Egyptian influences in the Hebrew Bible
||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Origins of Judaism#Pre-monarchic. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2011.|
It is generally accepted that some of the texts of the Hebrew Bible have precedents in earlier (Bronze Age) Ancient Near Eastern religions and mythology, especially Mesopotamia (see Panbabylonianism), but to a lesser extent also Ancient Egyptian. For instance, material from the Book of Proverbs derives directly from the Instruction of Amenemope.
The religion of the ancient kingdom of Judah was an amalgamation of local Canaanite traditions. Yahweh was in origin a Moabite deity, Elohim was a group of deities from Ugaritic religion, Jerusalem was in origin a Jebusite city with the tutelary deity Tsedek. These Canaanite traditions which gave rise to Israelite and ultimately ancient Jewish religion were in turn influenced by older Mesopotamian and possibly also Egyptian traditions. The consensus of modern scholarship is, however, that there was little or no direct influence of Ancient Egyptian religion on early Judaism. Sigmund Freud's theory deriving Israelite monolatrism from Egyptian Atenism, put forward in his Moses and Monotheism of 1939, has little support among modern scholars.
- Akhenaten#Akhenaten and Judeo-Christian monotheism
- Canaan#Late Bronze Age
- Habiru#Habiru and the biblical Hebrews
- History of the Jews in Egypt
- Origins of Judaism
- Lichtheim, Miriam (2006). Ancient Egyptian Literature, Volume II: The New Kingdom. University of California Press. p. 147
- Assmann, Jan (1998). Moses the Egyptian: the memory of Egypt in western monotheism. ISBN 0-674-58739-1.
- Assmann, Jan (2008). Of God and gods: Egypt, Israel, and the rise of monotheism. ISBN 0-299-22554-2.
- Bryce, Glendon E. (1979). A Legacy of Wisdom: the Egyptian Contribution to the Wisdom of Israel. Bucknell University Press. ISBN 0-8387-1576-1.
- Guttmann, Julius (1995). The Guide for the Perplexed. ISBN 0-87220-324-7. See The Guide for the Perplexed By Moses Maimonides, translated and introduction by Julius Guttmann, Daniel H. Frank
- Höfele, Andreas (2005). Renaissance go-betweens: cultural exchange in early modern Europe. ISBN 3-11-018215-7. edited by Andreas Höfele, Werner von Koppenfels
- Marsham, John (1672). Canon Chronicus.
- Redford, D. B. (1993). Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. ISBN 0-691-00086-7.
- Reinhold, K. L. (1778). Hebräischen Mysterien oder die älteste religiöse Freymaurerey. (The Hebrew Mysteries or The Oldest Form of Freemasonry) under the pseudonym Decius
- Spencer, John (1685). De Legibus Hebraeorum, Ritualibus et earum Rationibus libri tres. Cambridge.
- Sutcliffe, Adam (2005). Judaism and Enlightenment. ISBN 0-521-67232-5.