Joseph Wightman

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For the Canadian politician, see Joseph Wightman (Canadian politician).
Joseph Milner Wightman
MayorWightman.png
17th Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts
In office
January 7, 1861[1] – January 5, 1863[2]
Preceded by Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr.
Succeeded by Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr.
City of Boston Chairman
Board of Aldermen
In office
1858–1859
Preceded by Pelham Bonney
Succeeded by Silas Peirce
City of Boston Member
Board of Aldermen
In office
April 1856[3] – 1859
Preceded by Levi Benjamin Meriam[3]
Representative
Massachusetts House[4]
In office
1851–1851
Personal details
Born October 19, 1812[5][6]
United States Boston, Massachusetts
Died January 25, 1885(1885-01-25) (aged 72)[7][8]
Resting place Mount Auburn Cemetery
Political party Whig,[9] Democrat[7][10]
Spouse(s) Berthia Morse
Children Mary Ellen, Joseph Claxton, Henry Morse, Berthia M., Sarah Ernestine, Gertrude E. and Florence Ada
Residence 79 Carver Street, Boston, Massachusetts[11]
Profession Manufacturer of Philosophical Apparatus,[12]
Attorney.[13]
Signature

Joseph Milner Wightman (October 19, 1812 – January 25, 1885)[14] was an American politician who, from 1861 to 1863, served as the seventeenth Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts.

Early years[edit]

Wightman was born the son of an immigrant tailor[5] at Elliot Street in Boston[15] on October 19, 1812. His father died when he was 10; when he was 14 years old, Wightman became a machinist’s apprentice.[15] Wightman was apprenticed to a firm of mathematical and philosophical instrument makers owned by Mr. John Codman and Mr. Timothy Claxton. After his apprenticeship ended Wightman associated in business with Mr. Codman.[16]

When he was 16, and still serving as an apprentice, Wightman made use of the Mechanic Apprentices' Library borrowing books on Mathematics and other subjects, so that he could study at night after his working hours. Through his use of the library, Wightman acquired a working knowledge of mensuration, chemistry and electrical engineering.[17]

Wightman was able to benefit from these educational pursuits because one of his employers, Timothy Claxton, was an early innovator and supporter in providing educational opportunities for the working class.[18]

Codman and Claxton's partnership lasted for only three years, after which time Timothy Claxton went into business for himself for three and a quarter years, after which he went into business with Wightman.[19]

In the summer of 1835, Mr. Claxton's business was destroyed by a fire. Since Claxton was fully insured, he was able to rebuild, and, at that time, he went into partnership with Wightman, who Claxton described as his "right hand man".[20]

On October 6, 1836, he married Berthia Morse (born 1812, the daughter of Aaron Morse and Sarah Johnson) in Boston, Mass. They had seven children (Mary Ellen, Joseph Claxton, Henry Morse (January 5, 1840 to April 3, 1885),[21] Bethia M., Sarah Ernestine, Gertrude E. and Florence Ada).

In 1837, Claxton returned to his native country of England, Wightman took over the company, and the firm of Claxton and Wightman became the firm of Joseph M. Wightman, Wightman began to supply educational institutions with a large amount of educational scientific instruments.[17]

Wightman was well renowned in his field. In September 1837, Claxton and Wightman won a silver medal from the judges on Philosophical Instruments at Boston's First Mechanics' Fair. Wightman won a silver medal from the judges on Philosophical Instruments at the second fair held in September 1837, and a gold medal at the third fair held in September 1841.[22]

Early Public Service[edit]

City Water Supply Improvement[edit]

Boston Skyline Circa 1840's

In 1845 Wightman was the chairman of a citizens committee that worked to improve water delivery into the City of Boston, this resulted in the development of the Cochituate Water Works.[23]

Lake Cochituate Circa 1847

Boston Public Schools[edit]

From 1846 to 1855 Wightman served as a member of the Boston Primary School Committee. On September 5, 1848 he was elected Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Boston Primary School Committee, (in place of Mr. Joseph Wentworth Ingraham who had died).[24] Wightman served as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Boston Primary School Committee until that committee was dissolved on January 2, 1855.[25]

Wightman was also elected as a member of the Grammar School Committee (at the time there were two separate school committees one for the Primary schools and one for the Grammar Schools)[26] Public school students would first attend a primary school for three years and then they would attend a grammar school.[27]

