Juan Seguín

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Juan Seguín
Juan seguin.jpg
Republic of Texas Senator from Bexar District
In office
December 5, 1837 – February 5, 1840
Preceded by Thomas Jefferson Green
Succeeded by William H. Daingerfield
101st and 110th Mayor of San Antonio
In office
1834–1835
Preceded by Miguel Arciniega
Succeeded by José Ángel Navarro
In office
1841–1842
Preceded by John William Smith
Succeeded by Francis Guilbeau
Member of the San Antonio City Council
In office
1828–1833
Justice of the Peace of Bexar County, Texas
In office
1852–1856
County Judge of Wilson County, Texas
In office
1869–1869
Personal details
Born Juan Nepomuceno Seguín
(1806-10-27)27 October 1806
San Antonio de Bexar, Province of Texas, Viceroyalty of New Spain (now Texas, U.S.)
Died 27 August 1890(1890-08-27) (aged 83)
Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Political party Democratic Party
Spouse(s) María Gertrudis Flores de Abrego (m. 1825)
Military service
Allegiance Texas Republic of Texas
Service/branch  Texas Army, Republic of Texas Militia
Years of service 1835–1836, 1836–1842
Rank Colonel
Unit Texian volunteer and regular army
Battles/wars Texas Revolution

Juan Nepomuceno Seguín (October 27, 1806 – August 27, 1890) was a 19th-century Texas Senator, mayor, judge, and Justice of the Peace.

Early life[edit]

Juan Nepomuceno Seguin was, born on October 27, 1806, in San Antonio de Bexar, Province of Texas, Viceroyalty of New Spain, to Juan José María Erasmo Seguin and Maria Josefa Becerra. As the son of a postmaster, he would assist his mother in the business, while his father was off writing the Mexican Constitution of 1824. In 1825, he married María Gertrudis Flores de Abrego. They had ten children. He was elected an alderman in December, 1828 and served on numerous electoral boards before becoming the San Antonio alcalde (mayor) in December 1833. He then served as political chief of Bexar in 1834, when the previous chief became ill. In 1835, he led a relief force to Monclova, when the Federalist Governor appealed for help.[1]

Texas Revolution[edit]

Main article: Texas Revolution

As a teenager in Mexico, he had a strong interest in politics. When, Antonio López de Santa Anna repealed the Mexican Constitution of 1824, he was very critical of his contemporary Mexican leader and gladly joined the Texas Revolution to rid Texas of Santa Anna's rule.[2] In 1835–1836, Seguin recruited and commanded troops for the Texian Army.[3] [Note 1] He was commissioned a captain by Stephen F. Austin in October 1835[4] and would be tasked with the burden of supplying the Texian troops with food and provisions.[5] Juan sent out scouting parties to the Missions of San Antonio in search of a suitable base camp for the Texians [6] and participated in the early successful Battle of Concepcion[7] and the 2 month long, Siege of Bexar,[8] that drove the troops of Santa Anna out of Texas.

In January 1836, he was commissioned as a Captain in the regular Texas army.[Note 2] Upon the return of Santa Anna's army, Juan would join William B. Travis on February 23, in the battle of the Alamo.[9] Although serving at the Alamo, during the thirteen day siege, he did not actually participate in the final battle of the Alamo [10] but was a very significant part of the battle of San Jacinto.[11] Because Seguín spoke some English and Spanish, he was chosen to carry the Alamo message through enemy lines,[12] that the Texans "shall never surrender or retreat." Seguín got that message through to the other soldiers, on the Texian side.[10] He then returned with men to reinforce the Alamo, but it had already fallen to Santa Anna's army.[13]

Surrender of Santa Anna by William Huddle, depicts Santa Anna's surrender to the wounded Sam Houston, while Juan Seguín on left, over-views the proceedings.

After the Alamo, he would reform cavalry companies at Gonzales and act as the rear guard, providing protection for fleeing Texas families during the Runaway Scrape[14] His company, with Captain Moseley Baker's company, would block the Mexican army from crossing the Brazos river, preventing them from overtaking the Texians.[9] His cavalry command, participating as infantry with Sherman's company, would fight in the victorious Battle of San Jacinto.[11][15] In May 1836, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel.[16] On June 4, as a representative of the Republic of Texas, he would accept the formal surrender of the Mexican forces in the Alamo.

