Joseph F. Smith

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Joseph F. Smith
JFS First Presidency 1905 large.jpg
6th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
October 17, 1901 (1901-10-17) – November 19, 1918 (1918-11-19)
Predecessor Lorenzo Snow
Successor Heber J. Grant
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
October 10, 1901 (1901-10-10) – October 17, 1901 (1901-10-17)
End reason Became President of the Church
First Counselor in the First Presidency
October 6, 1901 (1901-10-06) – October 10, 1901 (1901-10-10)
Called by Lorenzo Snow
End reason Dissolution of First Presidency upon death of Lorenzo Snow
Second Counselor in the First Presidency
April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07) – October 6, 1901 (1901-10-06)
Called by Wilford Woodruff
End reason Called as First Counselor in the First Presidency
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25) – April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07)
End reason Called as Second Counselor in the First Presidency
Second Counselor in the First Presidency
October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10) – July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25)
Called by John Taylor
End reason Dissolution of First Presidency upon death of John Taylor
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29) – October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10)
End reason Called as Second Counselor in the First Presidency
Counselor in the First Presidency
July 1, 1866 (1866-07-01) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29)
Called by Brigham Young
End reason Dissolution of First Presidency upon death of Brigham Young
LDS Church Apostle
July 1, 1866 (1866-07-01) – November 19, 1918 (1918-11-19T1838)
Called by Brigham Young
Reason Brigham Young's discretion[1]
Reorganization
at end of term
Melvin J. Ballard ordained
Personal details
Born Joseph Fielding Smith
(1838-11-13)November 13, 1838
Far West, Missouri, United States
Died November 19, 1918(1918-11-19) (aged 80)
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
Resting place Salt Lake City Cemetery
40°46′37.92″N 111°51′28.8″W / 40.7772000°N 111.858000°W / 40.7772000; -111.858000
Spouse Levira Annette Clark Smith
Julina Lambson
Sarah Ellen Richards
Edna Lambson
Alice Ann Kimball
Mary Taylor Schwartz
Children 48
Signature  
Signature of Joseph F. Smith

Joseph Fielding Smith, Sr. (November 13, 1838 – November 19, 1918) was the sixth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). He was the last president of the LDS Church to have personally known the founder of the Mormon faith, Joseph Smith, Jr., who was the brother of his father, Hyrum Smith.

Biography[edit]

Smith was the son of Patriarch Hyrum Smith and his second wife, Mary Fielding, a British convert to the church who married Hyrum after the death of his first wife, Jerusha Barden Smith. In addition to her two children, Mary Fielding Smith also raised the six children from the union of Hyrum and Jerusha.

Early life[edit]

Smith was born in Far West, Missouri on November 13, 1838. Just a few days before he was born, his father, Hyrum, had been taken prisoner under the auspices of the Missouri Executive Order 44 (infamously called the "extermination order"). At point of bayonet, Hyrum was marched to his home in Far West and ordered to say farewell to his wife. He was told that his "doom was sealed" and that he would never see her again. Hyrum was still in custody in Liberty Jail, Missouri, when Joseph Fielding was born. He was named after his uncle, Joseph Smith, and his mother's brother, Joseph Fielding. His mother and maternal aunt, Mercy Fielding Thompson, fled with their children to Quincy, Illinois early in 1839, and they later moved to Nauvoo, Illinois when the majority of the church's members settled there. Hyrum was later released from custody during a transfer from Liberty Jail and joined his family in Nauvoo. Joseph F. Smith stated as an adult that he had memories of Nauvoo, and could recall his uncle, Joseph Smith, and events that occurred at his uncle's home; he was nearly six years old when his father and uncle were killed in Carthage, Illinois on June 27, 1844.

Winter Quarters[edit]

Smith's family remained in Nauvoo until September 1846, at which time his mother took their family and fled the city, camping on the west side of the Mississippi River among the trees on its banks, without wagon or tent, while the city was bombarded by mobs. His mother was later able to exchange their property in Illinois for a wagon and team of oxen. Joseph and his family, along with many other Latter Day Saints, fled the American Midwest. The seven-year-old Smith drove the team of oxen with his family to the Latter Day Saint encampment at Winter Quarters, Nebraska.

