 1900–01; Instructor, 1901–03; Associate, 1903–04; Associate Professor, 1904–06; at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD. Erlanger was on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and received the Nobel Prize while on the faculty of Washington University in St. Louis, awarded jointly with Herbert Spencer Gasser.
Assistant in Physiology, 1900–01; Instructor, 1901–03; Associate, 1903–04; Associate Professor, 1904–06;
He won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 1944 for the discovery of different types of nerve fibers.
He died on December 5, 1965 at St. Louis, Missouri. The Joseph Erlanger House in St. Louis is designated a National Historic Landmark.
On January 22, 2009, the International Astronomical Union named a crater on the moon after him.
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