Life under the Republic of Texas[edit]

After becoming a Republic, he would be the head of the San Antonio military, commanding a force to defend the western frontier.[17] In 1837, Colonel Seguín would direct the burial of the ashes of the slain Alamo defenders.[9][18] In 1839, Seguín, captain of a Texas force of about fifty-four men would again protect the colonists in the Henry Karnes campaign against the hostile Comanche Indians.[19]

Seguín was elected as a Texas Senator from 1837 to 1840 and worked closely with Congressman José Antonio Navarro, to ensure legislation that would be in the best interest of the citizenry of Texas, who were quickly becoming the political minority. In 1839, at a town thirty miles east of San Antonio, he was honored by parade and celebration. That newly named town would now bear his own name, Seguin. In 1840, he resigned his congressional seat in order to join a controversial campaign against the Centralist government in Mexico City.[2] Juan became mayor of San Antonio in 1841.

Texas became flooded by adventurous and land hungry North Americans that were unfamiliar with the native Texan's history[20] and their loyal support of Texas.[21] His leadership and loyalty would be challenged by these newcomers.[22] Refusing to burn San Antonio to the ground by order of the new head of the Texas military was just the beginning.[9]

In 1842, San Antonio would be overrun twice, by Santa Anna's forces. During March 1842, Colonel Seguin and the citizens of San Antonio would seek refuge at Manuel Flores Ranch in the city of Seguin, Texas.[23] A counter attack was planned and even though Seguín had pursued the army of Ráfael Vásquez, chasing them from Texas;[24] he was doomed to be blamed for the attack.[25]

Seguín would resign from office in April, due to threats on his life.[26] Opposition to his defense of Texas rights, adversities, and false charges that he was aiding the Mexican army, proved too much to bear. He fled to Mexico to "seek refuge amongst my enemies," where he was captured, arrested and coerced to enlist in the Mexican army as a staff official. He would return to San Antonio with the opposition army of Adrian Woll[26] in September 1842 and later served under Santa Anna in the Mexican-American War of 1846–1848.

Later life[edit]

In February 1848, Seguín requested permission to return to Texas. By year's end, he had returned,[27] establishing a home adjacent his father Erasmo Seguín's house, and ranching in Floresville, Texas.[22] He was elected to two terms as Justice of the Peace of Bexar County in 1852 and 1854. He became a founding father of the Democratic Party in Bexar county.[28] In 1858, he published his life memoirs. Seguín served as County Judge in Wilson County in 1869. However, business dealings occasionally took him back to Mexico. And around 1883, he settled in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, to be near his son Santiago, who was mayor. He died there on August 27, 1890. His remains were returned to Texas in 1974 and as part of the nation's Bicentennial celebration were reinterred in his namesake town, Seguin,[9] during ceremonies on July 4, 1976. A large monument, depicting him on horseback waving his saber, now honors his service to Texas, in the downtown Seguin Central Park.[29]

Legacy[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Film and TV[edit]

Books[edit]

Tejanos who served under Juan Seguín[edit]


Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Juan Seguin married María Gertrudis Flores de Abrego, a member of one of San Antonio's well known ranching families. There were four Jose Flores De Abrego sons, (brother-in-laws to Juan Seguin), that joined in with him. (see de la Teja (1991), p. 18) Captain Salvador Flores, Captain Manuel N. Flores, Lieutenant Nepomuceno Flores, and Private Jose Maria Flores all participated in the Texas Revolution, on the Texian side.
  2. ^ According to records, Seguin did not appear at the Convention to accept his appointment in the regular army. Jesus (Comanche) Cuellar would fill in for him. He instead, took the position to become the first judge of San Antonio. According to Lindley, he was not regular army until after departing the Alamo as a courier on February 25. See de la Teja pg.79, Lindley pg.113