While at Winter Quarters, Smith and another boy, Thomas Burdick, were out on horseback some distance from the settlement, watching the cattle graze. They saw a band of twenty or thirty American Indians ride into the valley on the other side of the cattle. Burdick rode back to camp to get help while Smith rode toward the Indians and got between the Indians and the herd before the Indians reached them. Smith was able to turn the herd back toward the settlement, and, coupled with the noise and arrival of the Indians, started a stampede which saved the herd from capture. He was still riding with the herd at full speed when two Indians picked him up off of his horse from either side and dropped him to the ground. A company of men from the encampment then arrived, chased away the fleeing Indians, and recovered the herd, but Smith's horse was stolen.

Smith and his family remained at Winter Quarters until the spring of 1848 when Smith drove his mother's wagon across the plains to Utah.

Utah childhood[edit]

After arriving in the Utah Territory in 1848, Joseph's mother, Mary Fielding Smith, worked with her sister and brother to raise the two widows' families,[clarify] as well as continuing to care for Hyrum and Jerusha's younger children. Mary Fielding Smith died in 1852, apparently of pneumonia, leaving Smith an orphan at the age of 13. Smith reported that he was devastated by his mother's death, and relied upon the emotional support and help of Brigham Young and his stepfather, Heber C. Kimball. Even with the support of his older half-brother John Smith, Joseph assumed primary responsibility for his young sister, Martha Ann, and subsequently left school in 1854. His leaving school was closely linked to his resistance of a teacher's attempt to whip Martha.[2]

Missions and military service[edit]

At the age of fifteen, Smith was called to go on his first LDS mission to the Sandwich Islands (designated the Hawaiian Islands after acquisition as a territory of the United States) under the direction of apostle Parley P. Pratt. Smith was ordained an elder by George A. Smith on April 24, 1854 and received his endowment at the Endowment House the same day. He then traveled to San Bernardino, California where he worked to earn money for passage on a ship to San Francisco. In the San Francisco area, possibly in what is now Fremont, California on the farm of John Horner, he was again employed in agricultural pursuits seeking to earn money for passage to Hawaii.[3][4]

Smith successfully learned the language of the Hawaiian people and reported great success in four years of missionary work on the islands. Besides serving with various American companions on his mission he also had two Hawaiian companions, Paake, who was a property manager for some of Jonathan Napela's property, and Lalawaia. He spent the first part of his mission on Maui, but later presided over groups of branches on the island of Hawaii and then over all LDS Church units on Molokai.[5]

Smith was called back to the Utah Territory in 1857, largely as a result of the conflict known as the Utah War. He traveled overland from San Francisco to San Bernardino and then north through modern Las Vegas on his return. He finally arrived back in Utah in February 1858. Shortly after this, Smith joined the territory's militia, named the "Nauvoo Legion", and spent several months patrolling the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. Later in his tour of duty, he served as chaplain of Colonel Heber C. Kimball's regiment, with the rank of captain. After tensions between the church and the federal government abated, Smith assisted his relatives in their return to northern Utah from areas in southern Utah, where they had taken their families for safety.

During the 1858–1859 session of the Utah territorial legislature Smith served as the sergeant-at-arms. In 1859 he married his first wife, Levira Smith. In the LDS Church, Smith was ordained a seventy in March 1858 and then as a high priest and a member of the Salt Lake Stake high council in October 1858.[6]

In 1860, at 22 years of age, Smith was sent on a mission to Great Britain. He and his cousin, Samuel H. B. Smith, drove mule teams over the plains to Winter Quarters to help pay their way. Shortly after arriving in England, Smith was made the conference president in Sheffield. Among the members of the LDS Church in that city was William Fowler; Smith was present at the meeting where Fowler's hymn "We Thank Thee, O God, for a Prophet" was first sung.[7] After a short time, Smith was appointed to the pastorate, an office that seems to have only existed in the British Mission and only for a short time, in which position he presided over the Sheffield as well as four other adjacent conferences. In all he served for 3 years, the last part under mission president George Q. Cannon, when he was sent on short assignments to both Denmark and France. Smith left England in June 1863. After a short stay in New York to earn enough money to cross the plains he went west and from Nebraska on served as the chaplain of an LDS wagon company bound for Utah.[8]

Smith had only been home for a short while when he was called to accompany Ezra T. Benson, Lorenzo Snow, William W. Cluff and Alma T. Smith on a second mission to the Sandwich Islands to correct the problems caused by Walter M. Gibson. He acted as principal interpreter for the apostles, and after Gibson was excommunicated, Smith was left in charge of the mission. Smith returned home in the winter of 1864–1865.