Interests lead Wightman into Politics[edit]

It has been said that Wightman's interest in the city's water supply[28] and in improving education[20] led him into politics. Indeed he went from serving on the city's school committees, to the Massachusetts House of Representative, to the City of Boston's Board of Alderman, serving at one point as its chairman, before going on to serve two terms as Mayor of the City of Boston.[20]

Ether Anesthesia[edit]

Ether Inhaler

Wightman,[29] along with Nathan B. Chamberlain, developed the device used by William T.G. Morton to demonstrate the use of ether at Massachusetts General Hospital on October 16, 1846. This was one of the first successful demonstration of ether anesthesia[30] (although his demonstration came after those of Dr. Crawford Long's in Georgia, Morton's demonstration was the first that was widely publicized).[30]

Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association[edit]

Boston's Mechanics' Hall

Wightman was very active in the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. Wightman was elected a trustee of the Association in 1850, he served as a trustee for three years. After serving as a trustee Wightman served for three years as vice president and the next three as president of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association.[17]

On September 30, 1857, while serving as president of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, Wight laid the cornerstone of Boston's Mechanics' Hall.[31]

Mayor of Boston[edit]

Wightman first ran for the office of Mayor in 1859, in that contest he received 4,208 votes out of 11,421 cast, however he lost to Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr., who received 5,932 votes.[32] In his second try Wightman was elected Boston's first Democratic Party Mayor[33] on December 13, 1860. Wightman received 8,834 votes in his election bid vs. that of his closest competitor Republican Party candidate,[34] former Alderman[35] Moses Kimball, who received 5,674 votes.[33] Wightman had been endorsed by both wings of the Democratic party and that of the Whigs.[34]

On December 9, 1861 Wightman was reelected as Mayor receiving 6,765 votes vs. his closest competitor Edward Tobey, who received 5,795 votes (out of 12,565 votes cast).[32][36]

Wightman again ran for reelection in 1862, Mayor Wightman was re-nominated by the People's Union Party on November 22, 1862,[37] however on December 8, 1862, in this his second reelection bid, he lost to his predecessor Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr. Wightman received 5,287 votes to Lincoln's 6,352. Wightman's tenure as Boston's 17th Mayor ended on January 5, 1863 when Mayor Lincoln was sworn in as the 18th Mayor of the City of Boston.[2]

City Hall construction[edit]

Boston's City Hall 1841 to 1865
Boston's City Hall 1865 to 1969

Mayor Wightman was instrumental in the construction of a new Boston City Hall. In his Inaugural Address Wightman called for the construction of "a new City Hall of sufficient size to accommodate all the departments of the government."[38] He laid the cornerstone[17] of the city hall building at the stone laying ceremony of December 22, 1862. The city has was, as he said, "the first building, therefore, which has been built and specially designed for municipal purposes:" for the City of Boston. [39]

Tremont Temple anti-slavery disturbance[edit]

Tremont Temple

On January 24, 1861 the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society was holding its annual meeting at Tremont Temple in Boston. A group of anti-abolitionists attacked the meeting. The police protection that had been granted to the meeting was inadequate to prevent rioting.[7] Mayor Wightman entered the meeting and ordered the hall closed,[40] Mayor Wightman had entered the hall with a group of policemen and members of the Board of Aldermen, upon entering the meeting place Mayor Wightman announced that the trustees of the building had asked him to dissolve the meeting, the trustees, who were in attendance, denied that they asked for the meeting to be dissolved and asked Mayor Wightman to read their letter, the letter was actually shown to be a request to protect the assembly.[41] Mayor Wightman promised the chairman of the meeting Edmund Quincy that he would protect the evening session with fifty policemen, but he later had the meeting doors closed and blocked by police.[42] Mayor Wightman ended the meeting withdrew his offer of police protection and ordered the hall closed,[40]

Fort Warren Military Prison[edit]

Fort Warren guardhouse (left) and sentry box (right) about 1861

On October 30, 1861 the military base in Boston Harbor known as Fort Warren began to house prisoners from the Confederate army as well as political prisoners.[43] Initially, the United States Quartermaster in Boston, Captain George A. Kensel, was told to prepare for 100 prisoners, however when The State of Maine, the ship holding the prisoners, arrived it had on board 155 political prisoners and over 600 military prisoners for the fort.[44] In early November 1861 Mayor Wightman visited the fort and decided that immediate steps had to be taken to alleviate the situation.

