Joseph Smith Hypocephalus

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For a discussion of the controversy surrounding Joseph Smith's use of the hypocephalus and other papyri see Book of Abraham.
A copy of the Hypocephalus of Sheshonq, from the Kirtland Egyptian Papers
Facsimile No. 2 from the Times and Seasons

The Joseph Smith Hypocephalus (also known as the Hypocephalus of Sheshonq)[Note a] is part of the original Joseph Smith Papyri. It was found in the Gurneh area of Thebes, Egypt, around the year 1818.[1] The owner's name, Sheshonq, is found in the hieroglyphic text on said hypocephalus. Three hypocephali in the British Museum (37909, 8445c, and 8445f) are similar to the Joseph Smith Hypocephalus both in layout and text and were also found in Thebes.[1]

A woodcut image of the hypocephalus was initially published on March 15, 1842, in Volume III, No. 10 of the Latter Day Saint newspaper Times and Seasons. This woodcut is included as one of several appendices to the Book of Abraham, where it is called Facsimile No. 2. The Book of Abraham is considered to be scripture by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The original has since been lost.

Hypocephali[edit]

Further information: Hypocephalus

As with other hypocephali, the complete image represents the Eye of Shu, the Eye of Ra, or the Eye of Horus, and was part of the burial materials created by Egyptians from the Twenty-sixth Dynasty onward.

Ra was the most important Ancient Egyptian deity and has expression in multiple forms, acting in the heavens, on earth, in the underworld, as the creator and as father to the king,[2] but always associated with the sun. Ra's primary icon was the fiery disk of the sun, usually encircled by a protective cobra (uraeus) and often with outstretched wings or rays. Anthropomorphically, Ra was expressed as a man with the head of a falcon, ram or scarab beetle. He was also depicted as a falcon wearing the sun's disk, or as a ram, scarab beetle, phoenix, heron, serpent, bull, cat, lion or flying vulture. His three primary expressions were the morning sun as a scarab beetle, the noon day sun as the solar disk, and the setting sun as a ram-headed man.

Within the circular image are compartments containing hieroglyphic text and figures which are typically extracts from Chapter CLXII of the Egyptian Book of the Dead.[3] P. J. de Horrack stated that the scenes portrayed in hypocephali relate in all their details to the resurrection and the renewed birth after death...symbolized by the course of the Sun, the living image of divine generation. The circle is divided to represent two celestial hemispheres and the cycle of renewal.

Lacunae and reconstructions[edit]

As stated by Michael D. Rhodes: "A careful examination of Facsimile No. 2 shows that there is a difference between most of the hieroglyphic signs and the signs on the right third of the figure on the outer edge as well as the outer portions of the sections numbered 12–15. These signs are hieratic, not hieroglyphic, and are inverted, or upside down, to the rest of the text. In fact, they are a fairly accurate copy of lines 2, 3, and 4 of the Joseph Smith Papyrus XI, which contains a portion of the Book of Breathings. Especially clear is the word snsn, in section 14, and part of the name of the mother of the owner of the papyrus, (tay-)uby.t, repeated twice on the outer edge. An ink drawing of the hypocephalus in the Church Historian's office shows these same areas as being blank. It is likely that these portions were destroyed on the original hypocephalus and someone (the engraver, one of Joseph Smith's associates, or Joseph himself) copied the lines from the Book of Breathings papyrus for aesthetic purposes."[1]

Interpretation of images (Figures No. 1-7, 22-23)[edit]

There is still some ambiguity regarding how these Egyptian names and text may have been pronounced.[4]

The numbers labeling the figures were added to correspond to explanations of the images and text given by Joseph Smith.

Figure No. 1[edit]

Detail of Figures 1, 22, 23

The central figure wears the undulating horns of the Ovis longpipes ram, which is symbolic of Khnum,[5] the first creator god. Khnum was the potter who molded the souls and bodies of all living things from the clay of the earth, and gave them the breath of life. He was described as the "ba" (spiritual force) of Re,[6][7][8] The head of the figure is atypically offset to the right. The crouching body is a typical hieroglyphic pose for the god.[9]

The characters above and to the left of the head are three ripples of water, a pennant and a single diagonal stroke:

N35
N35
N35
 
R8
 
Z5

Triple ripples (mw) indicate a mass of water. Similar to the double ripples of (nn) Nun, the "Primeval Waters" or state of being before creation. Described in An's mythological cycle as "the waters," Nun lay inert, unending and indefinite, until Tem "rises" and "throws off" the waters to begin the act of creation.[citation needed] Nun is a "primordial soup" from which the Self-Created god drew the materials to create its children Shu and Tefnut (air and moisture, the Biblical "firmament"), who then created Geb (earth) and Nut (sky).[citation needed] An ideographic reading of these symbols would be; The spirit of god rippling the waters.[Note b]

