|Publisher||IPC Media (Fleetway) to 1999, thereafter Rebellion Developments|
|First appearance||2000 AD No. 2 (5 March 1977)|
|Created by||John Wagner (writer)
Carlos Ezquerra (artist)
Pat Mills (editor)
|Full name||Joseph Dredd|
|Team affiliations||Mega-City One Justice Department
Academy of Law
Luna 1 Justice Department
|Notable aliases||The Dead Man|
Expert in unarmed combat
Bionic eyes grant 20/20 night vision and reduced blinking rate
Judge Joseph Dredd is a fictional character whose comic strip in the British science fiction anthology 2000 AD is the magazine's longest running, having been featured since its second issue in 1977. Dredd is an American law enforcement officer in a violent city of the future where uniformed Judges are empowered to arrest, sentence, and if necessary execute criminals at the scene of crime. The character was created by writer John Wagner and artist Carlos Ezquerra, with contributions to his early development by editor Pat Mills.
Judge Dredd is amongst the UK's best known comic characters. So great is the character's name recognition that his name is sometimes invoked over similar issues to those explored by the comic series, such as the police state, authoritarianism, and the rule of law. Judge Dredd was named the Seventh Greatest Comic Character by the British magazine Empire. In 2011, IGN ranked him 35th in the Top 100 Comic Book Heroes.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Character and appearance
- 3 Villains
- 4 The Judge system
- 5 Dredd's world
- 6 Major Judge Dredd storylines
- 7 List of stories
- 8 Alternative versions
- 9 In other media
- 10 In popular culture
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
When Pat Mills was developing 2000 AD in 1976, he brought in his former writing partner, John Wagner, to develop characters. Wagner had written various Dirty Harry-style "tough cop" stories for other titles, and suggested a character who took that concept to its logical extreme. Mills had developed a horror strip called Judge Dread but abandoned the idea as unsuitable for the new comic; but the name, with the spelling modified to "Dredd" at the suggestion of sub-editor Kelvin Gosnell, was adopted by Wagner.
The task of visualising the character was given to Carlos Ezquerra, a Spanish artist who had worked for Mills before on Battle Picture Weekly. Wagner gave Ezquerra an advertisement for the film Death Race 2000, showing the character Frankenstein (played by David Carradine) clad in black leather on a motorbike, as a suggestion of Dredd's appearance. Ezquerra added body-armour, zips, and chains, which Wagner initially declined. Wagner's initial script was rewritten by Mills and drawn up by Ezquerra. The hardware and cityscapes Ezquerra had drawn were far more futuristic than the near-future setting originally intended; in response, Mills set the story further into the future.[note 1]
By this stage, Wagner had quit, disillusioned that a proposed buy-out of the new comic by another company (which would have given him and Mills a greater financial stake in the comic) had fallen through. Mills was reluctant to lose "Judge Dredd" and farmed the strip out to a variety of freelance writers, hoping to develop it further. Their scripts were given to a variety of artists as Mills tried to find a strip which would provide a good introduction to the character. This "Judge Dredd" would not be ready for the first issue of 2000 AD, launched in February 1977.
The story chosen to introduce the character was submitted by Peter Harris, and was then extensively re-written by Mills.[note 2] It was drawn by newcomer Mike McMahon. The strip debuted in "prog" (issue) No. 2, but Ezquerra, angry that another artist had drawn the first published strip, quit and returned to work for Battle. Wagner soon returned to the character, starting in prog 9. His "Robot Wars" storyline was drawn by a rotating team of artists (including Ezquerra), and marked the point where Dredd became the most popular character in the comic, a position he has rarely relinquished. Judge Dredd has appeared in almost every issue since, most of the stories written by Wagner (in collaboration with Alan Grant between 1980 and 1988).
Since 1990 Dredd has also had his own title, the Judge Dredd Megazine. With Wagner concentrating his energies on that, the Dredd strip in 2000 AD was left to younger writers, including Garth Ennis, Mark Millar, Grant Morrison and John Smith. Their stories were not popular with fans, and sales fell. Wagner returned to writing the character full-time in 1994.
Judge Dredd has also been published in a long-running comic strip (1981–1998) in the Daily Star, and briefly in Metro from January – April 2004. These were usually created by the same teams writing and drawing the main strip, and the Daily Star strips have been collected into a number of volumes.
Character and appearance
Joseph Dredd is the most famous of the Street Judges that patrol Mega-City One, charged to instantly convict, sentence, and execute offenders. Dredd is armed with a "Lawgiver" pistol (programmed to recognise only his palm-print, and capable of six types of ammunition), a daystick, a knife and stun or gas grenades. His helmet obscures his face, except for his mouth and jaw. He rides a large "Lawmaster" motorcycle equipped with machine-guns, a powerful laser cannon, and full artificial intelligence capable of responding to orders from the Judge and operating itself.
Dredd's entire face is never shown in the strip. This began as an unofficial guideline, but soon became a rule. As John Wagner explained: "It sums up the facelessness of justice − justice has no soul. So it isn't necessary for readers to see Dredd's face, and I don't want you to".
On rare occasions, Dredd's face has been seen in flashbacks to his childhood; but these pictures lack detail. In an early story, Dredd is forced to remove his helmet and the other characters react as if he is disfigured; but his face was covered by a faux censorship sticker. In prog 52, during Dredd's tenure on the Lunar Colonies, he uses a 'face-change' machine to impersonate the crooked lawyer of a gang of bank robbers.
In Carlos Ezquerra's original design, Dredd had large lips, "to put a mystery as to his racial background". Not all of the artists who worked on the strip were told of this. Mike McMahon drew Dredd as a black man, while Brian Bolland and Ron Smith drew him as white. The strip was not yet printed in colour, and this went unnoticed. The idea was finally dropped.
