He is infamously known for his kiss and betrayal of Jesus to the hands of the chief Sanhedrin priests in exchange for a payment of thirty silver coins. Though there are varied accounts of his death, the traditional version sees him as having hanged himself out of remorse following his betrayal. His place among the Twelve Apostles was later filled by Matthias.
His name is often used to accuse someone of betrayal, and is sometimes confused with Saint Jude Thaddeus.
In the Greek New Testament, Judas is called Ιούδας Ισκάριωθ and Ισκαριώτης. "Judas" (spelled "Ioudas" in ancient Greek and "Iudas" in Latin, pronounced yudas in both) is the Greek form of the common name Judah (יהודה, Yehûdâh, Hebrew for "God is praised"). The Greek spelling underlies other names in the New Testament that are traditionally rendered differently in English: Judah and Jude. The significance of "Iscariot" is uncertain. There are several major theories on etymology:
- One popular explanation derives Iscariot from Hebrew איש־קריות, Îš-Qrîyôth, or "man of Kerioth". The Gospel of John refers to Judas as "son of Simon Iscariot" (although the biblical text only refers to him as "the son of Simon" (Jn 6:71, Jn 13:26, King James Version)), implying it was not Judas, but his father, who came from there. Some speculate that Kerioth refers to a region in Judea, but it is also the name of two known Judean towns.
- A second theory is that "Iscariot" identifies Judas as a member of the sicarii. These were a cadre of assassins among Jewish rebels intent on driving the Romans out of Judea. However, some historians maintain the sicarii arose in the 40s or 50s of the 1st century, in which case Judas could not have been a member.
- A third possibility advanced by Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg is that Iscariot means "the liar" or "the false one," perhaps from the Hebrew אִשְׁקַרְיָא.
- Fourth, some have proposed that the word derives from an Aramaic word meaning "red color," from the root סקר.
- Fifth, the word derives from one of the Aramaic roots סכר or סגר. This would mean "to deliver," based on the LXX rendering of Isaiah 19:4a—a theory advanced by J. Alfred Morin.
- Finally, the epithet could be associated with the manner of Judas' death, i.e., hanging. This would mean Iscariot derives from a kind of Greek-Aramaic hybrid: אִסְכַּרְיוּתָא, Iskarioutha, "chokiness" or "constriction." This might indicate that the epithet was applied posthumously by the remaining disciples, but Joan E. Taylor has argued that it was a descriptive name given to Judas by Jesus, since other disciples such as Simon Peter/Cephas (Kephas = "rock") were also given such names.
Biblical narrative 
Mark states that the chief priests were looking for a sly way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast since they were afraid that people would riot; instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. In the Gospel of Luke, Satan enters Judas at this time.
According to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag. He betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver" by identifying him with a kiss — "the kiss of Judas" — to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers.
There are a few descriptions of the death of Judas, two of which are included in the modern Biblical canon:
- Matthew 27:3–10 says that Judas returned the money to the priests and committed suicide by hanging himself. They used it to buy the potter's field. The Gospel account presents this as a fulfillment of prophecy.
- The Acts of the Apostles says that Judas used the money to buy a field, but fell headfirst, and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. This field is called Akeldama or Field of Blood.
- The non-canonical Gospel of Judas says Judas had a vision of the disciples stoning and persecuting him.
- Another account was preserved by the early Christian leader, Papias: "Judas walked about in this world a sad example of impiety; for his body having swollen to such an extent that he could not pass where a chariot could pass easily, he was crushed by the chariot, so that his bowels gushed out."
The existence of conflicting accounts of the death of Judas has caused problems for scholars who have seen them as threatening the reliability of Scripture. This problem was one of the points causing C. S. Lewis, for example, to reject the view "that every statement in Scripture must be historical truth". Various attempts at harmonization have been suggested, such as that of Augustine that Judas hanged himself in the field, and the rope eventually snapped and the fall burst his body open, or that the accounts of Acts and Matthew refer to two different transactions.
