Juan Bravo Murillo

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Juan Bravo Murillo
Juan Bravo Murillo.jpg
Escudo del rey de España abreviado antes de 1868.svg
President of the Council of Ministers of Spain[1][2]
In office
January 14, 1851 (1851-01-14)[1][2] – December 14, 1852 (1852-12-14)[1][2]
Monarch Isabella II
Preceded by Ramón María Narváez
Succeeded by Federico Roncali
President of the Congress of Deputies of Spain[3]
In office
1858-01-11 (1858-01-11)[1] – 1858-05-13 (1858-05-13)[1]
Preceded by Francisco Martínez de la Rosa
Succeeded by Francisco Martínez de la Rosa
Member of Congress of Deputies[1]
In office
1837 (1837)[1][2][3] –
Various non-consecutive terms until 1858.[4]
Minister of Grace and Justice[1][3]
In office
January 28, 1847 (1847-01-28)[1] – March 28, 1847 (1847-03-28)[1]
Prime Minister Carlos Martínez de Irujo, Duke of Sotomayor
Minister of Commerce, Instruction, and Public Works[3]
In office
November 10, 1847 (1847-11-10)[1] – August 31, 1849 (1849-08-31)[1]
Prime Minister Ramón María Narváez
Minister of Finance[2][3]
In office
August 19, 1849 (1849-08-19)[1][2] – October 19, 1849 (1849-10-19)[1][2]
Minister of Finance and Development[1][2]
In office
October 20, 1849 (1849-10-20)[1][2] – September 29, 1850 (1850-09-29)[1][2]
Minister of Finance[1][5]
In office
January 14, 1851 (1851-01-14)[1][5] – December 14, 1852 (1852-12-14)[1][5]
President deu of the Congress of Deputies of Spain[1][6][7]
In office
January 11, 1858 (1858-01-11)[1][7] – May 13, 1858 (1858-05-13)[1][7]
Member of Spanish Senate[3]
In office
1863 (1863)[3] –  ()
Personal details
Born June 24, 1803 (1803-06-24)[1][2]
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Fregenal de la Sierra, Spain[1][2]
Died February 11, 1873 (1873-02-11)[1][2]
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Madrid, Spain[1][2]
Political party Moderate Party[2]
Profession Lawyer[2]

Juan Bravo Murillo (24 June 1803 – 11 February 1873)[2] was a Spanish politician, jurist and economist. He was president of the council of ministers of Spain (equivalent to the present-day position of prime minister / president of the government) from 14 January 1851 to 14 December 1852 during the reign of Isabella II.

Origins[edit]

Bravo Murillo was born in Fregenal de la Sierra[2][3] on 24 June 1803. After briefly studying theology,[8] he studied law at the University of Salamanca and the University of Seville, obtaining his licentiate from Seville in 1825. He practiced law for a time in Seville. After the death of Fernando VII in 1833 he was named prosecutor of the Audiencia Provincial of Cádiz, a position he held for two years before moving to Madrid, where he co-published a journal called Boletín de Jurisprudencia.[2] He was also a founder of the conservative newspaper El Porvenir.[8]

Political career[edit]

He was elected a deputy (member of the lower house of Spain's parliament) in 1837[2][3] and 1840 as a member of the Moderate Party.[2] However, his reactionary views kept him out of leadership during the decidedly liberal ascendancy of General Baldomero Espartero, regent during this portion of the minority of Isabella II. He emigrated briefly to France after the Spanish Revolution of 1841, but returned in 1843 after Espartero's fall,[2] the beginning of the década moderada.[8][9]

Bust of Bravo Murillo in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

In January 1847 he was named Minister of Grace and Justice[3] in the government of Carlos Martínez de Irujo, Duke of Sotomayor.[2][3] General Ramón María Narváez later named him Minister of Commerce, Instruction, and Public Works,[3] then in 1849 Minister of Finance.[3] He was named President of the Council of Ministers of Spain,[3] effectively prime minister, taking office on 14 January 1851,[2] while serving as his own Minister of Finance.[3] The events of the Revolutions of 1848 throughout Europe led him to propose[9] an anti-parliamentarian, absolutist constitution for Spain in 1852, countering the moderate liberal tendency of the Spanish Constitution of 1845, but it proved unpopular and was rejected.[3][9] He lost his position as head of government 14 December 1852;[2] the onset of the bienio progresista some 18 months later led him to leave Spain, returning in 1856.[2] He served as President of the Congress of Deputies in 1858,[3][7] and was named to the Spanish Senate in 1863[3] as a senator for life.[10]

He is responsible for founding Canal de Isabel II, the public company that still brings water to Madrid,[11] the establishment of civil service exams (oposiciones),[9][12] the introduction of the metric system into Spain in 1849,[13] the Concordat of 1851 that settled differences between the Spanish government and the Holy See,[3] and the 1852 Law of Free Ports of the Canaries.[14] He was also responsible for a variety of measures in his capacity as minister of finance, and founded what later became the Boletín Oficial del Estado, which remains the Spanish government's official gazette to this day.[2]