Time passes in the Judge Dredd strip in real time, so as a year passes in life, a year passes in the comic. The first Dredd story, published in 1977, was set in 2099, whilst stories published in 2014 are set in 2136. Consequently, as former editor Alan McKenzie explains, "every year that goes by Dredd gets a year older – unlike Spider-Man, who has been a university student for the past twenty-five years!". Therefore Dredd is over seventy years old, with over fifty years of active service (2079–2136), and for some time characters in the comic have been mentioning that Dredd is not as young and fit as formerly. This remains a theme of many stories, and in prog 1595 (2008) Dredd was diagnosed with benign cancer of the duodenum. It is not known whether there are any long term plans to address this issue (although Mega-City One has cloning and brain transplant technology). In an interview with Empire in 2012 Wagner said: "There could be many ways to end it, but the probability is that I won’t still be around when it happens! I would love to write it, but I can’t see it happening. I’ll leave the script in my will."
Fictional character biography
Senior Judge Joseph Dredd and his brother Rico Dredd were cloned from the DNA of Chief Judge Fargo, the first chief judge, in 2066. Their growth was artificially accelerated until an apparent physiological age of 5, with all the appropriate knowledge for their age electronically implanted in their brains during gestation. The name 'Dredd' was chosen by the genetic scientist who created them, Morton Judd, to "instill fear in the population". As cadets during Atomic Wars, they were temporarily made full Judges to restore order to the panic-stricken streets. Distinguishing themselves, they were chosen to take part in assaulting the White House when the Justice Department deposed President Booth. They were later educated at the Academy of Law, Joseph graduating second in his class while Rico came first. Later that year, Joseph was forced to arrest Rico for murder and corruption. Offered the opportunity to become chief judge in 2101, Dredd declined, preferring to serve on the streets enforcing the law. On several occasions he saved his city from conquest or destruction by powerful enemies, and in 2114, he saved the story's entire world during the Fourth World War.
Although Dredd holds his duty above every other priority, this devotion is not blind. On two occasions (in 2099 and 2112), Dredd resigned from the force on points of principle, but both times returned. In 2113, Dredd insisted that the Justice Department gamble its very existence on a referendum to prove its legitimacy. In 2116, he risked 20 years' imprisonment with hard labour when he challenged the policy of a chief judge; and in 2129, he threatened to resign to persuade another chief judge to change the city's harsh anti-mutant laws.
After fifty years of active service, Dredd's career may be drawing to a close. In 2130, he was diagnosed with cancer, though it was accounted operable. In 2132, Dredd was appointed to the Council of Five, Mega-City One's highest governing body, on which he served for two years.
Family and associates
- Rico Dredd: Soon after becoming a judge, Dredd's clone 'brother' Rico became corrupt, forcing Joseph to imprison him. Twenty years later, Rico sought revenge, and Joseph Dredd was required to kill him.
- Judge Kraken: He is another clone brother from the same stock as Joseph and Rico Dredd, but from a later batch produced by a rogue operator.
- Vienna: Dredd has a niece, Vienna, fathered by Rico in jail. Dredd has gone out of his way to save her on occasion.
- Judge Rico: Dredd himself has been cloned. One such clone, who adopted "Rico" as a surname, is often mistaken for Dredd. Judge Rico eventually inherited Dredd's apartment at Rowdy Yates Block.
- Dolman: One more Dredd clone, formerly a trainee judge and member of the MC1 Space Corps.
- Cadet Paris: A recent addition to the family – an SRY depleted female clone of Dredd.
- Judge Anderson: For years, Dredd had a close but uneasy friendship with Cassandra Anderson of Psi Division, which came to an end when Anderson briefly abandoned the law. Later, Dredd denied this friendship, but he re-affirmed it after her injury.
- Judge Hershey: Dredd has known Chief Judge Hershey since 2102; like all chief judges since Goodman, he has easy access to her, but they also have a personal relationship based on mutual respect. Dredd believes her to be "the best chief judge we've ever had".
- Walter the Wobot and Maria: Dredd used to share his flat with a domestic robot called Walter the Wobot, who performed all his domestic chores. Dredd also had a landlady called Maria. In later years, Dredd parted company with both Walter and Maria.
- Galen DeMarco was a judge infatuated with Dredd. This breach of regulations led to her resignation from the force. Dredd tried to help her adjust to civilian life; but when he further rejected her advances, she eventually severed contact.
- Fargo clan: Revealed in 2006 was the existence of a whole town occupied by the mutated descendants of Ephram Fargo, the twin brother of Chief Judge Eustace Fargo. These mutants, who share the common mutation of an overly large, exaggerated chin, are thus genetic relatives of Judge Dredd himself, and consider him a "cousin". This led to Dredd campaigning to have Mega-City One's mutant segregation laws repealed.
- Judge Beeny is a teenage judge who (since 2007) Dredd has taken as his protégée.
- Judge Morphy was Dredd's mentor at the beginning of his career, until he was killed in the line of duty.
Numerous infamous criminals (or "perps" in the story's argot) have featured over the years, including:
The Judge system
Street Judges act as police, judge, jury, and executioner. Capital punishment in Mega-City One is rarely used, though deaths while resisting arrest are commonplace. Numerous writers have used the Judge System to satirize contemporary politics.
Judges, once appointed, can be broadly characterised as "Street Judges" (who patrol the city), and administrative, or office-based judges. Dredd was once offered the job of Chief Judge; but refused it. The incorruptibility of the Judges is supposedly maintained by the Special Judicial Squad, although SJS judges have themselves broken the law on occasion, most notably SJS head Judge Cal who killed the chief judge and usurped his office for himself. This 'Judge System' has spread world-wide, with various super-cities possessing similar methods of law enforcement. As such this political model has become the most common form of government on Earth, with only a few small areas practicing civilian rule. There is therefore an international "Judicial Charter" which countries and city states join upon instituting a Judge System.
