1066 Granada massacre

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Coordinates: 37°10′37″N 3°35′24″W / 37.17694°N 3.59000°W / 37.17694; -3.59000

The 1066 Granada massacre took place on 30 December 1066 (9 Tevet 4827; 10 Safar 459 AH) when a Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, which was at that time in Muslim-ruled al-Andalus, assassinated the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred many of the Jewish population of the city.[1][2]

Joseph ibn Naghrela[edit]

Joseph ibn Naghrela, or Joseph ha-Nagid (Hebrew: רבי יהוסף בן שמואל הלוי הנגידRibbi Yehosef ben Shemu'el ha-Lewi ha-Nagid; Arabic: ابو حسين بن النغريلةAbu Hussein bin Naghrela) (15 September 1035[3] – 30 December 1066), was a vizier to the Berber king, Badis al-Muzaffar of Granada, during the Moorish rule of Andalusia and the leader of the Jewish community there.

Life and career[edit]

Joseph was born in Granada, the eldest son of Rabbi and famous poet and warrior Sh'muel ha-Nagid.

Some information about his childhood and upbringing is preserved in the collection of his father's Hebrew poetry, in which Joseph writes[3] that he began copying at the age of eight and a half. For example, he tells how once (aged nine and a half, in the spring of 1045) he accompanied his father to battlefield, only to suffer from severe homesickness, about which he wrote a short poem.[4]

His primary school teacher was his father. On the basis of a letter to Rabbi Nissim Gaon attributed to him,[5] in which Joseph refers to himself as R' Nissim's disciple, it is possible to infer that he also studied under R' Nissim at Kairwan.[6] Joseph later married R' Nissim's daughter.

On R' Shmuel's death, Joseph succeeded him as vizier and rabbi, directing at the same time an important yeshiva. Among his students were Rabbi Isaac ben Baruch ibn Albalia and Rabbi Isaac ibn Ghayyat.

Character[edit]

Rabbi Abraham ibn Daud describes Joseph in highly laudatory terms, saying that he lacked none of his father's good qualities, except that he was not quite as humble, having been brought up in luxury.[7]

The 1906 edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia states that "Arabic chroniclers relate that he believed neither in the faith of his fathers nor in any other faith. It may also be doubted that he openly declared the principles of Islam to be absurd.[8] Arabic poets also praised his liberality.[9]

The Jewish Encyclopedia also reports that Joseph "controlled" the King and "surrounded him with spies."."[10]

He was also accused of several acts of violence, which drew upon him the hatred of the Berbers, who were the ruling majority at Granada. The most bitter among his many enemies was Abu Ishak of Elvira, who hoped to obtain an office at court and wrote a malicious poem against Joseph and his coreligionists. This poem made little impression upon the king, who trusted Joseph implicitly, but it created a great sensation among the Berbers. A rumor spread to the effect that Joseph intended to kill Badis, deliver the realm into the hands of Al-Mutasim of Almería with whom the king was at war, then to kill Al-Mutasim and seize the throne himself.[citation needed]

Massacre[edit]

On 30 December 1066 (9 Tevet 4827), Muslim mobs stormed the royal palace where Joseph had sought refuge, then crucified him. In the ensuing massacre of the Jewish population, many of the Jews of Granada were murdered. The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia claims that "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day."[11] However the 1971 edition does not give precise casualty figures.[12]

Joseph's wife fled to Lucena with her son Azariah, where she was supported by the community. Azariah died in early youth.

According to historian Bernard Lewis, the massacre is "usually ascribed to a reaction among the Muslim population against a powerful and ostentatious Jewish vizier."[13]

Lewis writes:

Particularly instructive in this respect is an ancient anti-Semitic poem of Abu Ishaq, written in Granada in 1066. This poem, which is said to be instrumental in provoking the anti-Jewish outbreak of that year, contains these specific lines:

Do not consider it a breach of faith to kill them, the breach of faith would be to let them carry on.
They have violated our covenant with them, so how can you be held guilty against the violators?
How can they have any pact when we are obscure and they are prominent?
Now we are humble, beside them, as if we were wrong and they were right![14]

Lewis continues: "Diatribes such as Abu Ishaq's and massacres such as that in Granada in 1066 are of rare occurrence in Islamic history."[14]

The episode has been characterized as a pogrom. Walter Laqueur writes, "Jews could not as a rule attain public office (as usual there were exceptions), and there were occasional pogroms, such as in Granada in 1066."[15]

Spivakovsky questions the death rate, suspecting it to be an example of "the usual hyperbole in numerical estimates, with which history abounds".[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lucien Gubbay (1999). Sunlight and Shadow: The Jewish Experience of Islam. New York: Other Press. p. 80. ISBN 1-892746-69-7. 
  2. ^ Norman Roth (1994). Jews, Visigoths, and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Netherlands: E. J. Brill. p. 110. ISBN 90-04-09971-9. 
  3. ^ a b In his preface to one of his father's collections of Hebrew poetry, Joseph gives his precise date and time of birth as Monday evening, the evening preceding the 11th of Tishrei 4796 AM, corresponding to the 11th of Dhu al-Qi'dah 426 AH, at 3 hours 56 minutes into the evening. (Diwan of Shemuel Hannaghid, ed. David S. Sassoon (London: Oxford University Press, 1934), p. א.)
  4. ^ Diwan of Shemuel Hannaghid, ed. David S. Sassoon (London: Oxford University Press, 1934, page סב
  5. ^ Published in Otzar Tov, 1881–82, pp. 45ff.
  6. ^ Diwan, p. xxiii.
  7. ^ Sefer ha-Kabbalah ([1]), p. 73.
  8. ^ Dozy, "Geschichte der Mauren in Spanien," ii. 301
  9. ^ Nagdela (Nagrela), Abu Husain Joseph Ibn by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  10. ^ http://jewishcurrents.org/december-30-the-grenada-massacre-13617. Jewish Currents. POB 111, Accord NY 12404. Phone. (845) 626-2427 Email:editor@jewishcurrents.org.
  11. ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  12. ^ 1971 Jewish Encyclopedia
  13. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1987) [1984]. The Jews of Islam. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-691-00807-3. LCCN 8442575 Check |lccn= value (help). OCLC 17588445. 
  14. ^ a b Lewis, Bernard (1987) [1984]. The Jews of Islam. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-691-00807-3. LCCN 8442575 Check |lccn= value (help). OCLC 17588445. 
  15. ^ Laqueur, Walter (2006). The changing face of antisemitism: from ancient times to the present day. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-19-530429-9. LCCN 2005030491. OCLC 62127914. 
  16. ^ Erika Spivakovsky (1971). "The Jewish presence in Granada". Journal of Medieval History 2 (3): 215–238. 

Further reading[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainJewish Encyclopedia. 1901–1906.