Local newspapers had urged that local citizens donate items to assist the prisoners at the fort. Mayor Wightman endorsed giving aid to the prisoners at the fort.[45]

Mayor Wightman arranged for stores be delivered from Evans House a charity that had been established to assist Union servicemen.[46] The Mayor's actions were met with mixed reaction from the local Press. The Boston Daily Advertiser and The Boston Transcript attacked Wightman. The Boston Evening Traveler, in opposing Wightman's reelection, called his distribution of supplies to the fort, aid to the "traitors at Fort Warren". However The Boston Post and The Boston Journal supported Wightman. The Boston Post said that Wightman had acted out of a charity and The Boston Journal supported Wightman in an editorial titled "The Transcript on Humanity".[47]

City Hospital[edit]

Boston City Hospital 1916
Boston City Hospital 1864

In 1857 Wightman was chairman of the special committee on the Free City Hospital.[48][49]

During his term, on September 9, 1861, ground was broken for the construction of the City Hospital.[50]

Mayor Wightman's tenure[edit]

Wightman's tenure of Mayor was said to concentrate on alleviating the wants of the Union Soldiers in the field.[51] While he was Mayor Wightman successfully supplied funds for the fitting out of, and providing sustenance to, the soldiers in the field.[52]

Wightman also arranged to remit, through him, funds from the soldiers pay to their families.[53]

Run for Congress[edit]

Samuel Hooper

In 1866 Wightman ran for the 40th United States Congress as the Democratic Party candidate for the Massachusetts' fourth Congressional district. Wightman ran as a friend of the working man and the working men were urged to vote for Wightman.[54] However in the election the vote of the working men went to the Republican candidate Samuel Hooper.[54] Wightman received 3,183 votes against Republican candidate Hooper, who won with 7,902 votes.[55][56]

Other positions held[edit]

Wightman was involved for many years in the civic affairs of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the City of Boston, serving in elected and unelected public and private offices.

Wightman was, in 1851, a member of the Massachusetts Great and General Court (Legislature) representing Boston in the Massachusetts state House of Representatives.[4] While a member of the House of Representative, Wightman served on the Joint Standing Committee on Manufactures[57]

In April 1856 Wightman became a member of the Board of Alderman for the City of Boston.[3] Wightman served as a member of the Board of Aldermen for three years[58] serving as Chairman of the Board of Alderman in 1858.[59]

From 1858 until 1862 (when he resigned upon assuming the duties of Mayor)[48] Wightman served as an appointed trustee of the city owned Mt Hope Cemetery.[60]

In 1860 Wightman[61] was a delegate to the Fourth National Quarantine and Sanitary Convention held from June 14 to June 16 at Mechanics' Hall, Boston.[62] The last of a series of meetings held to promote sanitary science.[63] During the convention Wightman served as a member of the "Business Committee"[64] Wightman was also on two committees for 1860–1861 for "Arrangements for the Ensuing Year", and on the "Permanent Organization of the Association".[65] (However as a result of the outbreak of the American Civil War the convention never assembled again.)[66]

On February 13, 1868 Wightman was elected by the Boston City Council to serve a two-year term[67] as a Commissioner of the Cochituate Water Board. At the Water Board's April 6, 1868 organizational meeting Withgman was appointed to the Standing Committee of the Water Registrar's Department and to the Special Auditing Committee.[67] At the April 6, 1869 organizational meeting of the Cochituate Water Board Wightman was put on the Committee of Rules and Regulations, the Standing Committees of the Water Registrar's Department and the Western Division and the Special Committees of High Service, The East Boston Reservoir and, Construction of Telegraph.[23]

[68][69]

Wightman served as Chairman[48] of the three member board of Registrars of Voters from 1878 until his death on January 25, 1885.[70]

Later years[edit]

Joseph Wightman later in his life

In his later years Wightman suffered legal trouble. In 1874 he was imprisoned for debt. In a letter to The Boston Journal dated August 12, 1874, Wightman explained that these were debts that he did not himself incur. Wightman explained in his letter that in 1864 he became a stock holder in the Franklin Coal Company. Wightman wrote that in June 1865 against his wishes or knowledge he was made a director of that company. In 1866 the company became insolvent, Wightman was arrested and imprisoned and forced to pay that part of the company's debt (judgment and costs amounting to $14,866.50) owed to Eby, Byres & Co.[71]

Admission as an Attorney[edit]

In January 1875 Wightman was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar.[13]

Death and Burial[edit]

Wightman was interred in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Mass. His wife Berthia (Bertha) (Morse) died in 1901 and was interred next to him.

