Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin
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|Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin|
August 31, 1842|
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
|Died||March 13, 1924
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
|Occupation||Publisher, journalist, activist|
|Spouse(s)||George Lewis Ruffin (m. 1858–86)|
|Children||Hubert, Florida Ridley, Stanley, George, and Robert|
|Parents||John St. Pierre and Elizabeth Matilda Menhenick|
Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin (August 31, 1842 – March 13, 1924) was an African-American publisher, journalist, civil rights leader, suffragist, and editor of Women’s Era, the first newspaper published by and for African-American women.
Early years and education
Ruffin was born in Boston, Massachusetts to John St. Pierre, of French and African descent from Martinique, and Elizabeth Matilda Menhenick from Cornwall, England. Her father was a successful clothier and founder of a Boston Zion Church. She attended public schools in Charlestown and Salem, and a private school in New York City because of her parents' objections to the segregated schools in Boston. She completed her studies at the Bowdoin School (not to be confused with Bowdoin College), after segregation in Boston schools ended.
Marriage and family
In 1858 Ruffin married George Lewis Ruffin (1834–1886). That year they bought a house on Boston's Beacon Hill, and began a family. They had four sons and a daughter together.
The couple became active in the struggle against slavery. During the Civil War, they helped recruit black soldiers for the Union Army, the Mass 54th and 55th regiments. The couple also worked for the Sanitation Commission, which provided aid for the care of soldiers in the field.
George Ruffin was reading law and was admitted to Harvard Law School. In 1869 he was the first African American to graduate from there, and later became the first African American elected to the Massachusetts state legislature (1870), the first African American elected to the Boston City Council (1876), and the first black appointed as a municipal judge in Boston (1883).
Ruffin supported women's suffrage and, in 1869, joined with Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone to form the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) in Boston. A group of these women, Howe and Stone also founded the New England Women's Club in 1868. Josephine Ruffin was its first bi-racial member when she joined in the mid-1890s. Josephine also wrote for the black weekly paper, The Courant and became a member of the New England Woman's Press Association.
When her husband George died at the age of 52 in 1884, Josephine used her financial security and organizational abilities to start Woman's Era, the country's first newspaper published by and for African-American women. She served as the editor and publisher from 1890 to 1897. While promoting interracial activities, Woman's Era called on black women to demand increased rights for their race.
In 1895, Ruffin organized the National Federation of Afro-American Women. She convened the first national conference in Boston, which was attended by 100 women from 20 clubs in 10 states. The following year, the organization merged with the Colored Women's League to form the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs (NACWC). Mary Church Terrell was elected president and Ruffin served as one of the organization's vice-presidents.
In 1894, Ruffin organized the Women's Era Club (later called the New Era Club), an advocacy group for black women, with the help of her daughter Florida Ridely and Maria Baldwin, a Boston school principal.
Just as the NACWC was forming, Ruffin was integrating the New England Woman's Club. When the General Federation of Women's Clubs met in Milwaukee in 1900, she planned to attend as a representative of three organizations – the New Era Club, the New England Woman's Club and the New England Woman's Press Club. Southern women were in positions of power in the General Federation and, when the Executive Committee discovered that all of the New Era's club members were black, they would not accept Ruffin's credentials. Ruffin was told that she could be seated as a representative of the two white clubs but not the black one. She refused on principle and was excluded from the proceedings. These events became known as "The Ruffin Incident" and were widely covered in newspapers around the country, most of whom supported Ruffin. Afterward, the Woman's Era Club made an official statement "that colored women should confine themselves to their clubs and the large field of work open to them there."
The New Era Club was disbanded in 1903, but Ruffin remained active in the struggle for equal rights and, in 1910, helped form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Ruffin was one of the charter members of NAACP. Along with other women who had belonged to the New Era Club, she co-founded the League of Women for Community Service, which still exists today.
Ruffin married George Lewis Ruffin, who went on to become the first African-American male graduate from Harvard Law School, the first African American elected to the Boston City Council, and the first African-American municipal judge. Josephine and Ruffin were married in 1858 when she was sixteen years old. Together, they had five children: Hubert, an attorney; Florida Ridley, a school principal and co-founder of Women's Era; Stanley, an inventor; George, a musician; and Robert, who died in his first year of life. Ruffin remained active up to the time of her death in Boston in 1924.
- Lyman, Darryl (2005). "Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin". Great African-American Women (third edition ed.). Middle Village, NY: Jonathan David Company. pp. 196–197. ISBN 0-8246-0459-8. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
- Indiana Commission for Women (2003). "African American Women In History: Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin (1842-1924)". State of Indiana. Archived from the original on 2005-02-09. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
- State House Women's Leadership Project (2008). "Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin". Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities. Retrieved 2008-09-12.[dead link]
- Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin at the African American Registry Retrieved on 2009-04-28
- African American Women in History