Josephus Struthius (Polish: Józef Struś; 1510 in Poznań – between 27 July 1568 and 26 January 1569 in Poznań) was a Polish professor of medicine in Padua (1535–1537) and personal doctor of Polish kings. He also served as mayor of Poznań in 1557–1558 and 1558–1559.
His conceptual approach to measurement of the pulse is regarded as pioneering and revolutionary. In Sphygmicae artis iam mille ducentos annos perditae et desideratae libri V. (first published 1540 in Basel, but only copies from 1555 are accessible) he described five types of pulses, the diagnostic meaning of those types, and the influence of body temperature and nervous system on pulse. It contains probably the earliest graphic presentation of the pulse. This was one of books used by William Harvey in his works.
Robert Burton wrote of Josephus Struthius in The Anatomy of Melancholy: "Josephus Struthis, that Polonian, in the fifth book, _cap. 17._ of his Doctrine of Pulses, holds that [...] passions of the mind may be discovered by the pulse."
- Blood pressure measurement: an illustrated history Nassim H. Naqvi, M. Donald Blaufox. Informa Health Care, 1998. p. 20
- Physical vs. technological diagnosis The Rose Melnick Medical Museum, April 10, 2009
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