Books[edit]

  • Select Experiments in Natural Philosophy ... Published by Joseph M. Wightman, (1853).
  • Annals of the Boston Primary School Committee: From Its First Establishment in 1818, to Its Dissolution in 1855 Published by G. C. Rand & Avery, city printers, (1860).

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Vrabel, Jim (2004), When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac, Boston, MA: University Press of New England (UPNE), p. 173  ISBN 1-55553-621-2, ISBN 978-1-55553-621-3
  2. ^ a b Vrabel, Jim (2004), When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac, Boston, MA: University Press of New England (UPNE), p. 175  ISBN 1-55553-621-2, ISBN 978-1-55553-621-3
  3. ^ a b c Boston City Clerk Statistics Department (1882), Municipal Register containing the City Charter the Rules and Orders of the City Council and a List of Officers for the City of Boston, For the Year 1882., Boston, Massachusetts: Rockwell and Churchill, city printers, p. 323 
  4. ^ a b Capen, Nahum (1851), The Massachusetts State Record and Year Book of General Information: 1851 v. 5, Boston, Massachusetts: J. French, p. 12 
  5. ^ a b Dall, Caroline Wells Healey (2006), Daughter of Boston: The Extraordinary Diary of a Nineteenth-century Woman, Boston, MA: Beacon Press, p. 301, ISBN 0-8070-5034-2 
  6. ^ City Council of Boston (1909), A Catalogue of the City Councils of Boston, 1822–1908, Roxbury, 1846–1867, Charlestown 1847–1873 and of The Selectmen of Boston, 1634–1822 also of Various Other Town and Municipal officers, Boston, MA: City of Boston Printing Department, p. 44 
  7. ^ a b c Dall, Caroline Wells Healey (2006), Daughter of Boston: The Extraordinary Diary of a Nineteenth-century Woman, Boston, MA: Beacon Press, p. 301  ISBN 0-8070-5034-2, ISBN 978-0-8070-5034-7
  8. ^ City Council of Boston (1909), A Catalogue of the City Councils of Boston, 1822–1908, Roxbury, 1846–1867, Charlestown 1847–1873 and of The Selectmen of Boston, 1634–1822 also of Various Other Town and Municipal officers, Boston, MA: City of Boston Printing Department, p. 301 
  9. ^ Winsor, Justin (1881), The Memorial History of Boston, Volume III, Boston, MA: Ticknor and Company, p. 276 
  10. ^ Vrabel, Jim (2004), When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac, Boston, MA: University Press of New England (UPNE), p. 175, ISBN 1-55553-621-2 
  11. ^ Adams, George (1852), The Boston Directory for the Year 1852: Embracing the City Record, a General Directory of the Citizens, and a Business Directory, with an Almanac from July, 1852, to July, 1853, No. 91 Washington Street, Boston, MA: George Adams, p. 272. 
  12. ^ Channing, William Francis (April 17, 1871), Record of Proceedings Before the U.S. Patent Office: – Application for an Extension of Letters Patent No. 17,355, New York, NY: Kilbourne Tompkins, Book and Commercial Printer, p. 203 
  13. ^ a b Davis, William Thomas (1895), "Bench and bar of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in Two Volumes, Vol. II", The Boston History Company (Boston, MA): 636 
  14. ^ Dall, Caroline Wells Healey (2006), Daughter of Boston: The Extraordinary Diary of a Nineteenth-century Woman, Boston, MA: Beacon Press, p. 301 
  15. ^ a b Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association (1892), Annals of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, 1795–1892 Printed by Order of the Association, Boston, Massachusetts: Press of Rockwell and Churchill, p. 423 
  16. ^ Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association (1892), Annals of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, 1795–1892 Printed by Order of the Association, Boston, Massachusetts: Press of Rockwell and Churchill, p. 233 
  17. ^ a b c d Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association (1892), Annals of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, 1795–1892 Printed by Order of the Association, Boston, Massachusetts: Press of Rockwell and Churchill, p. 424 
  18. ^ Long, Huey B. (1991), Early Innovators in Adult Education, New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 60–61, ISBN 0-415-00557-4 