Modern scholars tend to reject these approaches stating that the Matthew account is a midrashic exposition that allows the author to present the event as a fulfillment of prophetic passages from the Old Testament. They argue that the author adds imaginative details such as the thirty pieces of silver, and the fact that Judas hangs himself, to an earlier tradition about Judas' death.
Matthew's description of the death as fulfilment of a prophecy "spoken through Jeremiah the prophet" has caused difficulties, since it does not clearly correspond to any known version of the Book of Jeremiah but does appear to refer to a story from the Book of Zechariah which describes the return of a payment of thirty pieces of silver. Even writers such as Jerome and John Calvin concluded that this was obviously an error.
More recently, scholars have suggested that the Gospel writer may also have had a passage from Jeremiah in mind, such as chapters and which refers to a potter's jar and a burial place, and chapter which refers to a burial place and an earthenware jar. Raymond Brown suggested, "the most plausible [explanation] is that Matthew 27:9–0 is presenting a mixed citation with words taken both from Zechariah and Jeremiah, and ...he refers to that combination by one name. Jeremiah 18–9 concerns a potter (18:2–; 19:1), a purchase (19:1), the Valley of Hinnom (where the Field of Blood is traditionally located, 19:2), ‘innocent blood’(19:4), and the renaming of a place for burial (19:6, 11); and Jer 32:6–5 tells of the purchase of a field with silver." Randel Helms gives this as an example of the 'fictional and imaginative' use by early Christians of the Old Testament: "Matthew's source has blended Jeremiah's buying of a field and placing the deed in a pot with Zechariah's casting of thirty pieces of silver down in the temple and the purchase of the Potter's Field. The story of Judas's actions after the betrayal is one of the most revealing examples of the early Christians' fictional and imaginative use of the Old Testament as a book about Jesus. "
Betrayal of Jesus 
There are several explanations as to why Judas betrayed Jesus. A prevalent explanation is that Judas betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver (Matthew 26:14–16). One of Judas's main weaknesses seemed to be money (John 12:4–6). A possibility is that Judas expected Jesus to overthrow Roman rule of Israel. In this view, Judas is a disillusioned disciple betraying Jesus not so much because he loved money, but because he loved his country and thought Jesus had failed it. According to Luke 22:3–6 and John 13:27, Satan entered into him and called him to do it.
The Gospels suggest that Jesus foresaw (John 6:64, Matthew 26:25) and allowed Judas's betrayal (John 13:27–28). One explanation is that Jesus allowed the betrayal because it would allow God's plan to be fulfilled. Another is that regardless of the betrayal, Jesus was ultimately destined for crucifixion. In April 2006, a Coptic papyrus manuscript titled the Gospel of Judas from 200 AD was translated, suggesting that Jesus told Judas to betray him, although some scholars question the translation.
Origen knew of a tradition according to which the greater circle of disciples betrayed Jesus, but does not attribute this to Judas in particular, and Origen did not deem Judas to be thoroughly corrupt (Matt., tract. xxxv).
Judas is the subject of philosophical writings, including The Problem of Natural Evil by Bertrand Russell and "Three Versions of Judas", a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. They allege various problematic ideological contradictions with the discrepancy between Judas's actions and his eternal punishment. John S. Feinberg argues that if Jesus foresees Judas's betrayal, then the betrayal is not an act of free will, and therefore should not be punishable. Conversely, it is argued that just because the betrayal was foretold, it does not prevent Judas from exercising his own free will in this matter. Other scholars argue that Judas acted in obedience to God's will. The gospels suggest that Judas is apparently bound up with the fulfillment of God's purposes (John 13:18, John 17:12, Matthew 26:23–25, Luke 22:21–22, Matt 27:9–10, Acts 1:16, Acts 1:20), yet woe is upon him, and he would have been better unborn (Matthew 26:23–25). The difficulty inherent in the saying is its paradoxicality: if Judas had not been born, the Son of Man will apparently no longer go "as it is written of him." The consequence of this apologetic approach is that Judas's actions come to be seen as necessary and unavoidable, yet leading to condemnation.