Left of center is the was scepter, or DJAM scepter,[10] which are symbols of serenity or strength.[11]

To the left, above the scepter, are characters that may be irrigated land, force or effort, and one cubit:[12]

N23
 
D40
 
D36
Z1

Joseph Smith explained figure 1 as; "Kolob, signifying the first creation, nearest to the celestial, or the residence of God. First in government, the last pertaining to the measurement of time. The measurement according to celestial time, which celestial time signifies one day to a cubit. One day in Kolob is equal to a thousand years according to the measurement of this earth, which is called by the Egyptians Jah-oh-eh."[13]

Figures No. 22 and 23[edit]

Detail of Figures 1, 22, 23

On either side are baboons with upraised arms, wearing the lunar disk headdress, representing the god Thoth or Djehuty. He was often placed opposite Re as a kind of "night sun" and was associated with truth and integrity, regulating time, record keeping and possession of secret knowledge. Thoth provided Isis with the word formula she needed to resurrect Osiris.[14][15]

Adjacent to the baboons are two snakes. The primeval serpent "Iru-to" which also represents the creator of the earth.[citation needed] In the Pyramid Texts 1146 Iru-to says; "I am the scribe of the Divine Book which says what has been and effect what is yet to be."

Joseph Smith explained figures 22 and 23 in this statement in his interpretation: "the medium of Kli-flos-is-es, or Hah-ko-kau-beam, the stars represented by numbers 22 and 23, receiving light from the revolutions of Kolob."[13]

Figure No. 2[edit]

Detail of Figure No. 2

The standing figure has a double ram's head with undulating horns and wears the double crown, symbolic of Amun, god of creation. On his shoulders are jackal heads. In his left hand is the staff of Wepwawet and to the right is an offering stand. Plutarch quoted Manetho as saying that Amun meant "that which is concealed. Amun spoke his own name and brought forth the land of Egypt from the primordial sea (nun).[16][17] In ancient Egypt it was believed that the gods had a secret name. Knowledge of this name gave others power over them.[18] This figure is very similar to one in the same position on the Hypocephalus of Tashenkhons.[19] with the exception of lacking the ankh symbol, orientation of the figure and the associated text.

Michael D. Rhodes identified the hieroglyphs to the left as:

D21 N35
N35
R8 Z1 Q3
I9
O29
Z1
D36
"The name of this Mighty God."[20]

This reading identifies/represents the name of the god without actually writing it, similar to the use of YHWH in Hebrew texts.

Joseph Smith stated that this figure; "Stands next to Kolob, called by the Egyptians Oliblish, which is the next grand governing creation near to the celestial or the place where God resides; holding the key of power also, pertaining to other planets; as revealed from God to Abraham, as he offered sacrifice upon an altar, which he had built unto the Lord."[13]

Figure No. 3[edit]

Detail of Figure No. 3
A solar barque carries a seated falcon headed god (Re[1] or Horus[citation needed]), holding a was scepter. The solar disk is over his head. A divine Eye of Horus (
Eye of Ra2.svg
) is on either side.

Also on the barque is an offering stand. The two characters farthest to the left may be an attempt to engrave dp.t ntr, which would translate as "Divine Ship":[20]

R8 P1

Alternatively, the entire row may be ideograms for a lotus flower (ssn) or grass (hn), a vaulted covering (ipt), a snake (similar to the one found at the foot of figure 23) (it 'father'?) and a sealed papyrus roll (md3t).[21]

M9 O46 I9 Y1

In the religious tradition of ancient Heliopolis, Ra emerged from the petals of a lotus blossom which re-enfolded him each night.[22] The lotus was also a symbol of rebirth associated with Osiris. The Book of the Dead contains spells for "transforming oneself into a lotus", fulfilling the promise of resurrection.[23] According to the Pyramid Texts the snake Iru-to was the scribe of the Divine Book which said what has been and effects what is yet to be.

Joseph Smith's interpretation: "Is made to represent God, sitting upon his throne, clothed with power and authority; with a crown of eternal light upon his head; representing also the grand Key-words of the Holy Priesthood, as revealed to Adam in the Garden of Eden, as also to Seth, Noah, Melchizedek, Abraham, and all to whom the Priesthood was revealed."[13]

Figure No. 4[edit]

Detail of Figure No. 4

A falcon, representing Horus, 'lord of the sky',[24] or Sokar[1] sitting on a mummy case, with outstreatched wings, sitting upon a papyrus boat. This image is similar to the one in the same panel from the hypocephalus of Tashenkhons,[25] with the exception of the rudder and text.