  19. ^ Long, Huey B. (1991), Early Innovators in Adult Education, New York, NY: Routledge, p. 60, ISBN 0-415-00557-4 
  20. ^ a b c Stebbins, L. (1875), First Century of National Existence: The United States as They Were and are, Hartford, Connecticut: Francis Dewing and Co., San Francisco, Cal., p. 522 
  21. ^ Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies, Vol. V. November 1885 to October 1886, New York, NY: Board of Managers of the Association of Engineering Societies, 1886, p. 522 
  22. ^ Davis, Daniel (1842), Davis's Manual of Magnetism: Including Also Electro-magnetism, Magneto-Electricity, and Thermo-Electricity. With a Description of the Electrotype Process., Boston, Massachusetts: Daniel Davis, Jr., pp. 6–8 
  23. ^ a b Channing, William Francis (April 17, 1871), Record of Proceedings Before the U.S. Patent Office: – Application for an Extension of Letters Patent No. 17,355, New York, NY: Kilbourne Tompkins, Book and Commercial Printer, p. 204 
  24. ^ Wightman, Joseph (1860), Annals of the Boston Primary School Committee: From Its First Establishment in 1818 to its Dissolution in 1855, Boston, Massachusetts: G. C. Rand & Avery, city printers, pp. 229, 294 
  25. ^ Wightman, Joseph (1860), Annals of the Boston Primary School Committee: From Its First Establishment in 1818 to its Dissolution in 1855, Boston, Massachusetts: G. C. Rand & Avery, city printers, pp. 293–294 
  26. ^ Wightman, Joseph (1860), Annals of the Boston Primary School Committee: From Its First Establishment in 1818 to its Dissolution in 1855, Boston, Massachusetts: G. C. Rand & Avery, city printers, pp. 7–8, 259–264 
  27. ^ King, Moses (1881), King's Handbook of Boston: Profusely Illustrated; 4th ed., Cambridge, MA: Moses King, p. 133 
  28. ^ Mayors of Boston: An Illustrated Epitome of who the Mayors Have Been and What they Have Done, Boston, MA: State Street Trust Company, 1914, p. 26 
  29. ^ Wolfe, Richard J. (2006), Tarnished Idol: William Thomas Green Morton and the Introduction of Surgical Anesthesia : a Chronicle of the Ether Controversy, Boston, MA: Norman Publishing, p. 66, ISBN 0-930405-81-1 
  30. ^ a b Hurt, Raymond (1996), The History of Cardiothoracic Surgery from Early Times, New York, NY: Informa Health Care, p. 18, ISBN 1-85070-681-6 
  31. ^ Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association (1892), Annals of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, 1795–1892 Printed by Order of the Association, Boston, Massachusetts: Press of Rockwell and Churchill, p. 292 
  32. ^ a b City Council of Boston (1909), A Catalogue of the City Councils of Boston, 1822–1908, Roxbury, 1846–1867, Charlestown 1847–1873 and of The Selectmen of Boston, 1634–1822 also of Various Other Town and Municipal officers, Boston, MA: City of Boston Printing Department, p. 53 
  33. ^ a b Vrabel, Jim (2004), When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac, Boston, MA: University Press of New England (UPNE), p. 173 
  34. ^ a b Winsor, Justin (1881), The Memorial History of Boston By Justin Winsor Volume III, Boston, MA: Ticknor and Company, p. 265 
  35. ^ City Council of Boston (1909), A Catalogue of the City Councils of Boston, 1822–1908, Roxbury, 1846–1867, Charlestown 1847–1873 and of The Selectmen of Boston, 1634–1822 also of Various Other Town and Municipal officers, Boston, MA: City of Boston Printing Department, p. 88 
  36. ^ Vrabel, Jim (2004), When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac, Boston, MA: University Press of New England (UPNE), p. 174 
  37. ^ "Renomination of Mayor Wightman", The New York Times (New York, NY), November 23, 1862: 4 
  38. ^ City Council of Boston (1866), The City Hall, Boston: Corner Stone Laid, Monday, December 22, 1862. Dedicated Monday, September 17, 1865., Boston, MA: Alfred Mudge & Son, Printers to the City, p. 3 
  39. ^ City Council of Boston (1866), The City Hall, Boston: Corner Stone Laid, Monday, December 22, 1862. Dedicated Monday, September 17, 1865., Boston, MA: Alfred Mudge & Son, Printers to the City, p. 94 