The setting of Judge Dredd is a dystopian future Earth damaged by a series of international conflicts; much of the planet has become radioactive wasteland, and so populations have aggregated in enormous conurbations known as 'mega-cities'. The story is centred on the megalopolis of Mega-City One, on the east coast of North America. Within Mega-City One, extensive automation (including intelligent robots) has rendered the majority of the population unemployed. As a consequence, the general population is prone to embracing any fashion or craze they encounter. Mega-City One is surrounded by the inhospitable "Cursed Earth". Much of the remaining world's geography is somewhat vague, although other mega-cities are visited in the strip.
Mega-City One's population lives in gigantic towers known as City Blocks, each holding some fifty thousand people. Each is named after some historical person or TV character, usually for comic effect. For example, Joe Dredd used to live in the Rowdy Yates Block – Rowdy Yates was a character in the American TV cowboy drama Rawhide, played by a young Clint Eastwood. Eastwood would later play the lead in Dirty Harry – one of the thematic influences by which Judge Dredd was inspired. A number of stories feature rivalries between different blocks, on many occasions breaking into full-scale gun battles between them (most notably in "Block Mania"). The Judges' powers reflect the difficulty of maintaining order. Mega-City One extends from Boston to Charlotte; but extended further before the Apocalypse War. At its height, the city contained a population of about 800 million; after the Apocalypse War, it averaged at 400 million; following Chaos Day in 2134, the city was reduced to 50 million. The story Origins revealed that Mega-City One was formed by urban sprawl rather than deliberate design, and by 2051 it was recognised as the world's first mega-city.
There are four other major population centres in Dredd's Northern America: the first is Texas City, including several of the southern former United States and based on Wild West manners. South of the city is Mex-City. Far north is Uranium City. Canada remains a nation (now called Canadia) with scattered communities. Until 2114 Mega-City Two also existed on the West Coast, but was destroyed during the world war known as Judgement Day. Nuclear deserts and destruction elsewhere in the world are also extensive: Much of the north Atlantic is severely polluted, and is now known as the "Black Atlantic." An underwater settlement known as Atlantis exists in the Atlantic, half-way along a tunnel from Mega-City One to Brit-Cit (England).
Nuclear desert also stretches across western Europe. The British Isles are Brit-Cit, Cal-Hab (Scotland), and Murphyville in Ireland (a country-sized theme park depicting a stereotypical view of traditional Irish life). The continent has Euro-City (eastern France and part of Germany), Ciudad España (eastern Spain), the Ruhr and Berlin Conurbs in Germany, Vatican City, and a scattering of other city-states. Russia's East-Meg One was destroyed by Dredd at the climax of the Apocalypse War in 2104. Further east is East-Meg Two, which has other territories under the "Sov Block" banner. Mongolia, lacking a Mega-City or Judge system, has called itself the Mongolian Free State and criminals have flocked there for a safe haven; East-Meg Two performed vicious clearances there in 2125.
In Asia, separated from East-Meg Two by an extensive nuclear desert, are Sino-City One (destroyed during Judgement Day) and Sino-City Two in eastern China, with Hong Tong built in the remains of Hong Kong and partitioned between Sino-Cit and Brit-Cit control. Hondo City lies on the remains of the islands of Japan. Nu-Delhi (previously Indo-Cit and Delhi-City) is in southern India. Between Hondo and Sino-City lie the Radlands of Ji, a nuclear desert containing outlaw gangs and martial arts schools. In the Pacific cities survive in south-east Australia or "Oz" (the Sydney-Melbourne Conurbation), the Solomon Islands (Solomon City), Tonga (Friendly City), and the New Pacific City; New Zealand is said to exist as well. All of Indonesia's islands are now linked by a network of mutant coral called "The Web", described as a lawless hotbed of crime.
The Middle East is without many major cities, being either nuclear or natural deserts, and only the mega-city of Luxor, Egypt has survived; the Mediterranean coast is heavily damaged by mutagens. In Africa much of the south is nuclear desert and a 'Great African Dustbowl' has formed in the north-west; but a large number of nation states have survived, whereof Simba City (Gabon), New Jerusalem (Ethiopia), Zambian Metropolitan, and Dar es Salaam are the largest cities. Nuclear fallout and pollution appear to have missed Antarctica and the Arctic, allowing one mega-city (Antarctic City) to be constructed there.
The high levels of pollution have created instances of mutation in humans and animals. The mega-cities largely operate on a system of genetic apartheid, making expulsion from the cities the worst punishment possible. Mega-City One ended apartheid in the 2130s, but encourages mutants to move to Cursed Earth townships instead of remaining in the city.
Earth's moon has been colonised, with a series of large domes forming Luna City; another colony, Puerto Luminae, exists but is lawless. In addition, many deep space colonies have been established. Some are loyal to various mega cities, while many are independent states, and others still face violent insurgencies to gain independence. The multi-national Space Corps battles both insurgencies and external alien threats. The newly discovered planet 'Hestia' (which orbits the Sun at 90 degrees to Earth's orbit) has a colony; there are some references to colonies on Mars; Saturn's moon Titan has a judicial penal colony; and Mega-City One is known to have deep space missile silos on Pluto.
Major Judge Dredd storylines
There have been a number of Judge Dredd storylines that have either significantly developed the Dredd character or the fictional world, or which depict a story on a grand scale. These are listed below. (For a complete list of all stories see here.)