Erasmus believed that Judas was free to change his intention, but Martin Luther argued in rebuttal that Judas's will was immutable. John Calvin states that Judas was predestined to damnation, but writes on the question of Judas's guilt: "surely in Judas' betrayal, it will be no more right, because God himself willed that his son be delivered up and delivered him up to death, to ascribe the guilt of the crime to God than to transfer the credit for redemption to Judas."
It is speculated that Judas's damnation, which seems possible from the Gospels' text, may not stem from his betrayal of Christ, but from the despair which caused him to subsequently commit suicide. This position is not without its problems since Judas was already damned by Jesus even before he committed suicide (see John 17:12), but it does avoid the paradox of Judas's predestined act setting in motion both the salvation of all mankind and his own damnation. The damnation of Judas is not a universal conclusion, and some have argued that there is no indication that Judas was condemned with eternal punishment. Others argue Judas had the free will to accept or reject Christ anytime before his death. Adam Clarke writes: "he [Judas] committed a heinous act of sin...but he repented (Matthew 27:3–5) and did what he could to undo his wicked act: he had committed the sin unto death, i.e. a sin that involves the death of the body; but who can say, (if mercy was offered to Christ's murderers? (Luke 23:34)...) that the same mercy could not be extended to wretched Judas?..."
Modern interpretations 
Most Christians still consider Judas a traitor. Indeed the term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer.
American philosopher Will Durant argues that the early Church would never create material that only embarrassed the followers of Jesus, or weakened its position with opponents (in this case, a traitor apostle).
Some have embraced the alternative notion that Judas was merely the negotiator in a prearranged prisoner exchange (following the money-changer riot in the Temple) that gave Jesus to the Roman authorities by mutual agreement, and that Judas's later portrayal as "traitor" was a historical distortion.
In his book The Passover Plot the British theologian Hugh J. Schonfield argues that the crucifixion of Christ was a conscious re-enactment of Biblical prophecy and Judas acted with Jesus' full knowledge and consent in "betraying" his master to the authorities.
Theologian Aaron Saari contends in his work The Many Deaths of Judas Iscariot that Judas Iscariot was the literary invention of the Markan community. As Judas does not appear in the Epistles of Paul, nor in the Q Gospel, Saari argues that the language indicates a split between Pauline Christians, who saw no reason for the establishment of an organized Church, and the followers of Peter. Saari contends that the denigration of Judas in Matthew and Luke-Acts has a direct correlation to the elevation of Peter.
Further evidence of the absence of the Judas story in the earliest Christian documents is drawn on the basis of Matthew 19:28 and Luke 22:28–30. Here Jesus tells his disciples that they will “sit on the twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” No exception is made for Judas even though Jesus was aware of his impending act of betrayal. The answer may lie in the fact that the source of these verses could be the hypothetical Q document (QS 62). Q is thought to predate the gospels and would be one of the earliest Christian documents. Given that possibility, the betrayal story could have been invented by the writer of Mark. The book The Sins of the Scripture, by John Shelby Spong, investigates the possibility that early Christians compiled the Judas story from three Old Testament Jewish betrayal stories. He writes, "...the act of betrayal by a member of the twelve disciples is not found in the earliest Christian writings. Judas is first placed into the Christian story by the Gospel of Mark (3:19), who wrote in the early years of the eighth decade of the Common Era." He points out that some of the Gospels, after the Crucifixion, refer to the number of Disciples as "Twelve", as if Judas were still among them. He compares the three conflicting descriptions of Judas's death — hanging, leaping into a pit, and disemboweling — with three Old Testament betrayals followed by similar suicides.
Spong's conclusion is that early Bible authors, after the First Jewish-Roman War, sought to distance themselves from Rome's enemies. They augmented the Gospels with a story of a disciple, personified in Judas as the Jewish state, who either betrayed or handed over Jesus to his Roman crucifiers. Spong identifies this augmentation with the origin of modern Anti-Semitism.
Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby, suggests that in the New Testament, the name "Judas" was constructed as an attack on the Judaeans or on the Judaean religious establishment held responsible for executing Christ. The English word "Jew" is derived from the Latin Iudaeus, which, like the Greek Ιουδαίος (Ioudaios), could also mean "Judaean".
Role in apocrypha 
Judas has been a figure of great interest to esoteric groups, such as many Gnostic sects. Irenaeus records the beliefs of one Gnostic sect, the Cainites, who believed that Judas was an instrument of the Sophia, Divine Wisdom, thus earning the hatred of the Demiurge. In the Hebrew Bible, the book of Zechariah, the one who casts thirty pieces of silver, as Judas does in the Gospels, is a servant of God. His betrayal of Jesus thus was a victory over the materialist world. The Cainites later split into two groups, disagreeing over the ultimate significance of Jesus in their cosmology.
Gospel of Judas 
During the 1970s, a Coptic papyrus codex (book) was discovered near Beni Masah, Egypt which appeared to be a 3rd- or 4th-century-AD copy of a 2nd-century original, describing the story of Jesus's death from the viewpoint of Judas. At its conclusion, the text identifies itself as "the Gospel of Judas" (Euangelion Ioudas).
The discovery was given dramatic international exposure in April 2006 when the US National Geographic magazine (for its May edition) published a feature article entitled The Gospel of Judas with images of the fragile codex and analytical commentary by relevant experts and interested observers (but not a comprehensive translation). The article's introduction stated: "An ancient text lost for 1,700 years says Christ's betrayer was his truest disciple". The article points to some evidence that the original document was extant in the 2nd century: "Around A.D. 180, Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon in what was then Roman Gaul, wrote a massive treatise called Against Heresies [in which he attacked] a 'fictitious history,' which 'they style the Gospel of Judas.'"
Before the magazine's edition was circulated, other news media gave exposure to the story, abridging and selectively reporting it.
In December 2007, a New York Times op-ed article by April DeConick asserted that the National Geographic's translation is badly flawed: For example, in one instance the National Geographic transcription refers to Judas as a "daimon", which the society’s experts have translated as "spirit". However, the universally accepted word for "spirit" is "pneuma" — in Gnostic literature "daimon" is always taken to mean "demon". The National Geographic Society responded that "Virtually all issues April D. DeConick raises about translation choices are addressed in footnotes in both the popular and critical editions". In a later review of the issues and relevant publications, critic Joan Acocella questioned whether ulterior intentions had not begun to supersede historical analysis, e.g., whether publication of The Gospel of Judas could be an attempt to roll back ancient anti-semitic imputations. She concluded that the ongoing clash between scriptural fundamentalism and attempts at revision were childish because of the unreliability of the sources. Therefore, she argued, "People interpret, and cheat. The answer is not to fix the Bible but to fix ourselves." Other scholars have questioned the initial translation and interpretation of the Gospel of Judas by the National Geographic team of experts.
Gospel of Barnabas 
According to medieval copies (the earliest copies from the 15th century) of the Gospel of Barnabas it was Judas, not Jesus, who was crucified on the cross. This work states that Judas's appearance was transformed to that of Jesus', when the former, out of betrayal, led the Roman soldiers to arrest Jesus who by then was ascended to the heavens. This transformation of appearance was so identical that the masses, followers of Christ, and even the Mother of Jesus, Mary, initially thought that the one arrested and crucified was Jesus himself. The gospel then mentions that after three days since burial, Judas's body was stolen from his grave, and then the rumors spread of Jesus being risen from the dead. When Jesus was informed in the third heaven about what happened, he prayed to God to be sent back to the earth, and descended and gathered his mother, disciples, and followers, and told them the truth of what happened. He then ascended back to the heavens, and will come back at the end of times as a just king.