Joseph Smith's interpretation: "Answers to the Hebrew word Raukeeyang, signifying expanse, or the firmament of the heavens; also a numerical figure, in Egyptian signifying one thousand; answering to the measuring of the time of Oliblish, which is equal with Kolob in its revolution and in its measuring of time."[13]

Figure No. 5[edit]

Detail of Figure No. 5

A cow, representing Hathor, who was the goddess of the sky, home of the great falcon. Behind is a standing female figure with the Eye of Horus depicted on her head and holding out a papyrus stem in her left hand. This image is similar to the one in the same panel from the hypocephalus of Tashenkhons.[25]

Joseph Smith's interpretation: "Is called in Egyptian Enish-go-on-dosh; this is one of the governing planets also, and is said by the Egyptians to be the Sun, and to borrow its light from Kolob through the medium of Kae-e-vanrash, which is the grand Key, or, in other words, the governing power, which governs fifteen other fixed planets or stars, as also Floeese or the Moon, the Earth and the Sun in their annual revolutions. This planet receives its power through the medium of Kli-flos-is-es, or Hah-ko-kau-beam, the stars represented by numbers 22 and 23, receiving light from the revolutions of Kolob."[13]

Figure No. 6[edit]

Detail of Figure No. 6

Four standing mummiform figures, representing the four sons of Horus (left to right); Imsety, Hapy, Duamutef and Qebesenuef, with the heads of a human, baboon, jackal, and falcon, who were associated with the south, north, east and west. They were the patron gods of the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines of the deceased and were protected by Isis, Nephthys, Neith and Serket.[26] The figures behind them are typically a lotus stem (h3), lion and ram.

Joseph Smith's interpretation: "Represents this earth in its four quarters."[13]

Figure No. 7[edit]

Detail of Figure No. 7

A seated figure with the tail of a falcon, symbolic of the supreme celestial deity,[27] with a human head and a pharonic beard. This figure has been identified with Min, a predynastic god who was usually depicted as a mummy wrapped ithyphallic man with his legs bound together, wearing a twin plumed crown with long streamers and with his arm raised to the square,[28] a gesture identified as the Sign of Preservation.[29] Behind his head is an inverted V. A right angle projects to the right of the shoulder. To the left is a figure with a bird's head, presenting the Eye of Ra. In the hypocephalus of Tashenkhons,[25] the figure on the left is Nehebu-Kau, whose name meant "he who harnesses the spirits" and the inverted V is a flail, symbolic of provenance.[30]

Joseph Smith's interpretation:"Represents God sitting upon his throne, revealing through the heavens the grand Key-words of the Priesthood; as, also, the sign of the Holy Ghost unto Abraham, in the form of a dove."[13]

Text to the left (Figures No. 8-11)[edit]

Figure No. 11
Detail of Figure No. 11
"O god, sleeping in the time"
Figure No. 10
Detail of Figure No. 10
"of the beginning. Great God, Lord of Heaven and earth,"
Figure No. 9
Detail of Figure No. 9
"and below the earth and of the waters" (Damaged in the original.)
Figure No. 8
Detail of Figure No. 8
"Grant that the Ba of Osiris Sheshonq live."

Theodule Deveria gave the following translation: "O great God in Sekhem; O great God, Lord of heaven, earth and hell. ... Osiris S'es'enq."[31]

Michael D. Rhodes gives the following translation: "O God of the Sleeping Ones from the time of the creation. O Mighty God, Lord of heaven and earth, of the hereafter, and of his great waters, may the soul of the Osiris Shishaq be granted life."[1]

Robert K. Ritner gives the following translation: "O noble god from the beginning of time, great god, lord of heaven, earth, underworld, waters [and mountains,] cause the ba-spirit of the Osiris Sheshonq to live."[32]

Joseph Smith said of figure 8 in particular, "Contains writings that cannot be revealed unto the world; but is to be had in the Holy Temple of God."[13]

Text to the right (Figures No. 12-15)[edit]

Figure No. 12
Detail of Figure No. 12
Figure No. 13
Detail of Figure No. 13
Figure No. 14
Detail of Figure No. 14
Figure No. 15
Detail of Figure No. 15

The right portion of these characters are hieratic and appear to have been copied from Joseph Smith Papyrus XI.[20]

Included is sn-sn:[20]

N35
O34
N35
O34

Val Sederholm (PhD, Egyptology)[33] has identified that the surviving traces of the original content parallel other hypocephali, and suggested the reading j nTr pfy 'A, 'nx m TAw, jw m mw: 'q r' jw [=r] sDm md.t=f. [Mj n] Wsjr, giving the translation as "I invoke that special, particular, transcendent god, who lives by breathing, who negotiates the waters: So may Re descend to hear Osiris' words. Come to Osiris Shoshenq."[34]

Text at the bottom (Figures No. 16-17)[edit]

Detail of Figure No. 17
Detail of Figure No. 16
Figure No. 17: (h3t)tomb. (thy)desecration. (nn) strong negative.
Figure No. 16: "is not to be disturbed along with its Lord in the Duat forever."