Smith had a notable experience during this mission. The group anchored their boat in a rough channel in order to go ashore, proposing that the party should land using the freight boat. Smith was strongly opposed to this, saying that the boat was unfit for the rough waters and that there was a great danger of capsizing. He offered to go ashore alone to obtain a boat fit to transport the party, to which they refused. They were persistent however, chiding him for his waywardness, with one leader even saying, "Young man, you would be better to obey counsel." He then reiterated his impression of danger, imploring them not to go, but they insisted, so he asked that they leave their satchels, clothes, and valuables and permit him to stay. They reluctantly consented and set out for land. Partway there, the freight boat was overturned by the rough water about 20 or 30 feet deep, and Lorenzo Snow nearly drowned in the ocean. Snow's unconscious body was recovered, and on shore they were able to resuscitate him. Due to Smith's actions, all of their belongings were saved.

Clerical and political career[edit]

Upon his return home, Smith was employed in the Church Historian's office for a number of years. It was while working in this position he met his second wife, Julina Lambson, who was a niece of Bathsheba W. Smith, a wife of church apostle George A. Smith.

Smith also served as a clerk in the Endowment House, being in charge after the death of Brigham Young, until it was closed. His latter mission to Hawaii was largely prompted by the fact that Smith held this position: since he had in his possession the records of the Endowment House, Smith's arrest was deemed by the federal government as likely to open the way to many more prosecutions for polygamy.

Smith served seven terms in the Utah territorial House of Representatives, specifically from 1865 to 1870, 1872, and 1874. He was a member of the Salt Lake City Council for many years and in this position was a key advocate of setting up city parks. He was thus one of the people involved with the establishment of Pioneer Park and Liberty Park in Salt Lake City.[9] In 1868 and 1869 Smith served as a member of the Provo city council.[10] Smith served as a member of the Territorial Council, essentially the equivalent of the upper house of the legislature, in 1880 and 1882. He also served as president of a state constitutional convention in 1882. Like many other potential Utah state constitutions, the one produced by this convention did not go into effect because Congress refused to grant Utah statehood.

Smith also served as a LDS Church representative on boards of many Utah businesses.

Marriages and family[edit]

On 5 April 1859, Smith married his sixteen-year-old cousin Levira Annette Clark Smith (29 April 1842 Nauvoo, Illinois – 18 December 1888 St. Louis, Missouri), daughter of Samuel Harrison Smith. When Joseph F. Smith left on his mission to England the next year, his companion for the journey over and part of his time in Sheffield was Levira's brother, Samuel. Joseph and Levira had no children. Seven years later, Brigham Young directed Smith to take a plural wife. Levira gave her permission and was present at the marriage of Joseph F. and Julina Lambson, who was a longtime friend of hers and was the daughter of Alfred Boaz Lambson and Melissa Jane Bigler. Levira became disenchanted with the plural marriage arrangement and divorced Smith in 1868 and moved to California.[11]

Smith ultimately adopted five children and fathered forty-three children. Thirteen of his children preceded him in death: Mercy, Leonora, Sarah Ellen, Heber, Rhoda, Alice, Hyrum, Alfred, Albert, Robert, Zina, Ruth, and John. His adopted son, Edward, also preceded him in death.

