Juan Sánchez Ramírez
|Juan Sánchez Ramírez|
|Governor of Second Spanish Colony of Santo Domingo (1809-1821)|
December 13, 1808 – February 11, 1811
|Succeeded by||Manuel Caballero y Masot|
Cotuí, Captaincy General of Santo Domingo (later the Dominican Republic)
|Died||February 11, 1811
|Nationality||Dominican and Spanish|
|Residence||Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico (1803 - 1807)|
|Profession||Politician and Captain general|
Juan Sánchez Ramírez (1762–1811) was a soldier and Dominican Captain general who ruled the Dominican Republic between 1808 and 1811 and leader of the troops who fought against the French rule of Santo Domingo´s colony between 1808 and 1809, in the so-called Battle of Palo Hincado, archieving the French defeat and the return of the colony to Spanish hands.
Juan Sánchez Ramírez was born in 1762 in Cotuí, Santo Domingo. According to Historian Francisco A. Rincón (author of La Mejorada Villa del Cotuy or, in English, The Improved Cotuy Ville), he was son of Miguel Sanchez and Francisca Ramirez. Juan Sanchez Ramirez also had two brothers: Remigio (who accompanied him in his struggles), and Rafael (Magistrate of Cotuí during the Haitian occupation). His father was a Spanish military and a large landowner. Juan Sánchez Ramírez was educated by the priest Pichardo y Delmonte. When he was young, he joined a company of lancers formed by townspeople.
In 1793, Haiti's Toussaint Louverture seized the east of the island and he abolished slavery. Then, in 1802 (and after the seld of Santo Domingo´s colony to France with the Treaty of Basel, in 1795), came about 50 thousand soldiers to Santo Domingo under the command of French Leclerc. These beat to Toussaint and took over this side of the island. Nevertheless, Haitians and the French occupied the lands that were Juan Sánchez Ramírez and almost all Spaniards living in the colony of Santo Domingo.
So, he began his career as a soldier in the Spanish Army fighting against French occupation in order to maintain the Dominican nationality and his identity. He requested to assistance from the British army established in Jamaica, for force the French to surrender Santo Domingo. However, the French refused to surrender to the Dominican army because the Dominicans were dressed in rags and they said that those constituted an embarrassment for France. So it was that France finally occupied the colony.
El Palo Hincado battle
In July 1807, still in Puerto Rico, he learned that the Governing Board who replaced to Fernando VII had declared war against France, so he traveled for the whole the colony encouraging its residents to take up arms against the French, to support him in the Reconquista of Santo Domingo (Reconquest of Santo Domingo), while he was engaged also in the exploitation of timber cuts, on his possessions of the eastern shores, between Higüey and Jovero (now Miches), where communications with Puerto Rico were easier. Also maintained an intense correspondence with Toribio Montes, who promised every assistance. In August, the governor of Puerto Rico also declared war on France, although the French governor Jean Louis Ferrand tried to downplay that fact by launching a proclamation inviting the people to remain calm.
Later, he returned to the eastern of Santo Domingo colony. In early November 1808, 300 soldiers sent by Toribio Montes landed at Boca de Yuma, and they joined to the forces of Sanchez Ramirez. This left El Seibo (city) order to march on the city of Santo Domingo. Then, in 13 December this year, he already returned to the city with his troop, and between this year and 7 November, 1809, he also was leading, in addition, the British and Haitian armed against French rule in the Battle of Palo Hincado, defeating to Ferrand (who reached him when Ramirez was still in El Seibo) and evacuating the remaining French people who had sought protection behind the walls of Santo Domingo.
The survivors fled to the capital of the colony. On day 12 the square was declared under siege by substitute Ferrand, general Dubarquier, and 27 reached it Sánchez Ramirez, who pitched his camp in the section Jainamosa, on the east bank of the Ozama River, transferring it, shortly after, to the Gallard or Galá hacienda.
So, Santo Domingo was subsequent recovered by Spain. After this, Ramirez was named new Governor of the colony and this was recognized as Captaincy General. His government resembled that of an independent government: he revived trade with all friendly countries of Spain and he reopened the door of the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, UASD today. Under his government the board of Bondillo rejected among other things what stipulated in the Treaty of Basel, 1795.
He annulled the confiscations made by the French colonial government and reestablished the ancient legal systems He allowed the free access of the English to Spanish ports.
Juan Sánchez Ramírez returned to introduce slavery. Soon it showed that poverty grew in Santo Domingo. There were several attempts to overthrow the Sánchez Ramírez´s government. But these attempts failed and those involved were sentenced to die so brutal.
He also tried to restore the Dominican economy, but Spain was at war with the then South American colonies and he was destituted of her newly recovered colony of Santo Domingo, which led to the period known as España Boba (Boba Spain).
He sick and died on February 11, 1811, to fifty years old. At his death the Dominicans declared him father of country, his ashes are buried in the National Pantheon.
Eventually, Ramírez became a landowner. He married Josefa del Monte y Pichardo, with who had two children: Juana y José. He emigrated to Puerto Rico twice, for political reasons. In Santo Domingo, Ramirez lived at Padre Billini´s street, where was the House of Spain. After his death, his family, supposedly allegedly in poverty, moved to San Carlos, Santo Domingo, because according to the widow of Ramírez, he had many jobs but he hadn´t "any salary".
- The Santo Domingo´s street that bears his name born in Socorro Sanchez in Gascue, and died in Santo Tomás de Aquino, in the University area.
- "La Reconquista: Batalla de Palo Hincado (La Reconquista: Battle of Palo Hincado) (In Spanish)". Mi país: Historia (My Country). July 29, 2010. Retrieved September 11, 2010.
- Enciclopedia de Tareas.net BIOGRAFÍA DE JUAN SÁNCHEZ RAMÍREZ. Retrieved in August 16, 2014, to 11:21pm.
- Juan Sánchez Ramírez, héroe de la batalla de Palo Hincado declarado paladín de la Reconquista (in Spanish: Juan Sánchez Ramírez, hero of the Battle of Palo Hincado declared champion of the Reconquista). Retrieved in August 16, 2014, to 12:50pm.
- "José Núñez de Cáceres - Enciclopedia – Virtual de Cáceres. (José Núñez de Cáceres - Encyclopedia - Virtual Cáceres) (In Spanish)". Encyclopedia - Virtual Cáceres. July 29, 2010. Retrieved September 11, 2010.
- Encaribe: Juan Sánchez Ramírez. Retrieved in August 17, 2014, to 12:24pm.
- "Governors of Santo Domingo". El Rincón del Vago. (Spanish)