Joseph McKenna

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For Joseph McKenna the member (Volunteer) in the Irish Republican Army, see List of members of the Irish Republican Army.
Joseph McKenna
Joseph McKenna (assoc justice).jpg
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
In office
January 21, 1898[1] – January 5, 1925
Nominated by William McKinley
Preceded by Stephen Johnson Field
Succeeded by Harlan F. Stone
42nd United States Attorney General
In office
March 5, 1897 – January 25, 1898
President William McKinley
Preceded by Judson Harmon
Succeeded by John W. Griggs
Judge on United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
In office
1892–1897
Nominated by Benjamin Harrison
Preceded by Lorenzo Sawyer
Succeeded by William W. Morrow
Personal details
Born (1843-08-10)August 10, 1843
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Died November 21, 1926(1926-11-21) (aged 83)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Amanda Borneman McKenna
Alma mater St. Joseph's University
Benicia Collegiate Institute
Columbia Law School
Profession Lawyer, Politician
Religion Roman Catholic

Joseph McKenna (August 10, 1843 – November 21, 1926) was an American politician who served in all three branches of the U.S. federal government, as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, as U.S. Attorney General and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. He is one of seventeen members of the House of Representatives who subsequently served on the Supreme Court (including two Chief Justices).[2]

Biography[edit]

Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Irish Catholic immigrants, he attended St. Joseph's College and the Collegiate Institute at Benicia, California. After being admitted to the California bar in 1865, he became District Attorney for Solano County and then served in the California State Assembly for two years (1875–1877). He retired after one term and an unsuccessful bid for Speaker of the House.[3]

After two unsuccessful attempts, McKenna was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1885 and served for four terms. He was appointed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in 1892 by President Benjamin Harrison.[3]

In 1897 he was appointed the 42nd Attorney General of the United States by President William McKinley, and served in that capacity until 1898.[4] He was then appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to succeed Justice Stephen J. Field. McKenna faced opposition to his appointment in the Senate, but his supporters there enabled him to win confirmation in January 1898. Conscious of his limited credentials, McKenna took courses at Columbia Law School for several months to improve his legal education before taking his seat on the Court.

Although he never developed a consistent legal philosophy, McKenna was the author of a number of important decisions. One of the most notable was his opinion in the case of United States v. U.S. Steel Corporation (1920) which held that antitrust cases would be decided on the “rule of reason” principle—only alleged monopolistic combinations that are in unreasonable restraint of trade—are illegal.[5]

McKenna was known to be a centrist, and authored few dissents. His most noteworthy opinions are Hipolite Egg Co. v. United States 220 U.S. 45 (1911),[6][7] in which a unanimous Court upheld the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906,

In Hoke v. United States, he concurred in upholding the Mann Act, a/k/a "White-Slave Traffic Act". However, four years later, he dissented from the Court's opinion in Caminetti v. United States (1917), which held the act applied to private, noncommercial enticements to cross state lines for purposes of a sexual liaison. According to McKenna, the Act regulated only commercial vice, i.e., "immoralities having a mercenary purpose." [8]

While McKenna was generally quite favorable to federal power, he joined the Court's substantive due process jurisprudence and voted with the majority in 1905's Lochner v. New York, which struck down a state maximum-hours law for bakery workers,[8] This decision carried broader implications for the scope of federal power, at least until the New Deal and the 1937 switch-in-time-that-saved-nine. See, Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937.

McKenna resigned from the Court in January 1925 at the suggestion of Chief Justice William Howard Taft.[9] McKenna's ability to perform his duties had been diminished significantly by a stroke suffered ten years earlier, and by the end of his tenure McKenna could not be counted on to write coherent opinions.[9]

Justice McKenna was one of thirteen Catholic justices (out of the 112 total through the appointment of Justice Elena Kagan) in the history of the Supreme Court.[10]

McKenna married Amanda Borneman in 1869, and the couple had three daughters and one son.[8] McKenna died on November 21, 1926.[8] in Washington, D.C.. His remains are interred at the city's Mount Olivet Cemetery.[11][12][13]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Abraham, Henry J. (1999). Justices, Presidents, and Senators: A History of the U.S. Supreme Court Appointments from Washington to Clinton (Revised ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-9604-9. 
  • Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court Historical Society, Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1-56802-126-7. 
  • Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L., eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0-7910-1377-4. 
  • Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505835-6. 
  • Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0-87187-554-3. 
  • McKevitt, Brother Matthew (1946) Joseph McKenna: Associate Justice of the United States.
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. p. 590. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1. 

External links[edit]

California Assembly
Preceded by
James Dixon, William H. Northcutt,
W. S. M. Wright
California State Assemblyman, 19th District
(Solano County seat)

1875–1877
Served alongside: Thomas M. Swan
Succeeded by
John T. Dare, Richard C. Haile
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Barclay Henley
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 3rd congressional district

1885–1891
Succeeded by
Samuel G. Hilborn
Legal offices
Preceded by
Judson Harmon
U.S. Attorney General
Served under: William McKinley

1897–1898
Succeeded by
John W. Griggs
Preceded by
Lorenzo Sawyer
Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
1892–1897
Succeeded by
William W. Morrow
Preceded by
Stephen Johnson Field
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
January 21, 1898 – January 5, 1925
Succeeded by
Harlan Fiske Stone