  • Julina Lambson (18 July 1849 – 10 January 1936). Married 6 May 1866. Julina was a nurse and midwife.[12]
    • Edward Arthur Smith (Adopted) (1 November 1858 Brampton, England – 17 July 1911 Raymond, Canada)
    • Mercy Josephine Smith (14 August 1867 – 6 June 1870)
    • Mary Sophronia Smith (7 October 1869 – 5 January 1948)
    • Donette Smith (17 September 1872 – 15 September 1961)
    • Joseph Fielding Smith, Jr. (19 July 1876 – 2 July 1972)
    • David Asael Smith (24 May 1879 – 6 April 1952)
    • George Carlos Smith (14 October 1881 – 23 February 1931)
    • Julina Clarissa Smith (10 February 1884 – 1 August 1923)
    • Elias Wesley Smith (21 April 1886 Laie, Hawaii – 28 December 1970)
    • Emily Jane Smith (11 September 1888 – 12 December 1982)
    • Rachael Smith (11 December 1890 – 14 December 1986)
    • Edith Eleanor Smith (3 January 1894 – 21 May 1987)
    • Marjorie Virginia Smith (Adopted) 7 December 1906 – 17 November 1994)
  • Sarah Ellen Richards (24 August 1850 – 22 March 1915). Married on 1 March 1868. Sarah was a daughter of Willard Richards and his wife Sarah Longstroth.[13]
    • Sarah Ellen Smith (5 February 1869 – 11 February 1869)
    • Leonora Smith (30 January 1871 – 23 December 1907)
    • Joseph Richards Smith (22 February 1873 – 2 October 1954)
    • Heber John Smith (3 July 1876 – 3 March 1877)
    • Rhoda Ann Smith (20 July 1878 – 6 July 1879)
    • Minerva Smith (30 April 1880 – 24 January 1958)
    • Alice Smith (27 July 1882 – 29 April 1901)
    • Willard Richards Smith (20 November 1884 – 11 September 1972)
    • Franklin Richards Smith (12 May 1888 – 25 December 1967)
    • Jeanetta Smith (25 August 1891 – 27 January 1932)
    • Asenath Smith (28 December 1896 – 3 August 1982)
  • Edna Lambson (3 March 1851 – 28 February 1926). Married on 5 May 1871. She was the sister of Julina Lambson, who was also one of Smith's wives.
    • Hyrum Mack Smith (21 March 1872 – 23 January 1918)
    • Alvin Fielding Smith (19 July 1874 – 4 January 1948)
    • Alfred Jason Smith (13 December 1876 – 6 April 1878)
    • Edna Melissa Smith (6 October 1879 – 26 October 1958)
    • Albert Jesse Smith (16 September 1881 – 25 August 1883)
    • Robert Smith (12 November 1883 – 4 February 1886)
    • Emma Smith (21 August 1888 – 28 December 1969)
    • Zina Smith (11 October 1890 – 25 October 1915)
    • Ruth Smith (21 December 1893 – 17 March 1898)
    • Martha Smith (12 May 1897 – 7 August 1977)
  • Alice Ann Kimball (6 September 1858 – 19 December 1946). Married on 6 December 1883. Alice was Heber C. Kimball's daughter, and the twin of Andrew Kimball, father of Spencer W. Kimball.
    • Charles Coulson Smith (Adopted) (19 November 1881 – 20 April 1933)
    • Heber Chase Smith (Adopted) (19 November 1881 – 29 December 1971)
    • Alice May Smith (Adopted) (11 October 1877 – 20 October 1920)
    • Lucy Mack Smith (14 April 1890 – 24 November 1933)
    • Andrew Kimball Smith (6 Jan 1893 – 23 August 1951)
    • Jesse Kimball Smith (21 May 1896 – 9 June 1953)
    • Fielding Kimball Smith (9 April 1900 – 20 October 1974)
  • Mary Taylor Schwartz (30 April 1865 – 5 December 1956). Married on 13 January 1884. Mary was Agnes Taylor's daughter and church president John Taylor's niece.
    • John Schwartz Smith (20 August 1886 – 3 August 1889)
    • Calvin Schwartz Smith (29 May 1890 – 15 June 1966)
    • Samuel Schwartz Smith (26 October 1892 Franklin, Idaho – 10 May 1983)
    • James Schwartz Smith (13 November 1894 Franklin, Idaho – 6 November 1950)
    • Agnes Smith (3 November 1897 – 9 March 1966)
    • Silas Schwartz Smith (3 January 1900 – 23 April 1986)
    • Royal Grant Smith (21 May 1906 – 30 May 1971)

One of Smith's granddaughters, Amelia Smith, married Bruce R. McConkie, who later became a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.

Church service[edit]

Joseph F. Smith in the Sacred Grove, ca. 1905

After Smith's first mission to Hawaii at age fifteen, he served on the Salt Lake Stake High Council in 1859, and in 1864 began working in the Church Historian's Office as a "recorder" for the Endowment House, Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and the First Presidency. By the time he was called to the Quorum of the Twelve in 1866, at the age of 27, he had served three separate missions for the church. (Hawaii from 1854–57; Great Britain from 1860–63; Hawaii in 1864)

On July 1, 1866, Smith was ordained an apostle by Brigham Young and sustained as a counselor to the First Presidency, where he served until Young's death. However, he was not sustained as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve until the church's October 1867 conference. On February 28, 1874, he left for his second mission to England, serving as president of the European Mission from 1874 to 1875, returning home upon the death of First Presidency member George A. Smith. He was then called to preside over the Davis Stake until he left again in the spring of 1877 for his third mission to England. When news arrived of the death of Young, Smith was released and returned home. The following year he served an Eastern States Mission with Orson Pratt, visiting noteworthy places in the history of the church in Missouri, Ohio, New York and Illinois. During this trip they met with and interviewed David Whitmer.