- The Robot Wars (2000 AD progs 10–17; prologue in prog 9) The Mega-City Judges face an uprising by the city's robot servant workforce, led by carpenter-droid Call-Me-Kenneth.
- The Return of Rico (prog 30) Joe Dredd's clone brother Rico Dredd returns from Titan seeking revenge for being apprehended 20 years earlier but instead is shot and killed by the Judge. (This story introduces Rico and the penal colony on Titan.)
- Luna-1 (multiple stories; progs 42–59) Dredd is made Judge Marshall of Luna-1, a colony on the moon governed by judges from all three Mega-Cities. (This story introduced Luna One and Judges from East-Meg One and Texas City.)
- The Cursed Earth (progs 61–85): Dredd, accompanied by punk biker Spikes Harvey Rotten (and later the alien Tweak), leads a small group of Judges on an epic journey across the Cursed Earth, transporting the vaccine for the deadly 2T-FRU-T virus that is devastating Mega-City Two. (This multi-part epic, often referred to as ‘the first Dredd epic’, was inspired by Roger Zelazny's Damnation Alley.)
- The Day the Law Died (progs 89–108; prologues in 86–88) The tyrannical and insane Judge Cal, head of the Special Judicial Squad, arranges the assassination of Chief Judge Goodman and assumes the title himself. By brainwashing the Judges and employing alien mercenaries, Cal achieves a stranglehold on Mega-City One that is almost total. Only Dredd and a few other Judges and Judge-Tutors escape to lead the resistance. (This story introduced the Kleggs and saw Chief Judge Griffin assume the Chief Judgeship after Cal is killed by Fergee.)
- Judge Death (progs 149–151) Judge Death, an alien superfiend from another dimension, arrives in Mega-City One. Believing all life is a crime, he embarks on a killing spree before being caught and imprisoned. (The first appearance of both Judge Death, perhaps the Mega-Cities' deadliest foe, and Psi-Judge Anderson.)
- The Judge Child (progs 156–181; epilogue in 182) When the best 'pre-cog' in Psi-Division, Psi-Judge Feyy, predicts a child bearing the mark of the Eagle of Justice will have the power to save the city from an unspecified future disaster, it is up to Dredd to lead the galaxy-spanning search for the child. (An attempt to break away from the restrictive confines of Mega-City One, this story introduced several long-running characters and concepts into the Dredd mythos: Judge Hershey, The Angel Gang (except for Fink Angel, who was introduced later), Murd the Oppressor, and the new head of the SJS, McGruder.)
- Judge Death Lives! (progs 224–228) Judge Death's three brothers, Judges Fear, Fire and Mortis arrive in Mega-City One to rescue him. Dredd and Anderson put a stop to the killing spree and follow the quartet as they flee back to their own native dimension (known colloquially as ‘Deadworld’). The four Dark Judges are seemingly destroyed. (Voted the third best story ever printed in the comic in a 2005 poll on the 2000ADonline website, this tale introduced the other three Dark Judges.)
- Block Mania (progs 236–244) Contamination of water supplies by Orlok the Assassin leads to all-out war between Mega-City One's many city blocks. (This story introduced Orlok and saw the death of Judge Giant.)
- The Apocalypse War (progs 245–270, except 268) Weakened by the effects of Block Mania, Mega-City One is attacked and invaded by the forces of East-Meg One. Almost half the city (400 million people) are killed in nuclear strikes. Many more die from radiation sickness, starvation and cold. The Mega-City Judges are unable to strike back as the Soviet city is protected by a dimensional force field. Instead, the Judges fight a guerilla war, eventually culminating in the destruction of East-Meg One when Dredd captures a Soviet missile bunker. (This story saw the death of Chief Judge Griffin and McGruder taking on the role.)
- City of the Damned (progs 393–406) The Judges develop time travel technology. Dredd and Anderson travel into the future to discover more about the disaster predicted by Psi-Judge Feyy. They learn that the Judge Child Owen Krysler has in fact caused the events, rather than preventing them from happening. Dredd has his eyes torn out but fights on, even battling an undead future version of himself. He and Anderson flee back to the present (along with the undead Dredd), where his eyes are replaced by bionics, before tracking down the Judge Child and killing him, thus preventing the future they experienced from ever happening. (The undead Dredd would return in a future story. This story was originally intended to be much longer but the creative team tired of it.)
- Oz (progs 545–570) When sky-surfer Chopper breaks out of jail and flees to the Sydney-Melbourne Conurb in Australia to take part in the (now legal) Supersurf 10, Dredd is sent to retrieve him. In addition Dredd’s real mission is to confront the Judda, a religiously zealous army of clones, ruled over by former Council of Five member Morton Judd, who plans to dominate Mega-City One with his followers. Dredd destroys the Judda’s base (Ayers Rock) with a nuclear bomb, although some Judda are captured.
- The Dead Man (prog 650–662) An unknown man with no memory is found almost dead and badly scarred in the Cursed Earth by a group of settlers. After recovering from his injuries, the man heads back to Mega-City One with a young boy, Yassa Povey as his guide. Along the way, he recovers his memory and recalls that he is Dredd, having lost his memory when he encountered the Sisters of Death. (This was not billed as a 'Judge Dredd' story when it first appeared in 2000 AD and great pains were taken to hide its connection with the series. There was no reference to locations or people from the main series until towards the very end of the storyline. The ‘Judge Dredd’ stories continued alongside this one, to further the illusion.)
- A Letter to Judge Dredd (prog 661) Dredd receives a letter written by a child who has been killed as an indirect result of the Judges' suppression of a pro-democracy demonstration, causing him to seriously question the entire ethical basis of the Judge system, and setting in motion the chain of events recounted in the episodes that follow.