Representations and symbolism 
The term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer, and Judas has become the archetype of the traitor in Western art and literature. Judas is given some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story, and appears in a number of modern novels and movies.
In the Eastern Orthodox hymns of Holy Wednesday (the Wednesday before Pascha), Judas is contrasted with the woman who anointed Jesus with expensive perfume and washed his feet with her tears. According to the Gospel of John, Judas protested at this apparent extravagance, suggesting that the money spent on it should have been given to the poor. After this, Judas went to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus for money. The hymns of Holy Wednesday contrast these two figures, encouraging believers to avoid the example of the fallen disciple and instead to imitate Mary's example of repentance. Also, Wednesday is observed as a day of fasting from meat, dairy products, and olive oil throughout the year in memory of the betrayal of Judas. The prayers of preparation for receiving the Eucharist also make mention of Judas's betrayal: "I will not reveal your mysteries to your enemies, neither like Judas will I betray you with a kiss, but like the thief on the cross I will confess you."
Judas Iscariot is often represented with red hair in Spanish culture and by William Shakespeare. The practice is comparable to the Renaissance portrayal of Jews with red hair, which was then regarded as a negative trait and which may have been used to correlate Judas Iscariot with contemporary Jews.
Art and literature 
Judas has become the archetype of the betrayer in Western culture, with some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story.
- Judas is the subject of one of the oldest surviving English ballads, which dates from the 13th century. In "Judas", the blame for the betrayal of Christ is placed on his sister.
- In Dante's Inferno, he is condemned to the circle for traitors, where he is one of three sinners chewed for eternity in the mouths of the triple-headed Satan, alongside Brutus and Cassius.
- In art, one of the most famous depictions of Judas Iscariot and his kiss of betrayal of Jesus is The Taking of Christ by Italian baroque artist Caravaggio, done in 1602.
- In Memoirs of Judas (1867) by Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina, he is seen as a leader of the Jewish revolt against the rule of Romans.
- Edward Elgar's oratorio, The Apostles, depicts Judas as wanting to force Jesus to declare his divinity and establish the kingdom on earth.
- Trial of Christ in Seven Stages (1909) by John Brayshaw Kaye is a defence of Judas, in which he adds his own vision to the biblical account of the story of the trial before the Sanhedrin and Caiaphas.
- In Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita, Judas is paid by the high priest of Judaea to testify against Jesus, who had been inciting trouble among the people of Jerusalem. After authorizing the crucifixion, Pilate suffers an agony of regret and turns his anger on Judas, ordering him assassinated. The story-within-a-story appears as a counter-revolutionary novel in the context of Moscow in the 1920s–1930s.
- Tres versiones de Judas (English title: '"Three Versions of Judas"') is a short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. It was included in Borges' anthology, Ficciones, published in 1944, and revolves around the main character's doubts about the canonical story of Judas who instead creates three alternative versions.
- The film King of Kings presents Judas betraying Jesus as a means to force an attack on the Romans, rather than Jesus' death: "I will force his hand! When he feels the Roman sword at his throat he will smite them down with the wave of one arm."
- In The Last Days of Judas Iscariot, a play by Stephen Adly Guirgis, Judas is given a trial in Purgatory.
- In Dracula 2000, it is suggested that the legendary vampire is actually Judas Iscariot, who, after his betrayal of Christ, hanged himself at dawn the day after he handed Christ over to the Roman authorities, to embrace death but was cursed by God for his actions. This version attempts to explain why vampires in folklore have aversions to Christian relics (for betraying Christ), stakes (for the spikes that were used to nail Christ's hands and feet to the cross), silver (for the 30 silver he accepted) and sunlight (for hanging himself at dawn).
- In the TV movie Judas, Judas sincerely took Jesus as the future King of Israel, but when Jesus refused to take real action to depose the Romans became disappointed and finally betrayed the man he thought would lead them to victory.
- In C. K. Stead's novel My Name Was Judas, Judas, who was then known as Idas of Sidon, recounts the story of Jesus and recalled by him some forty years later.