In October 1880, three years after Young's death, Smith was named second counselor in the First Presidency to church president John Taylor, serving from 1880 to 1887. He later served as second counselor to Wilford Woodruff (1889–1898), and as second counselor to Lorenzo Snow (1898–1901). Smith was sustained as first counselor to Snow on the death of first counselor George Q. Cannon, but, as Snow himself died only four days later, Smith never served in that position. He succeeded Snow as president of the Salt Lake Temple and served until 1911, when he transferred the responsibility to Anthon H. Lund.

Smith also served as editor of the Improvement Era and Juvenile Instructor, and general superintendent of the Sunday School and Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association.

Smith felt it was important for Utah to become a state, and thereby eliminate the ongoing federal supervision of the Utah Territory. Following the official discontinuance of new plural marriages by Wilford Woodruff in 1890, and the dissolution of the Mormon People's Party in 1891, Smith championed the anti-polygamy Republican party in Utah.

LDS Church President[edit]

Smith was chosen by the twelve apostles and set apart as President of the Church on October 17, 1901. This was ratified by a special conference and solemn assembly of the priesthood on November 10, 1901. He chose John R. Winder, of the United Kingdom, and Anthon H. Lund, of Denmark, as his counselors. After Winder died, Lund became the First Counselor and Smith's second cousin, John Henry Smith, became the Second Counselor.

Joseph F. Smith gave more influence to the Presiding Patriarch of the church than had any president since Joseph Smith, Jr. The church's presiding patriarch, John Smith, was his elder half-brother.

Joseph F. Smith was the first church president to travel outside of North America while president of the church. In 1906 he went on a tour to Europe.

One of the first issues he faced was the ongoing difficulties for the church due to the practice of plural marriage. Smith supported apostle Reed Smoot's candidacy for the U.S. Senate. But Smoot's election was contested on the grounds that he was an officer in the church. The Senate investigation again focused national attention on Mormon marriages and political influence. Additional attention was given to Smith because of his opposition to the election and re-election of Utah's senior U.S. Senator, non-Mormon Thomas Kearns.[14] Following his appearance before a Senate panel in 1904, Smith took steps to prevent any surreptitious continuation of church plural marriages. On April 6, 1904, Smith issued the "Second Manifesto." He also declared that any church officer who performed a plural marriage, as well as the offending couple, would be excommunicated. He clarified that the policy applied world-wide, and not just in North America. Two members of the Quorum of the Twelve, John W. Taylor and Matthias F. Cowley, resigned in 1905 following the second manifesto. Smith, however, continued to live with his plural wives after the 1890 and the 1904 manifestos. In 1906, Smith was brought to trial on a charge of unlawful cohabitation with four women in addition to his lawful wife; he pleaded guilty and was fined $300, the maximum penalty then permitted under the law.[15]

Smith's seventeen-year administration made efforts toward improving the church's damaged relationships with the federal government and related issues dealing with the church's financial situation. The administration acquired historic sites, constructed numerous meetinghouses, and expanded the church system of educational academies and universities. He also oversaw a continued growth in church membership.

Smith died of pneumonia in Salt Lake City on November 19, 1918,[16] and was succeeded by Heber J. Grant. Due to the widespread influenza pandemic of 1918–1920, a graveside service, was held, rather than a public funeral. Smith was interred in the Salt Lake City cemetery on November 22, 1918.

Smith is often remembered as church president for the construction and dedication of the Joseph Smith Birthplace Memorial near South Royalton, Vermont on December 23, 1905 and the Seagull Monument at Temple Square in Salt Lake City on October 1, 1913. In 1913, Boy Scouting became the official youth activity program for the church's young men. During much of his presidential tenure, Smith oversaw the planning and construction of the Laie Hawaii Temple in Lā'ie, Hawai'i, one of his part-time residences. Smith died at Salt Lake City on November 19, 1918, a year before the Hawaii Temple was to be dedicated. Smith left a body of religious writings often used in discussing church doctrine and religious conduct.