  40. ^ a b Ware, Edith Ellen (1916), Political Opinion in Massachusetts During Civil War and Reconstruction, New York, NY: Columbia University, pp. 89–90 
  41. ^ Higginson, Thomas Wentworth (1898), Cheerful Yesterdays, Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press, p. 244 
  42. ^ Higginson, Thomas Wentworth (1898), Cheerful Yesterdays, Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press, pp. 244–245 
  43. ^ Hesseltine, William Best (1972), Civil War Prisons, Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, pp. 32–34, ISBN 0-87338-129-7 
  44. ^ Hesseltine, William Best (1972), Civil War Prisons, Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, p. 34, ISBN 0-87338-129-7 
  45. ^ Speer, Lonnie R. (1997), Portals to Hell: Military Prisons of the Civil War, Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, p. 44, ISBN 0-8117-0334-7 
  46. ^ Hesseltine, William Best (1972), Civil War Prisons, Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, p. 37, ISBN 0-87338-129-7 
  47. ^ Hesseltine, William Best (1972), Civil War Prisons, Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, p. 37, ISBN 0-87338-129-7 
  48. ^ a b c Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association (1892), Annals of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, 1795–1892 Printed by Order of the Association, Boston, Massachusetts: Press of Rockwell and Churchill, p. 425 
  49. ^ Cheever Et. Al., David Williams (1865), Proceedings at the Dedication of the City Hospital: With the Act of the Legislature, Boston, Massachusetts: J.E. Farwell & Company, Printers to the City, p. 50 
  50. ^ Cheever Et. Al., David Williams (1906), A History of the Boston City Hospital from Its Foundation Until 1904, Boston, Massachusetts: Municipal Printing Office and Churchill, p. 7 
  51. ^ "BOSTON.; The City and Its New Mayor—The Past Mayors of Boston and Who They Were—Distress in the City—Personal.", New York Times (New York, NY), January 5, 1868: 3 
  52. ^ Mayors of Boston: An Illustrated Epitome of who the Mayors Have Been and What they Have Done, Boston, MA: State Street Trust Company, 1914, p. 2 
  53. ^ Mayors of Boston: An Illustrated Epitome of who the Mayors Have Been and What they Have Done, Boston, MA: State Street Trust Company, 1914, p. 23 
  54. ^ a b Smith, Goldwin (2006), Essays on Reform: Essay IX. The Experience of the American Commonwealth, Boston, Massachusetts: Adamant Media Corporation, pp. 217, 233, ISBN 0-543-91826-2 
  55. ^ McPhetres, Samuel A. (1868), A Political Manual for the Campaign of 1868: For Use in the New England States, Containing the Population and Latest Election Returns of Every Town in New England, and of Every State in the Union, Party Platforms, and Other Valuable Information, Boston, Massachusetts: A. Williams and company, p. 48 
  56. ^ Official Congressional Directory, Washington, D.C.: United States Congress, 1868, p. 17 
  57. ^ Capen, Nahum (1851), The Massachusetts State Record and Year Book of General Information: 1851 v. 5, 78 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts: James French, p. 17 
  58. ^ City Clerk Statistics Department (1882), Municipal Register containing the City Charter the Rules and Orders of the City Council and a List of Officers for the City of Boston, For the Year 1882., Boston, Massachusetts: Rockwell and Churchill, city printers, pp. 323–325, 352 
  59. ^ City Clerk Statistics Department (1882), Municipal Register containing the City Charter the Rules and Orders of the City Council and a List of Officers for the City of Boston, For the Year 1882., Boston, Massachusetts: Rockwell and Churchill, city printers, p. 325 
  60. ^ City Council of Boston (1909), A Catalogue of the City Councils of Boston, 1822–1908, Roxbury, 1846–1867, Charlestown 1847–1873 and of The Selectmen of Boston, 1634–1822 also of Various Other Town and Municipal officers, Boston, MA: City of Boston Printing Department, p. 374 
  61. ^ Proceedings and debates of the fourth National Quarantine and Sanitary Held in the City of Boston, June 14, 15 and 16, 1860. Reported for the City Council of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts: Boston City Council, 1860, p. 279 
