||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2011)|
|63rd President of Bolivia|
21 July 1978 – 24 November 1978
|Preceded by||Hugo Banzer|
|Succeeded by||David Padilla|
|Born||Juan Pereda Asbún
June 17, 1931
La Paz, Bolivia
|Died||November 25, 2012
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Juan Pereda Asbún (June 17, 1931 – November 25, 2012) was a former military general and dictator of Bolivia (1978). Although he ruled for only four months, his ascent to the presidency marked the beginning of the most unstable period in Bolivian history, with nine presidents in a little over 4 years (1978–1982), in comparison to only one in the previous seven.
Born in La Paz on June 17, 1931, Pereda joined the Bolivian armed forces, later becoming part of its nascent Air Force. He led the Military Aviation School and was subsequently appointed Air Force Commander. He served in the dictatorship of Hugo Banzer (1971–78) as Minister of Industry and, in the late 1970s, as Minister of Interior, perhaps the most powerful post in the regime after Banzer himself.
When in 1978 the then-dictator decided to call elections after 7 years as de facto leader, he chose General Pereda to run as his surrogate, since the Bolivian constitution does not allow the election of an incumbent president. It was assumed that Pereda would be elected with government "help" at the polls, rule for four years, and then allow Banzer to return as constitutional president once he had time to polish up his image and transition to civilian politics. Apparently, Banzer had second thoughts, for by election time the left-wing coalition of former president Hernán Siles (UDP) was far and away the most popular formula, and little could be done to deny it. Still, massive election fraud was committed and Pereda was declared the winner - until protests paralyzed the country and independent organizations agreed that all exit polls indicated a result quite different from what was being purported. At this point, Banzer annulled the elections, denounced the electoral fraud, and disassociated himself from it altogether, basically blaming Pereda and his closest supporters. He declared he would call elections again within a year or two.
He did not foresee the rection of General Pereda, however, who felt used by Banzer as a tool to remain in power. A coup d'état ensued, many military officers having grown tired of the dictator's constant manipulation of the armed forces for his own political ends. After Banzer was forced to leave the Palacio Quemado in July 1978, Pereda was sworn in as president, although not a constitutional one, since the fraud had been so conspicuous that it was plain to see. He did blame Banzer, however, and stated non-comitally that he would call new elections within a reasonable span of time. His lack of clarity in this regard, and his obvious paucity of a coherent government program, proved to be his undoing. After four months in office, General Pereda was overthrown by democratically-oriented officers under the leadership of General David Padilla. Feeling betrayed by everyone (from Banzer to his co-conspirators in the July 1978 coup d'état), at that point Pereda withdrew from public life and never again participated in politics.
|President of Bolivia
- "Murió expresidente boliviano Juan Pereda Asbún". La Opinión (in Spanish). AP. November 26, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Williams Farfán (18 August 2010). "Detienen con drogas a un ex presidente". La Razón (La Paz) (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- Charles Krause (12 July 1978). "Violence may decide who will emerge as president of Bolivia". Calgary Herald. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- "Coup ousts Pereda". The Albany Herald. UPI. 24 November 1978. Retrieved 10 March 2011.