Joshua Reed Giddings
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|Joshua Reed Giddings|
|Photograph by Mathew Brady's studio (1855-1864)|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 16th district
December 3, 1838 – March 3, 1843
|Preceded by||Elisha Whittlesey|
|Succeeded by||James Mathews|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 20th district
March 4, 1843 – March 3, 1859
|Preceded by||New District|
|Succeeded by||John Hutchins|
October 6, 1795|
Tioga Point, Pennsylvania
|Died||May 27, 1864
|Resting place||Oakdale Cemetery, Jefferson, Ohio|
Joshua Reed Giddings (October 6, 1795 – May 27, 1864) was an American attorney, politician and a prominent opponent of slavery. He represented Ohio in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1838-59. He was at first a member of the Whig Party and was later a Republican, helping found the party.
Giddings was censured in 1842 for violating the gag rule against discussing slavery in the House of Representatives when he proposed a number of Resolutions arguing against federal support for the coastwise slave trade, in relation to the Creole case. He quickly resigned, but was overwhelmingly re-elected by his Ohio constituents in a special election to fill the vacant seat. He returned to the House and served a total of nearly twenty more years as representative.
Early life and education
Joshua Reed Giddings was born at Tioga Point, now Athens, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, on 6 October 1795. In 1806 his parents Elizabeth (née Pease) and Joshua Giddings moved the family to Ashtabula County, Ohio, which was then sparsely settled. Here they settled on Ohio's Western Reserve, where Giddings lived for most of the rest of his life. Many settlers from New England went there. As the Reserve was widely famous for its radicalism, Giddings may have been inspired in his first stirrings of passion for antislavery.
Giddings worked on his father's farm and, although he received no systematic education, devoted much time to study and reading. For several years after 1814 he was a schoolteacher. In the custom of the time, he would have "read the law" by working as an intern with an established firm to prepare for the bar.
In February 1821 Giddings was admitted to the bar in Ohio. He soon built up a large practice, particularly in criminal cases. From 1831 to 1837 he was in partnership with Benjamin Wade, a future U.S. Senator.[note 1]
The Panic of 1837, in which Giddings lost a great deal of money, caused him to cease practicing law. He ran for federal office and was elected to Congress. Consistently re-elected to office, from December 1838 until March 1859, he served as a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing first Ohio's 16th district until 1843, and then Ohio's 20th district until 1859. Giddings ran first as a Whig, then as a Free-soiler, next as a candidate of the Opposition Party, and finally as a Republican.
Giddings seized upon every opportunity to develop a public sentiment hostile to slavery. On February 9, 1841, he delivered a speech upon the Seminole War in Florida, insisting that it was waged in the interest of slavery.
In the Creole case of 1841, American slaves had revolted and forced the brig Creole into Nassau, where they gained freedom as Britain had abolished slavery in its territories in 1834. Southern slaveholders argued for the federal government to demand the return of the slaves or compensation.
Giddings emphasized that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere; he noted that slavery only existed by specific state enactments. For that reason, he contended that slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, as these were administered by the federal government. Similarly, he argued that the coastwise slave trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave trade, should be rigidly suppressed as unconstitutional, as the states had no authority to extend slavery to ships on the high seas, and the federal government had no separate interest in it. He also held that Congress had no power to pass any act that in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
His statements in the Creole Case attracted particular attention, as he had violated the notorious gag rule barring antislavery petitions. Former President John Quincy Adams led a campaign in the House of Representatives to repeal the gag rule.
The United States government attempted to recover the slaves from the Creole. Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State under President Martin Van Buren, asserted that as the slaves were on an American ship, they were under the jurisdiction of the U.S., and by US law they were property. Britain said they were free persons under its law.
On March 21, 1842, before the case was settled, Giddings introduced a series of resolutions in the House of Representatives. He asserted that in resuming their natural rights of personal liberty, the slaves violated no law of the U.S. He contended the US should not try to recover them, as it should not take the part of a state. For offering these resolutions, Giddings was attacked by numerous critics. The House formally censured him for violating the gag rule. He resigned, appealing to his constituents, who immediately reelected him by an overwhelming margin of 7,469 to 383 in the special election to fill his seat. With increasing anti-slavery agitation, the House repealed its "gag rule" three years later.