- The American recording artist Lady Gaga explained that her song "Judas" (2011) is a metaphor and an analogy about forgiveness and betrayal and things that haunt you in your life.
See also 
- Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:42, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:47, John 13:18, John 18:1
- John 6:71 and John 13:26
- Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony, Eerdmans (2006), p. 106.
- New English Translation Bible, n. 11 in Matthew 11.
- Bastiaan van Iersel, Mark: A Reader-Response Commentary, Continuum International (1998), p. 167.
- Brown, Raymond E. (1994). The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels v.1 pp. 688–92. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-49448-3; Meier, John P. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus (2001). v. 3, p. 210. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-46993-4.
- Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)," pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 369. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
- Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)," pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 370. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
- Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)," pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 379–383. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
- "BibleGateway.com – Passage Lookup: Luke 22:3". BibleGateway. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
- John 12:6
- Matthew 26:14
- Acts 1:18.
- Gospel of Judas 44–45.
- (Papias Fragment 3, 1742–1744).
- Zwiep, Arie W. Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26. p. 109.
- letter to Clyde S. Kilby, 7 May 1959, quoted in Michael J. Christensen, C. S. Lewis on Scripture, Abingdon, 1979, Appendix A.
- "Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Judas". christnotes.org. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
- "The purchase of "the potter's field", Appendix 161 of the Companion Bible". Retrieved 2008-02-15.
- Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 114.
- Charles Talbert, Reading Acts: A Literary and Theological Commentary, Smyth & Helwys (2005) p. 15.
- Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary, Eerdmans (2004), p. 703.
- Reed, David A. (2005). ""Saving Judas"—A social Scientific Approach to Judas’s Suicide in Matthew 27:3–10" (PDF). Biblical Theology Bulletin. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
- Vincent P. Branick, Understanding the New Testament and Its Message, (Paulist Press, 1998), pp. 126–128.
- Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary (Eerdmans, 2004), p. 710; Jerome, Epistolae 57.7: "This passage is not found in Jeremiah but in Zechariah, in quite different words and a different order" ; John Calvin, Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark and Luke, 3:177: "The passage itself plainly shows that the name of Jeremiah has been put down by mistake, instead of Zechariah, for in Jeremiah we find nothing of this sort, nor any thing that even approaches to it." .
- Donald Senior, The Passion of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (Liturgical Press, 1985), pp. 107–108; Anthony Cane, The Place of Judas Iscariot in Christology (Ashgate Publishing, 2005), p. 50.
- See also Maarten JJ Menken, 'The Old Testament Quotation in Matthew 27,9–10', Biblica 83 (2002): 9–10.
- Brown, Raymond (December 1, 1998). The Death of the Messiah, From Gethsemane to the Grave, Volume 1: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels. Yale University Press. p. 912. ISBN 0300140096.
- p116 of chapter vi, ' The Passion Narrative ' from " Gospel fictions " by Randel Helms, published 1988 by Prometheus Books
- Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVaristy Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1.
- Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVaristy Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1.
- Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26, Arie W. Zwiep. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- Did Judas betray Jesus Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, April 2006
- Associated Press, "Ancient Manuscript Suggests Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him," Fox News Thursday, 6 April 2006.
- André Gagné, "A Critical Note on the Meaning of APOPHASIS in Gospel of Judas 33:1." Laval théologique et philosophique 63 (2007): 377–83.
- Deconick, April D. (December 1, 2007). "Gospel Truth". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- John S. Feinberg, David Basinger (2001). Predestination & free will: four views of divine sovereignty & human freedom. Kregel Publications. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8254-3489-1.
- John Phillips (1986). Exploring the gospel of John: an expository commentary. InterVaristy Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-87784-567-6.
- Authenticating the activities of Jesus, Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- The place of Judas Iscariot in christology, Anthony Cane. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature, David L. Jeffrey. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature, David L. Jeffrey. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- "Judas Iscariot-In Heaven or in Hell?". Tentmaker.org. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ: the text ... Volume 1, Adam Clarke. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
- Durant, Will. Christ and Caesar. Simon & Schuster, 1972, p. 557.