Michael D. Rhodes gives the following translation: "May this tomb never be desecrated, and may this soul and its lord never be desecrated in the hereafter."[1]

Robert K. Ritner gives the following translation: "Back, injury, back! There is none who attacks you. This ba-spirit and his lord will not be attacked in the underworld forever."[32]

Text around the rim (Figure No. 18)[edit]

One third of the rim contains characters taken from another papyrus. Michael D. Rhodes provided a possible reading of the text in its original state:

"I am the Provider in the Sun Temple in Heliopolis. [I am] most exalted and very glorious. [I am] a virile bull without equal. [I am] that Mighty God in the Sun Temple in Heliopolis. <May the Osiris Shishaq live forever> with that Mighty God in Heliopolis."[1]

Text to upper left (Figures No. 19-21, numbered 19,21-22 in Times and Seasons)[edit]

Detail of Figure No. 21
Detail of Figure No. 20
Detail of Figure No. 19
"Behold thou art ever" "as this god of thine" "in(of) Busiris"

Rhodes gives the following translation: "You shall ever be as that God, the Busirian."[1]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rhodes, Michael D.. "The Joseph Smith Hypocephalus . . . Twenty Years Later". Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  2. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, Richard H. Wilkinson, 2003, pp.. 205–07.
  3. ^ The Mummy A Handbook of Egyptian Funerary Archaeology, E. A. Wallis Budge, Second Edition Reprint, pgs. 476-477
  4. ^ http://www.friesian.com/egypt.htm, The Pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian
  5. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, Richard H. Wilkinson, 2003, pg. 95
  6. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, Richard H. Wilkinson, 2003, pg. 32.
  7. ^ Amun-Re/Chnum - Fig 1 on Hypocephalus examined in light of Egyptological/Archaeological Information
  8. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, Richard H. Wilkinson, 2003, pg. 194.
  9. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, Richard H. Wilkinson, 2003, pg. 29.
  10. ^ The Three Facsimiles from the Book of Abraham (1980), Hugh Nibley
  11. ^ An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, E.A. Wallis Budge, pg. cxxxvi
  12. ^ Egyptian Grammar, Gardiner, 3rd Ed, 1982, pgs. 544-545
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith, Joseph; The Book of Abraham: Facsimile No. 2: Explanation - available on Wikisource and on LDS.org
  14. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, Richard H. Wilkinson, 2003, pgs. 215-217.
  15. ^ Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, Budge, pg. 195
  16. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, pgs. 92-93
  17. ^ Budge, Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, pg. 41 & 45
  18. ^ Understanding Hieroglyphs, Hilary Wilson, 1993, pg. 15
  19. ^ http://www.ancient-egypt.co.uk/ashmolean/pages/2005-mar-11%20472.htm
  20. ^ a b c d The Joseph Smith Hypocephalus - Seventeen Years Later
  21. ^ Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt, Maria Carmela Betrò, 1995
  22. ^ Symbols From The Middle East
  23. ^ Ancient Egypt: the Mythology - Lotus
  24. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, pg. 200
  25. ^ a b c Two Hypocephali
  26. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, Richard H. Wilkinson, 2003, pg. 88
  27. ^ The Thames and Hudson Dictionary of Egypt, Toby Wilkinson , 2005, pg. 79
  28. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, pg. 115-116
  29. ^ Secret Sign Languages by J.S.M. Ward, M.A.,Land's End Press, 1969, pgs. 13-14
  30. ^ The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Egypt, pgs. 224-225
  31. ^ a b Quoted here: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=UEgOAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA515
  32. ^ a b Quoted and attributed here: http://user.xmission.com/~research/mormonpdf/hypocephalus3.pdf
  33. ^ See profile here: https://www.blogger.com/profile/11853353050355842605
  34. ^ a b Sederholm, Val. "Restoring the Right Panels on LDS Book of Abraham Facsimile 2 (New Translations)". Retrieved 10 April 2014. 

External links[edit]