Juan de Pareja
Juan de Pareja (1606–1670) was a Spanish painter, born in Antequera, near Málaga, Spain. He is primarily known as a member of the household and workshop of painter Diego Velázquez. His 1661 work The Calling of St. Matthew (sometimes also referred to as The Vocation of St. Matthew) is currently on display at the Museo del Prado in Madrid, Spain. De Pareja became Velazquez's assistant sometime after the master returned to Madrid from his first trip to Italy in January 1631. After the death of Velazquez he entered the service of Juan del Mazo.
He was a slave and afterwards a freedman, and was described as a "Morisco", being "of mixed parentage and a strange color". The usage of the word "morisco" at the time carried two possible meanings. It was used to refer to both descendants of Muslims who remained in Spain after the reconquest, and to refer to the offspring of a Spaniard and a mulatto. De Pareja was given his freedom in Rome by Velázquez during a trip to Italy in 1650. Around the same time Velázquez painted Pareja's portrait, now in New York. The document of his manumission exists.
- William Stirling Maxwell (1848). Annals of the artists of Spain, Volume 2. J. Ollivier.
- The Crisis. The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc. February 1980. p. 50. ISSN 0011-1422.
- Palomino, Antonio (1988). El museo pictórico y escala óptica III. El parnaso español pintoresco laureado. Madrid : Aguilar S.A. de Ediciones.
- See Carmen Fracchia's article in The Slave in European Art: From Renaissance Trophy to Abolitionist Emblem, ed Elizabeth McGrath and Jean Michel Massing, London (The Warburg Institute) and Turin 2012.
- The document which was discovered by Jennifer Montagu is in the Archivio di Stato in Rome. See Burlington Magazine, volume 125,1983,pages 683-4.
- Hoving, Thomas (1993). Making the Mummies Dance. Simon and Schuster.
- Palomino, Antonio (1724). El Museo pictórico y escala óptica.
- Borton de Treviño, Elizabeth (1965). I, Juan de Pareja. Bell Books. ASIN B0006BN0A0.