  62. ^ Proceedings and debates of the fourth National Quarantine and Sanitary Held in the City of Boston, June 14, 15 and 16, 1860. Reported for the City Council of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts: Boston City Council, 1860, p. 2 
  63. ^ Rogers, Fred (July 1960), Before the Storm"—The Fourth National Quarantine and Sanitary Convention, Boston, 1860; Journal of Public Health, Washington, DC: Journal of Public Health v. 50(7), p. 1032 
  64. ^ Proceedings and debates of the fourth National Quarantine and Sanitary Held in the City of Boston, June 14, 15 and 16, 1860. Reported for the City Council of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts: Boston City Council, 1860, p. 24 
  65. ^ Proceedings and debates of the fourth National Quarantine and Sanitary Held in the City of Boston, June 14, 15 and 16, 1860. Reported for the City Council of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts: Boston City Council, 1860, pp. 6–7 
  66. ^ Rogers, Fred (July 1960), Before the Storm"—The Fourth National Quarantine and Sanitary Convention, Boston, 1860; Journal of Public Health, Washington, DC: Journal of Public Health v. 50(7), p. 1033 
  67. ^ a b Fitzgerald, Desmond (1876), History of the Boston Water Works, from 1868 to 1876: Being a Supplement to A "History of The Introduction of Pure Water into the City of Boston, With a Description of its Cochituate Water Works, Etc., 1868.", No. 39 Arch Street. Boston, MA: Office of the Boston Water Board, Rockwel and Churchill, City Printers, p. 5 
  68. ^ Fitzgerald, Desmond (1876), History of the Boston Water Works, from 1868 to 1876: Being a Supplement to A "History of The Introduction of Pure Water into the City of Boston, With a Description of its Cochituate Water Works, Etc., 1868.", No. 39 Arch Street. Boston, MA: Office of the Boston Water Board, Rockwell and Churchill, City Printers, p. 7 
  69. ^ City Council of Boston (1909), A Catalogue of the City Councils of Boston, 1822–1908, Roxbury, 1846–1867, Charlestown 1847–1873 and of The Selectmen of Boston, 1634–1822 also of Various Other Town and Municipal officers, Boston, MA: City of Boston Printing Department, p. 400 
  70. ^ City Council of Boston (1909), A Catalogue of the City Councils of Boston, 1822–1908, Roxbury, 1846–1867, Charlestown 1847–1873 and of The Selectmen of Boston, 1634–1822 also of Various Other Town and Municipal officers, Boston, MA: City of Boston Printing Department, p. 375 
  71. ^ Wightman, Joseph (August 12, 1874), "Ex-Mayor Wightman.; Imprisoned for debts he did not owe his own account of the way he was compelled to "Submit to the Circumstances."", The New York Times (New York, NY): 2 

Bibliography[edit]

  • A Catalogue of the City Councils of Boston, 1822–1908, Roxbury, 1846–1867, Charlestown 1847–1873 and of The Selectmen of Boston, 1634–1822 also of Various Other Town and Municipal officers, Boston, MA: City of Boston Printing Department, (1909) pp. 44, 53, 88, 301, 374–375, 400.
  • Adams, George.: The Boston Directory for the Year 1852: Embracing the City Record, a General Directory of the Citizens, and a Business Directory, with an Almanac from July, 1852, to July, 1853, No. 91 Washington Street, Boston, MA: George Adams, (1852) p. 272.
  • Annals of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, 1795–1892 Printed by Order of the Association, Boston, Massachusetts: Press of Rockwell and Churchill, (1892) pp. 233, 292, 423–425.
  • BOSTON.; The City and Its New Mayor—The Past Mayors of Boston and Who They Were—Distress in the City—Personal, New York, NY: New York Times, (January 5, 1868), p. 3.
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External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Pelham Bonney
Chairman of the
Board of Aldermen
of

Boston, Massachusetts
1858–1859

Succeeded by
Silas Peirce
Preceded by
Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr.
Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts
1860–1862
Succeeded by
Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr.