While Judenfrei referred merely to "freeing" an area of all of its Jewish citizens, the term Judenrein (literally "clean of Jews") was also used. This had the stronger connotation that any trace of Jewish blood had been removed as an impurity.
Locations declared Judenfrei
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Establishments, villages, cities, and regions were declared Judenfrei after they were ethnically cleansed of Jews.
- Gelnhausen, Germany – reported Judenfrei on November 1, 1938 by propaganda newspaper Kinzigwacht after its synagogue was closed and remaining local Jews forced to leave the town.
- Erlangen, Germany was declared "judenfrei" in 1944.
- German-occupied Bydgoszcz (Poland) – reported Judenfrei in December 1939
- German-occupied Luxembourg – reported Judenfrei by the press on October 17, 1941.
- German-occupied Estonia – December 1941. Reported as Judenfrei at the Wannsee Conference on January 20, 1942.
- German-occupied Serbia/Belgrade – August 1942
- Vienna – reported Judenfrei by Alois Brunner on October 9, 1942
- Berlin, Germany – May 19, 1943
Usage in Israeli–Palestinian conflict
In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a fear among many Israelis which has been reflected by Israeli government officials such as Benjamin Netanyahu is that the proposed removal of Israeli Jewish settlements in the West Bank according to the wishes of Palestinian officials is tantamount to rendering areas of Judea and Samaria as Judenrein, or clean of Jews.
- Holocaust Glossary: Terms, Places, and Personalities
- Aryanization: Judenrein & Judenfrei
- Commémoration de la Shoah au Luxembourg
- Extract from Report by Einsatzgruppe A
- Museum of Tolerance Multimedia Learning Center
- Final Solution (New York, 1985), p. 77; Walter Manoschek, "Serbien ist judenfrei".
- Dan Williams (Thu Jul 9, 2009 12:58pm EDT). "Judenrein! Israel adopts Nazi term to back settlers". Reuters.
- This Google search shows examples of the word 'Judenrein' used in Middle East contexts.