The most interesting of his writings were published in six volumes entitled Opúsculos ("Pamphlets", 1863–1874). He died in Madrid 11 February 1873.[3]

Elections to Congress of Deputies[edit]

Bravo Murillo was elected to the Congress of Deputies on 12 occasions, and represented constituencies in five different provinces (sometimes two of them at the same time):

Election number Election date District Province Took office Left office
09 22 September 1837 At large Seville 19 December 1837 1 June 1839
11 19 January 1840 At large Ávila 21 February 1840 11 October 1840
14 15 September 1843 At large Badajoz 18 October 1843 10 July 1844
15 3 September 1844 At large Badajoz 14 October 1844 31 October 1846
16 21 June 1846 Fregenal de la Sierra Badajoz 3 January 1847 18 December 1848
16 21 June 1846 Fregenal de la Sierra Badajoz 20 December 1847 4 August 1850
17 31 August 1850 Fregenal de la Sierra Badajoz 6 November 1850 7 April 1851
17 31 August 1850 Huelva Huelva 6 November 1850 15 November 1850
18 10 May 1851 Elche de la Sierra Albacete 4 June 1851 17 June 1851
18 10 May 1851 Fregenal de la Sierra Badajoz 4 June 1851 2 December 1852
19 4 February 1853 Fregenal de la Sierra Badajoz 15 March 1853 10 December 1853
21 25 February 1857 Fregenal de la Sierra Badajoz 6 May 1857 13 May 1858

Source:[4]

Ministers in his governments[edit]

First ministry[edit]

Source:[15]

Second (reorganized) ministry[edit]

Source:[15]

Preceded by
Ramón María Narváez
President of the Council of Ministers of Spain
1851–1852
Succeeded by
Federico Roncali

Notes[edit]

This article incorporates information from the revision as of 2010-02-27 of the equivalent article on the Spanish Wikipedia.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Bravo Murillo, Juan 21. Elecciones 25.3.1857, www.congreso.es, in the database of the Spanish Congress of Deputies. Includes an extensive list of offices he held (which is reproduced identically on other pages about elections). Retrieved online 2010-02-28.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Biografía de Juan Bravo Murillo, Base documental d'Història Contemporània de Catalunya, xtec.es. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Relación histórica de Presidentes del Consejo de Ministros y del Gobierno 1846-1853, la-moncloa.es, official site of the Spanish Presidency. Retrieved 2010-02-27.
  4. ^ a b Bravo Murillo, Juan and linked records, in the database of Deputies on the official site of the Spanish Congress of Deputies. Retrieved online 2010-02-28.
  5. ^ a b c For the dates, Biografía de Juan Bravo Murillo, Base documental d'Història Contemporània de Catalunya, xtec.es. Retrieved 2010-02-28. For the fact that he served as his own Minister of Finance, Relación histórica de Presidentes del Consejo de Ministros y del Gobierno 1846-1853, la-moncloa.es, official site of the Spanish Presidency. Retrieved 2010-02-27. Both the office and the dates can also be found on the official site of the Congress of Deputies.
  6. ^ Both Biografía de Juan Bravo Murillo, Base documental d'Història Contemporània de Catalunya, xtec.es and Relación histórica de Presidentes del Consejo de Ministros y del Gobierno 1846-1853, la-moncloa.es indicate that he held the office in 1858; neither cites for the precise dates, though these can be found on the official site of the Congress of Deputies.
  7. ^ a b c d Bravo Murillo, Juan, www.congreso.es, in the database of Presidents of the Congress on the official site of the Spanish Congress of Deputies. Retrieved online 2010-02-28.
  8. ^ a b c Bravo-Murillo, Meyers Konversationslexikon (1888). Online at retrobibliothek.de. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  9. ^ a b c d Germán Rueda, La década moderada (España), artehistoria.jcyl.es. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  10. ^ Expediente personal del Senador vitalicio D. Juan Bravo Murillo, www.senado.es (official site of the Spanish Senate). Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  11. ^ Madrid - Canal de Isabel II (CYII), MONSACRO.net Revista sobre Patrimonio y Arqueología Industrial. Divulgación tecnológica, 2007-02-12. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  12. ^ Juan Bravo Murillo, artehistoria.jcyl.es. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  13. ^ Gustavo Puente Feliz, El Sistema Métrico Decimal. Su importancia e implantación en España, Cuadernos de historia moderna y contemporánea, ISSN 0211-0849, Nº. 3, 1982, 95:126. p. 109 (15 of PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  14. ^ Fernando De Ory Ajamil, Ciencia y presencia extranjera en las Islas Canarias (de la Ilustración a la primera guerra mundial), thesis for Department of History, University of La Laguna. p. 252 (241 of PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-28.
  15. ^ a b Governs d' Isabel II. Dècada Moderada, Base documental d'Història Contemporània de Catalunya, xtec.es. Retrieved 2010-02-28. Los Gobiernos del Reino de España 1833 - 1868, www.elisanet.fi/daglarsson generally confirms this and adds some information (e.g. it gives precise dates, and adds minister of Commerce, Instruction and Public Works) but seems to be a personal site privately maintained by an individual; it has not been used here as a source.