Giddings' daughter Lura Maria, an active Garrisonian, convinced her father to attend the meetings held by Garrison's followers, which heightened his anti-slavery position. William Lloyd Garrison was a spiritual as well as political leader. In the 1850s Giddings also adopted other progressive ideas, identifying with perfectionism, spiritualism, and religious radicalism. He claimed that his antislavery sentiments were based on a higher natural law, rather than just on the rights of the Constitution. Giddings called the caning of Senator Charles Sumner in the Senate by an opponent a crime "against the most vital principles of the Constitution, against the Government itself, against the sovereignty of Massachusetts, against the people of the United States, against Christianity and civilization." Many of these views were reflected in his noted "American Infidelity" speech of 1854.
Giddings often used violent language, and did not hesitate to encourage bloodshed. He talked about the justice of a slave insurrection and the duty of Northerners to fully support such an insurrection. He opposed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and advised escaping slaves to shoot at their potential captors.
Giddings led the Congressional opposition by Free State politicians to any further expansion of slavery to the West. Accordingly, he condemned the annexation of Texas (1846), the Mexican War (1846-8), the 1850 Compromises, and the Kansas Nebraska Act(1854), all of which contributed to expansion of slavery in the West. Following the war with Mexico, Giddings cast the only ballot against a resolution of thanks to US General Zachary Taylor.
With increasing political activism related to slavery, Giddings shifted from the Whig party to the Free-Soil party (1848). In 1854-5, he became one of the leading founders of the Republican party. Giddings campaigned for John C. Fremont and Abraham Lincoln, although Giddings and Lincoln disagreed over the uses of extremism in the anti-slavery movement. Before the Civil War, he helped support the Underground Railroad to help fugitive slaves reach freedom. He was widely known (and condemned by some) for his egalitarian racial beliefs and actions.
In 1859 he was not renominated by the Republican Party to Congress. Giddings retired from Congress after a continuous service of more than twenty years. In 1861 he was appointed by Lincoln as U.S. consul general in Canada, and served there until his death at Montreal on the 27th of May 1864.
- A collection of political essays, signed Pacificus, beginning in 1843.
- Speeches in Congress (1853);
- The Exiles of Florida (1858);
- History of the Rebellion: Its Authors and Causes (1864).
- Giddings and his friend Wade were both elected to Congress, where they were outspoken opponents of slavery throughout their careers. Wade was elected president of the Senate during the Andrew Johnson administration. He would have succeeded to the presidency of the United States had one more senator voted for the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
- Giddings resigned March 22, 1842, and the seat was vacant until he was re-elected and seated December 5, 1842.
- Ohio General Assembly (1917). Manual of legislative practice in the General Assembly. State of Ohio. p. 262.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Moore, F., eds. (1906). "Giddings, Joshua Reed". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
- Gerald Horne, Negro Comrades of the Crown: African Americans and the British Empire Fight the U.S. Before Emancipation, New York University (NYU) Press, 2012, p. 137
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Giddings, Joshua Reed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This work in turn cites:
- Buel, Joshua R. Giddings (Cleveland, 1882)
- Julian, George Washington, Life of Joshua R. Giddings (Chicago, 1892). Julian was his son-in-law.
- Julian, George Washington. The Life of Joshua R. Giddings, A.C. McClurg & Company, 1892
- Stewart, James Brewer, Joshua R. Giddings and the Tactics of Radical Politics, (Cleveland, 1970).
- Joshua Reed Giddings at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- "Giddings, Joshua Reed". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.
- Joshua Reed Giddings at Find a Grave
|United States House of Representatives|
|United States Representative 16th District from Ohio
James Mathews (Ohio)
|United States Representative 20th District from Ohio
|Ohio House of Representatives|
|Representative from Ashtabula County