- Tale of the Dead Man (progs 662–668) Dredd resigns and takes the Long Walk following his assessment of ex-Judda Cadet Judge Kraken, and his crisis of faith in the Law that he had always sworn to uphold. This story acts as a prologue to Necropolis.
- Necropolis (progs 674–699; prologues in 669–673) Manipulating the confused mind of Judge Kraken, the Sisters of Death use Psi-Judge Agee to take control of Mega-City One and create a trans-dimensional bridge enabling the Dark Judges to manifest themselves. The four Dark Judges take control of the Judges and begin systematically killing the entire population. Kraken becomes a fifth Dark Judge and Chief Judge Silver is killed.
- The Devil You Know and Twilight's Last Gleaming (progs 750–753 and 754–756) The long running tensions between the totalitarian Judge system and the movement for the restoration of democracy in the Mega-City at last come to a head. Given a vote, the apathetic population take no part; and of those that do, the majority favour keeping the Judges in control. A pro-democracy protest march of almost two million people heads for Justice Central, but violence is averted when Dredd convinces the leaders that the referendum was fair.
- America (Megazine 1.01–1.07) Dredd's philosophy is explored when democracy activists resort to terrorism. This story introduces the tragic characters America Jara and Bennett Beeny, as well as terrorist group 'Total War'.
- Judgement on Gotham (a 'crossover' story co-published by DC Comics and Fleetway.) Dredd and Batman reluctantly join forces to defeat Judge Death, who has used dimension-jump technology to breach the DC Universe and attack Gotham City. This issue was also notable for painted artwork by Simon Bisley.
- Judgement Day (progs 786–799 and Megazine 2.04–2.09) Sabbat the Necromagus re-animates the corpses of the dead and uses them to attack the world's Mega-Cities, leading to the deaths of billions. This story includes the teaming of Dredd with Johnny Alpha, a character from another long running 2000 AD comic strip, Strontium Dog. (Dredd and Alpha had previously crossed paths in an earlier story.)
- Mechanismo trilogy (Megazine 2.12–17, 2.22–26 and 2.37–43) After Necropolis and Sabbat's zombies, Mega-City has lost far too many judges. To combat this, the Chief Judge test-runs ten robotic Judges, with disastrous results.
- Inferno (progs 842–853) Escaped rogue Judges from Titan take over the city, forcing the Judges into exile in the Cursed Earth.
- Wilderlands storyline (progs 891–894 and 904–918 and Megazine 2.57–2.67) Dredd is exposed as falsifying evidence to shut down the Mechanismo project and is arrested, while Chief Judge McGruder attempts to remain in power and see Mechanismo implemented. When a malfunctioning Mechanismo crashes a space cruiser on an alien world in an attempt to kill McGruder, Dredd takes control of the survivors. This story ended many long-running subplots including the Mechanismo Program and McGruder's second stint as Chief Judge, as well as introducing Judge Volt, reviving the Council of Five, and introducing Judge Castillo.
- The Pit (progs 970–999) Dredd takes the job of Sector Chief at Sector 301, an isolated area of the city that has become a dumping ground for corrupt and incompetent judges. Introduced the popular character Judge Galen DeMarco, who would become protagonist of her own strip.
- The Doomsday Scenario (progs 1141–1164 and 1167, and Megazine 3.52–3.59) The first series to run the same story from different viewpoints concurrently from start to finish, one in 2000 AD and the other in the Judge Dredd Megazine. One is told from the viewpoint of Galen DeMarco, now a civilian, as she is caught up in crimelord Nero Narcos' attempt to take over the city with his army of robots. The other is told from Dredd's viewpoint as he is taken prisoner by Orlok the Assassin and tried by the East Meg One government in exile for his war crimes during the Apocalypse War. Once Dredd escapes (with Anderson's assistance), he secured the help of Brit-Cit in breaking Narcos' control over his robot hordes. The story saw the Judges briefly lose power and Chief Judge Volt commit suicide as a result; whereafter Hershey replaced him.
- Helter Skelter (progs 1250–1261) An army of Dredd's greatest foes use inter dimensional travel to invade Dredd's dimension. Their presence starts a collapse of all possible universes, causing characters from other 2000 AD stories to appear in Mega-City One. Dredd defeats the attackers' leader 'Cal' with the help of technician Darien Kenzie.
- Blood Cadets (progs 1186–1188) saw the introduction of a new clone of Dredd, who took the name Rico; Blood And Duty (progs 1300–1301) saw the return of Dredd's niece Vienna Pasternak. With Vienna's reintroduction and the new Rico's arrival, Dredd was given a family and several new plot points for future stories, including the Justice Department creating a large number of Dredd clones and Dredd's problems trying to connect with his niece.
- Judge Dredd vs. Aliens (Prog 2003 special and 1322–1335) pitted Dredd against the Xenomorphs, with mutant criminal 'Mister Bones' breeding an army thereof to attack the Department of Justice.
- Terror and Total War (progs 1392–1399 and 1408–1419) A pair of stories wherein, fanatically dedicated to the democratic cause, the organisation 'Total War' smuggles 12 nuclear devices into the megalopolis and threaten to detonate them all unless the Judges leave the City. A standard thriller plot made more significant through explorations of Judge Dredd's extended family, including Vienna and a Dredd clone, Nimrod.
- Blood Trails (progs 1440–1449) Following on from elements of Total War and Gulag (where Dredd led a Judge team to try and free prisoners from the Sov block), a clone of Sov Judge Kazan tries to attack Dredd by targeting Vienna, sending the face-changing assassin Pasha to abduct her. In the aftermath of the story, the Kazan clone was cut loose by East-Meg 2 and claimed political asylum from Mega-City One; Dredd's long-term ally Guthrie was severely injured, losing both legs and an arm and eventually becoming a cyborg; and Judges Giant and Rico were severely injured.
- Origins (progs 1505–1519 and 1529–1535; prologue in 1500–1504) consists largely of flashbacks and sets out the history of the Judges and of Chief Judge Fargo, as well as scenes from Dredd's childhood during the Third World War.
- Mutants in Mega-City One (progs 1542–1545) is the first in a series of short stories in which Dredd campaigns to change the apartheid laws prohibiting mutants from entering the city. This results in Chief Judge Hershey being voted out of office and replaced with Judge Francisco.
- Tour Of Duty (progs 1650–1693) sees Judge Dredd posted in the Cursed Earth to oversee the foundations of four new Mutant townships. The corrupt Judge Martin Sinfield manipulates Francisco so he can install himself as Chief Judge, and promptly becomes the target of repeated assassination attempts. Dredd is recalled from exile to lead the investigation into the attacks, which are the work of serial mass-murderer PJ Maybe, who has assumed the identity of mayor Byron Ambrose.
- Day of Chaos (progs 1743–1789) depicts the deaths of 87 per cent of the population of Mega-City One by a biological weapon unleashed by survivors of the Apocalypse War.
- The Cold Deck (progs 1806–1811; prologue in 1803, epilogue in 1812) crossed over Dredd with the spinoffs The Simping Detective and Low Life, involving the machinations of Black Ops head Judge Bachmann, who is plotting a coup.
List of stories
- A list of all Judge Dredd stories to appear in 2000 AD from March 1977 to December 2013 can be found here (.pdf file).
- A list of all Judge Dredd stories to appear in the Judge Dredd Megazine from October 1990 to December 2013 can be found here (.pdf file).
All of the stories from both comics are currently being reprinted in their original order of publication in two series of trade paperbacks. Stories from the regular issues of 2000 AD and the Megazine are collected in a series entitled Judge Dredd: The Complete Case Files. This series began in 2005.[note 3] Stories from special holiday issues and annuals appear in Judge Dredd: The Restricted Files. This four-volume series began in 2010 and concluded in 2012.
- Judge Dredd (DC Comics)
- DC Comics published an alternative version of Judge Dredd between 1994 and 1996, lasting 18 issues. Continuity and history were different from both the original 2000 AD version and the 1995 film. A major difference was that Chief Judge Fargo, portrayed as incorruptible in the original version, was depicted as evil in the DC version. Most issues were written by Andrew Helfer, but the last issue was written by Gordon Rennie, who has since written Judge Dredd for 2000 AD. (Note: the DC crossover story "Judgement on Gotham" featured the original Dredd, not the version depicted in this title.)
- Judge Dredd – Legends of the Law
- Another DC Comics title, lasting 13 issues between 1994 and 1995. Although these were intended to feature the same version of Judge Dredd as in the other DC title, the first four issues were written by John Wagner and Alan Grant and were consistent with their original 2000 AD version.
- Judge Dredd – Lawman of the Future
- From the same publishers as 2000 AD, this was nevertheless a completely different version of Dredd aimed at younger readers. Editor David Bishop prohibited writers from showing Dredd killing anyone, a reluctance which would be completely unfamiliar to readers acquainted with the original version. As one reviewer put it years later: "this was Judge Dredd with two vital ingredients missing: his balls." It ran fortnightly for 23 issues from 1995 to 1996, plus one "Action Special."
- Judge Dredd: The Official Movie Adaptation
- Written by Andrew Helfer and illustrated by Carlos Ezquerra and Michael Danza. Published by DC Comics in 1995, but a different version of Dredd to that in the DC comics described above.
- Heavy Metal Dredd
- From the same publishers as 2000 AD, this was a series of ultra-violent one-off stories from "a separate and aggressive Dredd world." The first eight episodes were originally published in Rock Power magazine, and were all co-written by John Wagner and Alan Grant and illustrated by Simon Bisley. These were reprinted, together with eleven new stories (some by other creators), in the Judge Dredd Megazine. The original eight stories were collected in a trade paperback by Hamlyn in 1993. The complete series was collected by Rebellion in 2009.
- Dredd: Top of the World, Ma-Ma
- In the week that the 2012 film Dredd was released in the UK, a ten-page prologue was published in issue #328 of the Judge Dredd Megazine, written by its editor, Matt Smith, and illustrated by Henry Flint. This told the backstory of the film's main antagonist, Ma-Ma. A sequel, "Underbelly," was published in the Judge Dredd Megazine #340–342 in 2013.
- Judge Dredd (IDW Publishing)
- In November 2012 IDW Publishing began a new monthly series written by Duane Swierczynski and illustrated by Nelson Daniel. IDW began a new four-issue mini-series called Judge Dredd: Year One in March 2013, set during Dredd's first year as a judge.
- In September 2013, IDW began publishing the four-issue mini-series Mars Attacks Judge Dredd.
- In January 2014 IDW began another mini-series, Judge Dredd: Mega-City Two.
In other media
Judge Dredd (1995)
An American film loosely based on the comic strip was released in 1995, starring Sylvester Stallone as Dredd (it was said that Arnold Schwarzenegger was originally requested for the role, but declined because in the original script, Dredd would keep the helmet on during major parts of the film). The film received negative reviews upon its release. It currently holds a 15% rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, with the critical consensus stating that "Director [Danny] Cannon fails to find the necessary balance to make it work". In deference to its expensive Hollywood star, Dredd's face was shown. In the comic, he very rarely removes his helmet, and even then his real face is never revealed. Also the writers largely omitted the ironic humour of the comic strip, and ignored important aspects of the "Dredd mythology". For example, in the film a "love interest" is developed between Dredd and Judge Hershey, something that is strictly forbidden between Judges (or Judges and anyone else for that matter) in the comic strip. In the United States, the film won several "worst film of the year" awards. Also of interest is the cameo appearance of an ABC Warrior robot bearing a distinct resemblance to Hammerstein.
