Juan Antonio Pezet

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Juan Antonio Pezet
President Pezet.jpg
16th President of Peru
In office
August 5, 1863 – April 25, 1865
Preceded by Pedro Diez Canseco
Succeeded by Mariano Ignacio Prado
17th President of Peru
In office
June 24, 1865 – November 8, 1865
Preceded by Mariano Ignacio Prado
Succeeded by Pedro Diez Canseco
Personal details
Born 1809
Lima, Peru
Died 1879
Lima, Peru
Nationality Peruvian

Juan Antonio Pezet (1809 – 24 March 1879) was a Peruvian military officer and politician who served in the positions of Secretary of War, Vice President and President of Peru during his life. As President, his moderate and cautious attitude towards the occupation of the Chincha Islands by a Spanish Fleet in 1864 was used as an excuse to launch a military uprising that drove him out of power.

Early years[edit]

Juan Antonio Pezet Rodriguez Piedra was born in Lima, Peru, the son of Dr. Jose Pezet Monel, a physician, journalist, literary and parliamentarian who was among the enterprising heroes of Peru's independence. His French-born grandfather, Antoine Pezet Eustache, had arrived in Lima in 1765. As a boy, Pezet briefly entered the Jesuit College of San Carlos. When General José de San Martín with the Chilean army obliged the viceroy to evacuate Lima in 1821, young Pezet joined the patriots and took part in the campaign as sub-lieutenant. In 1823, he was promoted to lieutenant, and under Bolívar and Sucre, he fought at Junín and Ayacucho.

He became captain in 1828, and in 1835, as colonel of the battalion of sharp-shooters of Rimac, he took part in the rising of President Agustín Gamarra against the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy and was banished.

After his return, he was appointed prefect of Lima and took part in the revolution of Vivanco in 1843. During the revolt, he was appointed Inspector-General of the Army and Prefect of La Libertad. He was wounded and taken prisoner in 1844 but was pardoned, became prefect of Arequipa in 1847, and in 1848 was made general-in-chief of the division of the south and prefect of Moquegua.

Under President Echenique in 1853, he was appointed inspector-general and chief of the Army of the South during the invasion of Bolivia.

President of the Republic[edit]

In 1859, Pezet was secretary of war; in 1862, he was elected first vice-president with General San Román, assuming the presidency following the death of the latter in 1863. During his administration, the difficulties with Spain, which culminated in the occupation of the Chincha Islands on 14 April 1864, began.

But when he signed a treaty with the Spaniards on 27 January 1865, which was considered derogatory to Peruvian national honor, a general uprising followed, so on November 7, 1865, he delivered the executive office to the vice-president and retired to Europe, settling in Richmond, England. He returned in 1871 and lived in retirement in Chorrillos until his death.

References[edit]

Preceded by
Prime Minister of Peru
1861 – 1863
Succeeded by
Juan Antonio Ribeyro
Preceded by
Vice President of Peru
October 1862 – April 1863
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Pedro Diez Canseco
President of Peru
August 1863 – April 1865
Succeeded by
Mariano Ignacio Prado
Preceded by
Mariano Ignacio Prado
President of Peru
June 1865 – November 1865
Succeeded by
Pedro Diez Canseco