Born in Girona, Spain, he spent his playing career mainly at Cádiz CF – then known as Español de Cádiz –, where he became known as "Juanito Luque" due his relative lack of height – he stood 1.69 m (5 ft 7 in). He was also part of Sevilla FC in 1915 and 1916.
In July 1928, Luque de Serrallonga emigrated from Spain to Mexico. He became head coach of the Selección de fútbol de México (Mexico national team) in January 1930, and managed the team in the 1930 FIFA World Cup. Later, he was the coach of Mexican club CD Veracruz, winning the national championship in the 1949-50 season with them. He died in 1967 in Mexico City.