Reliance Entertainment produced Dredd, which was released in September 2012. It was positively received by critics with Rotten Tomatoes' rating of 78%. It was directed by Pete Travis and written by Alex Garland. Michael S. Murphey was co-producer with Travis. Karl Urban was cast as Judge Dredd and Olivia Thirlby portrayed Judge Anderson. Dredd's costume was radically redesigned for the film, adding armor plates and reducing the size and prominence of the shoulder insignia.
The main Judge Dredd writer John Wagner said:
It's high-octane, edge of the seat stuff, and gives a far truer representation of Dredd than the first movie. I hated that plot. It was Dredd pressed through the Hollywood cliché mill, a dynastic power struggle that had little connection with the character we know from the comic.
There have been multiple Judge Dredd games released for various video game consoles and several home computers such as the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, Sony Playstation and Commodore 64. At one time, an arcade game was being developed by Midway Games, creators of the Mortal Kombat series but it was never released. It can however be found on the internet and has three playable levels.
A game loosely based on the first live action film, simply called Judge Dredd was developed by Probe Software and released by Acclaim for both the Sega Genesis and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Bally also produced a Judge Dredd pinball machine based on the comics. In 1997, Acclaim released a Judge Dredd arcade game, a rail shooter featuring 3D graphics and full motion video footage shot specifically for the game.
Judge Dredd: Dredd Vs. Death was produced by Rebellion Developments and released in early 2003 by Sierra Entertainment for the PC, PlayStation 2, Xbox and Nintendo GameCube. The game sees the return of the Dark Judges when Mega-City One becomes overrun with vampires and the undead. The player takes control of Judge Dredd, with the optional addition of another Human player in Co-operative play. The whole game is played in the style of an FPS (first-person shooter) – with key differences from the standard FPS being the requirement to arrest lawbreakers, and an SJS death squad which will hunt you down should you kill too many civilians. The player can also go up against three friends in the various multiplayer modes which include "Deathmatch", "Team Deathmatch", "Elimination", "Team Elimination", "Informant", "Judges Vs. Perps", "Runner" and more. A novel was based on the game.
A costume set for the PlayStation 3 video game LittleBigPlanet was released in May 2009 which contained outfits to dress the game's main character Sackboy as five 2000 AD characters one of which is Judge Dredd. Dredd's uniform is also used to create the Judge Anderson costume for the Sackpeople.
Boardgames and collectible card games
Mongoose Publishing have released a miniatures skirmish game of gang warfare based in Mega City 1 called "Gangs of Mega-City One", often referred to as GOMC1. The game features judges being called in when a gang challenges another gang that is too tough to fight. A wide range of miniatures has been released including box sets for an Ape Gang and an Undercity Gang. A Robot Gang was also produced but was released as two blister packs instead of a box set. Only one rules expansion has been released, called "Death on the Streets". The expansion introduced many new rules including usage of the new gangs and the ability to bring Judge Dredd himself into a fight.
This game went out of print shortly thereafter but was replaced by the "Judge Dredd Miniatures Game", which was published free in many stages as the company sought feedback from fans and players. In 2012, an expansion was released called "Block War!". Miniatures continue to be manufactured at a slow pace.
There was also a short-lived collectible card game called simply "Dredd". In the game players would control a squad of judges and arrest perps. The rules system was innovative and the game was well-received by fans and collectors alike, but various issues unrelated to the game's quality caused its early demise.
Games Workshop produced a boardgame based on the comic strip in 1982. In the game players, who represent judges, attempt to arrest perps that have committed crimes in different location in Mega City One. A key feature of the game is the different action cards that are collected during play; generally these cards are used when trying to arrest perps although some cards can also be played against other players to hinder their progress. The winner of the game is the judge who collected the most points arresting perps. Players could sabotage each other's arrest attempts. Additionally, there were many amusing card combinations such as arresting Judge Death for selling old comics, as the Old Comic Selling crime card featured a 2000 AD cover with Judge Death on it. The game used characters, locations and artwork from the comic but is now out of print.
In 1987, Games Workshop published a second Dredd-inspired boardgame, "Block Mania." In this game for two players, players take on the role of rival neighboring blocks at war. This was a heavier game than the earlier Dredd boardgame, focused on tactical combat, in which players control these residents as they use whatever means they can to vandalize and destroy their opponent's block. Later the same year, Games Workshop released the Mega Mania expansion for the game, allowing the game to be played by up to four players.
There was a pinball game in 1993.
From 1993 to 1995, Virgin Books published nine Judge Dredd novels. They had hoped the series would be a success in the wake of the feature film, but the series was cancelled after insufficient sales. The books are:
- Deathmasques (Dave Stone, August 1993 ISBN 0-352-32873-8)
- The Savage Amusement (David Bishop, August 1993 ISBN 0-352-32874-6)
- Dreddlocked (Stephen Marley, October 1993 ISBN 0-352-32875-4)
- Cursed Earth Asylum (David Bishop, December 1993 ISBN 0-352-32893-2)
- The Medusa Seed (Dave Stone, January 1994 ISBN 0-352-32895-9)
- Dread Dominion (Stephen Marley, May 1994 ISBN 0-352-32929-7)
- The Hundredfold Problem (John Grant, August 1994 ISBN 0-352-32942-4)
- Silencer (David Bishop, November 1994 ISBN 0-352-32960-2)
- Wetworks (Dave Stone, February 1995 ISBN 0-352-32975-0)
(In 2003 The Hundredfold Problem was re-released by BeWrite Books, rewritten as a non-Dredd novel.)