- Dirk Grützmacher : The "Betrayal" of Judas Iscariot : a study into the origins of Christianity and post-temple Judaism, Edinburgh 1998 (Thesis (M.Phil) --University of Edinburgh, 1999).
- Saari, Aaron Maurice. The Many Deaths of Judas Iscariot: A Meditation on Suicide London: Routledge, 2006.
- Cable L W Judas Iscariot, Betrayer or Enabler, Fact or Fiction? in Sceptics Corner essay collection
- Q 22:28,30 By Paul Hoffmann, Stefan H. Brandenburger, Christoph Heil, Ulrike Brauner, International Q Project, Thomas.
- Jesus, apocalyptic prophet of the new millennium By Bart D. Ehrman.
- Hyam Maccoby, Antisemitism And Modernity, Routledge 2006, p. 14.
- Timeline of early Christianity at National Geographic
- Judas 'helped Jesus save mankind' BBC News, 7 May 2006 (following National Geographic publication)
- Cockburn A The Gospel of Judas National Geographic (USA) May 2006
- Cockburn A at page 3
- Deconick A D Gospel Truth New York Times 1 December 2007
- Statement from National Geographic in Response to April DeConick's New York Times Op-Ed "Gospel Truth"
- Acocella J Betrayal: Should we hate Judas Iscariot? The New Yorker 3 August 2009
- pelo de Judas ("Judas hair") in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.
- Page 314 of article Red Hair from Bentley's Miscellany, July 1851. The eclectic magazine of foreign literature, science, and art, Volumen 2; Volumen 23, Leavitt, Trow, & Co., 1851.
- Page 256 of Letters from Spain, Joseph Blanco White, H. Colburn, 1825.
- Judas colour in page 473 of A glossary: or, Collection of words, phrases, names, and allusions to customs, proverbs, etc., which have been thought to require illustration, in the words of English authors, particularly Shakespeare, and his contemporaries, Volumen 1. Robert Nares, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, Thomas Wright. J.R. Smith, 1859
- Judas's Red Hair and The Jews, Journal of Jewish Art (9), 1982, Melinnkoff R.M
- Dante's Inferno - Circle 9 - Cantos 31-34
- NGA - Caravaggio's The Taking of Christ
- Baldassare Labanca, Gesù Cristo nella letteratura contemporanea, straniera e italiana, Fratelli Bocca, 1903, p.240
- Edward Elgar and His World (bookISBN 978-0-691-13446-8), Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 140–141, Unknown parameter
|editorn-first=ignored (help); Unknown parameter
- The Magazine of poetry, Volume 2, Issues 1–4 (1890) Charles Wells Moulton, Buffalo, New York 
- Equinox - Books - Book Details
- Komar, George. "FSM: King of Kings (Miklós Rózsa)". Film Score Monthly. Retrieved 2012-Apr-09. "So he betrays Jesus in order to force Jesus’ hand to use his miraculous powers to defeat the Romans."
- The New York Times http://theater.nytimes.com/mem/theater/treview.html?res=9B06E0DB133DF930A35750C0A9639C8B63
|url=missing title (help).
- Holden, Stephen (2000-12-23). "FILM REVIEW; Those Wacky, Drooling, Foaming, Biting Undead". The New York Times.
- Diski, Jenny (2006-11-17). "Review: My Name Was Judas by CK Stead". The Guardian (London).
- Ritchie, Kevin (2011-04-26). "Pop culture as religion: Lady Gaga explains the controversial biblical imagery in her upcoming music video "Judas"". MSN. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2011-06-13. Retrieved 2011-04-27.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Judas Iscariot|
- The Prophecy of Judas in Psalm 41 Video
- Judas Iscariot: Catholic Encyclopedia article published 1910
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Judas Iscariot
- Gospel Truth