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Teja, Jesús F. de la. "Juan Nepumuceno Seguin". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Todish (1998), p. 109.
  3. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 77.
  4. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 135.
  5. ^ Edmonson (2000), p. 219.
  6. ^ Hardin (1994), pg. 29
  7. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 78.
  8. ^ Lozano (1985), p. 34.
  9. ^ a b c d e Groneman (1998), p. 98.
  10. ^ a b de la Teja (1991), p. 79.
  11. ^ a b de la Teja (1991), p. 83.
  12. ^ Lord (1961), p. 111.
  13. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 80.
  14. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 81.
  15. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 160.
  16. ^ Lozano (1985), p. 36.
  17. ^ Matavoina (1995), p. 19.
  18. ^ Edmonson (2000), p. 411.
  19. ^ Moore (2006), p. 228.
  20. ^ Edmonson (2000), p. 412.
  21. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 113.
  22. ^ a b Nofi (1992, pp. 85–86.
  23. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 116.
  24. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 117.
  25. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 118.
  26. ^ a b Groneman (1998), p. 99.
  27. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 50.
  28. ^ de la Teja (1991), p. 51.
  29. ^ Visit Seguin, Texas
  30. ^ Gesick, John. "Seguin, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  31. ^ "History of Seguin". City of Seguin, Texas. City of Seguin, Texas. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Juan Seguin School, Guadalupe County". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  33. ^ "Juan N. Seguin Memorial Interchange". Texas State Legislature. State of Texas. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  34. ^ a b "Texas Memorial Highway System". Texas Dept. of Transportation. State of Texas. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  35. ^ "Seguin Salute". Texas Highways (Texas Department of Transportation). Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  36. ^ "2934 – Juan N. Seguin". American Merchant Marine at War. USMM. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  37. ^ "Juan Seguin High School". Juan Seguin High School. Arlington ISD. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  38. ^ "School Districts in Fort Bend County". Texas Education Agency. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Elementary Schools Directory". La Joya ISD. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  40. ^ "The Last Command (1955)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  41. ^ "The Alamo". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  42. ^ Brode, Parker (2009) pp.212–213
  43. ^ Houston: The Legend of Texas at the Internet Movie Database
  44. ^ The Alamo: 13 Days to Glory at the Internet Movie Database
  45. ^ Alamo: The Price of Freedom at the Internet Movie Database
  46. ^ Texas at the Internet Movie Database
  47. ^ "The Alamo 2004". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  48. ^ "Jack Jackson's American History: Los Tejanos & Lost Cause". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Brode, Douglas; Parker, Fess (2009). Shooting Stars of the Small Screen Encyclopedia of TV Western Actors, 1946–present. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71849-4. 
  • De la Teja, Jesus (1991). A Revolution Remembered: The Memoirs and Selected Correspondence of Juan N. Seguin. Austin, TX: State House Press. ISBN 0-938349-68-6. 
  • Edmondson, J.R. (2000). The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 1-55622-678-0. 
  • Groneman, Bill (1990). Alamo Defenders, A Genealogy: The People and Their Words. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. ISBN 0-89015-757-X. 
  • Hardin, Stephen L. (1994). Texian Iliad – A Military History of the Texas Revolution. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73086-1. OCLC 29704011. 
  • Lindley, Thomas Ricks (2003). Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions. Lanham, MD: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 1-55622-983-6. 
  • Lozano, Ruben Rendon (1985). Viva Texas: The Story of the Tejanos, the Mexican-born Patriots of the Texas Revolution. San Antonio, TX: The Alamo Press. ISBN 0-943260-02-7. 
  • Lord, Walter (1961). A Time to Stand. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7902-7. 
  • Matovina, Timothy M. (1995). The Alamo Remembered: Tejano Accounts and Perspectives. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75186-9. 
  • Moore, Stephen L. (2006). Savage Frontier: Rangers, Riflemen, and Indian Wars in Texas, Volume II, 1838–1839. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press. ISBN 1-57441-206-X. 
  • Nofi, Albert A. (1992). The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, September 30, 1835 to April 21, 1836: Heroes, Myths, and History. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, Inc. ISBN 0-938289-10-1. 
  • Schoelwer, Susan Prendergast (March 1986). "About the West: Forgotten Heroes of the Alamo". Journal of the West 25 (2): 73–81. 
  • Thrall, Homer S. (1879). A Pictoral History of Texas. St. Louis, MO: N.D. Thompson. OCLC 1059768. 
  • Todish, Timothy J.; Todish, Terry; Spring, Ted (1998). Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. ISBN 978-1-57168-152-2. 
  • Woods, J. M. (1908). Don Erasmo Seguin. Gaylord Brother Inc. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hansen, Todd (2003). Alamo Reader. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0811700603. 
  • Manchaca, Martha (2001). Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. The Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long Series in Latin American and Latino Art and Culture. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75253-9. 
  • Simons, Helen; Hoyt, Cathryn A.; Perry, Ann; Smith, Deborah (1996). A Guide to Hispanic Texas. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-77709-5. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
José Francisco Ruiz
1836–1837
Thomas Jefferson Green
1837 (25 days only)
Republic of Texas Senate
Republic of Texas Senator from Bexar District
Juan Seguín

1837–1840
Succeeded by
William H. Daingerfield
1840–1842