Grave marker of Joseph F. Smith, and Julina Lambson Smith, one of his wives

Doctrinal contributions[edit]

During his administration as President of the Church, President Smith made significant official statements of Latter-day Saint doctrine:

  • "The Origin of Man": In November 1909, in the midst of public interest in theories of evolution, the First Presidency issued a statement concerning the Latter-Day Saint doctrine. It affirms that God created man in his own image. The document also succinctly reiterates the doctrine of twofold creation (spiritual followed by temporal), the premortal existence of man, and ends noting that man, as a child of God, is capable of evolving into a God.
  • "The Father and the Son": On June 20, 1916, the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles issued a statement examining the LDS use of the term "Father" in scripture, clarifying times when the word referred to God the Father and when the word referred to Jesus Christ. The statement identified four different uses of the word "Father." God the Father is the literal parent of the spirits of mankind and the earthly father of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is referred to as "the Father" when discussing his role as creator of the earth, when he acts as "the Father" of those who abide in his gospel, and when he acts with the authority of his Heavenly Father while on earth.
  • "Vision of the Redemption of the Dead": On October 3, 1918, Smith received a revelation on the nature of the spirit world and on Jesus Christ's role in ensuring that the gospel is taught to all men, living and dead. A written account of the revelation was submitted to the general authorities of the church on October 31, 1918 and was unanimously accepted. The revelation was initially published in December 1918, and was added to the Pearl of Great Price, an LDS scripture, in April 1976; it has since been removed from the Pearl of Great Price and added to the Doctrine and Covenants as Section 138. This revelation complemented an 1894 statement on the eternal nature of the family and appropriate work for the dead issued by Wilford Woodruff. Genealogy work by members of the LDS Church increased after both of these statements.

Funded by Lorenzo N. Stohl, the sermons and writings of Joseph F. Smith were compiled by John A. Widtsoe, Osborne J.P. Widtsoe, Albert E. Bowen, Franklin S. Harris and Joseph Quinney. In 1919, the "Committee on Study for the Priesthood Quorums of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" had this work published as the book Gospel Doctrine, for use as instruction for Melchizedek priesthood quorums of the church.

Works[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Smith was ordained an apostle and added to the First Presidency as a counselor. At the time of his call, there was not a vacancy in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles or the First Presidency.
  2. ^ Smith. Life of Joseph F. Smith p. 229
  3. ^ Smith. Life of Joseph F. Smith p. 164-167
  4. ^ Richard O. Cowan and William E. Homer. California Saints: A 150-Year Legacy in the Golden State (Provo: Religious Studies Center of Brigham Young University, 1996) p. 144-147
  5. ^ Smith. Joseph F. Smith p. 169-187
  6. ^ Smith. Joseph F. Smith p. 196
  7. ^ Smith. Joseph F. Smith p. 199
  8. ^ Smith. Joseph F. Smith. p. 202-205
  9. ^ Smith. Life of Joseph F. Smith. p. 230
  10. ^ Smith. Life of Joseph F. Smith p. 230
  11. ^ Smith. Joseph F. Smith. p. 231
  12. ^ Utah State History entry on Julina
  13. ^ Andrew Jenson. LDS Biographical Encyclopedia. Vol. 3, p. 781
  14. ^ O. N. Malmquist, The First 100 Years: A History of the Salt Lake Tribune, Utah State Historical Society, 1971
  15. ^ Deseret Evening News, November 23, 1906; Salt Lake Tribune, November 24, 1906.
  16. ^ State of Utah Death Certificate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints titles
Preceded by
Lorenzo Snow
President of the Church
17 October 1901–November 19, 1918
Succeeded by
Heber J. Grant
Preceded by
George Q. Cannon
First Counselor in the First Presidency
October 6, 1901 – October 10, 1901
Succeeded by
John R. Winder
Preceded by
Daniel H. Wells
Secound Counselor in the First Presidency
April 7, 1889 – October 6, 1901
Succeeded by
Rudger Clawson
Preceded by
George Q. Cannon
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
April 21, 1901–17 October 1901
Succeeded by
Brigham Young, Jr.
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
July 1, 1866–17 October 1901
Preceded by
Lorenzo Snow
Superintendent of the
Young Men’s Mutual Improvement Association

1901–1918
Succeeded by
Anthony W. Ivins