- Judge Dredd (Neal Barrett, Jr., June 1995 ISBN 0-312-95628-2)
- Judge Dredd: The Junior Novelisation (Graham Marks, May 1995 ISBN 0-7522-0671-0)
From 2003 to 2007, Black Flame published official 2000 AD novels, including a new run of Judge Dredd novels. After Black Flame closed in 2007, Rebellion picked up the rights to their "2000 AD" titles in 2011, and began republishing them as e-books. Their nine Judge Dredd books are:
- Dredd Vs Death (Gordon Rennie, October 2003 ISBN 1-84416-061-0)
- Bad Moon Rising (David Bishop, June 2004 ISBN 1-84416-107-2)
- Black Atlantic (Peter J. Evans & Simon Jowett, June 2004 ISBN 1-84416-108-0)
- Eclipse (James Swallow, August 2004 ISBN 1-84416-122-6)
- Kingdom of the Blind (David Bishop, November 2004 ISBN 1-84416-133-1)
- The Final Cut (Matt Smith, February 2005 ISBN 1-84416-135-8)
- Swine Fever (Andrew Cartmel, May 2005 ISBN 1-84416-174-9)
- Whiteout (James Swallow, September 2005 ISBN 1-84416-219-2)
- Psykogeddon (Dave Stone, January 2006 ISBN 1-84416-321-0)
In July 2012, three of these novels – Gordon Rennie's Dredd Vs Death, David Bishop's Kingdom of the Blind, and Matt Smith's The Final Cut – were republished in a single paperback volume titled Dredd, as a tie-in with the 2012 film of the same title. (ISBN 9781781080771)
In August 2012 Rebellion announced a new series of e-books under the series title Judge Dredd: Year One, about Dredd's first year as a judge (the stories in the comic strip having begun in his 20th year when he was already a veteran).
In recent years Big Finish Productions has produced eighteen audio plays featuring 2000 AD characters. These have mostly featured Judge Dredd although three have also featured Strontium Dog. In these Judge Dredd is played by Toby Longworth and Johnny Alpha, the Strontium Dog is played by Simon Pegg. In July 2009 four further Judge Dredd titles were released under the banner "Crime Chronicles", once more featuring Toby Longworth.
The list of 2000 AD audio plays featuring Dredd includes:
- 1. Judge Dredd: Wanted: Dredd or Alive by David Bishop
- 2. Judge Dredd – Death Trap! by David Bishop
- 4. Judge Dredd – The Killing Zone by Dave Stone
- 5. Judge Dredd – The Big Shot! by David Bishop
- 6. Judge Dredd – Trapped on Titan by Jonathan Clements
- 7. Judge Dredd – Get Karter! by David Bishop
- 8. Judge Dredd – I Love Judge Dredd by Jonathan Morris
- 9. Judge Dredd: Dreddline by James Swallow
- 11. Judge Dredd – 99 Code Red! by Jonathan Clements
- 12. Judge Dredd – War Planet by Dave Stone
- 13. Judge Dredd: Jihad by James Swallow
- 14. Judge Dredd – War Crimes by David Bishop
- 15. Judge Dredd – For King and Country by Cavan Scott
- 16. Judge Dredd – Pre-Emptive Revenge by Jonathan Clements (with Strontium Dog)
- 17. Judge Dredd: Grud is Dead by James Swallow
- 18. Judge Dredd – Solo by Jonathan Clements
Note: 3 and 10 are Strontium Dog stories that do not feature Dredd.
- 1.1 Judge Dredd: Crime Chronicles – Stranger Than Truth by David Bishop (October 2009)
- 1.2 Judge Dredd: Crime Chronicles – Blood Will Tell by James Swallow (November 2009)
- 1.3 Judge Dredd: Crime Chronicles – The Devil's Playground by Jonathan Clements (December 2009)
- 1.4 Judge Dredd: Crime Chronicles - Double Zero by James Swallow (January 2010)
In addition, both "The Day the Law Died" and "The Apocalypse War" stories were featured on Mark Goodier's afternoon show on BBC Radio One, and issued separately on dual cassette and double CD. Both titles have since been deleted. "The Apocalypse War" contains plot elements from "Block Mania", as this story set the scene for the main story.
In popular culture
- The metal band Anthrax included a song about Judge Dredd on their third album (Among the Living) entitled "I Am the Law". It is one of their most popular and well-known songs, and often features as an encore to setlists. They also released a 12" single and a 7" picture disc, both bearing the image of Dredd. One 12" version featured a fold-out poster of the band dressed as Judges drawn by drummer Charlie Benante. Also, the Cursed Earth tour had Judge Death as the main imagery of the shirts sold during the concerts.
- The UK ska/Two-Tone band Madness also recorded a tribute single to Dredd under the name of The Fink Brothers, entitled "Mutants in Mega-City One". Released on the Zarjazz label in February 1985, the record featured a cover drawn by 2000 AD Dredd artist Brian Bolland.
- The UK band The Human League also wrote a song about Judge Dredd. "I am the Law" appeared on the album Dare.
- The Screaming Blue Messiahs recorded a song entitled "Mega-City One" on their final album Totally Religious.
- The Manic Street Preachers' song, "Judge Yr'Self" was influenced by the comic, and was intended to appear on the Judge Dredd film soundtrack. It reached the demo stage, but after lyricist and guitarist Richey Edwards disappeared, the other members of the band said that a song for a soundtrack was the last thing on their mind. Edwards himself was heavily influenced by the Judge Dredd and 2000 AD comics (the slogan "Be pure. Be vigilant. Behave" from the 2000 AD strip Nemesis the Warlock was included in the song "P.C.P."). A fully produced mix of "Judge Yr'Self" (by long time Manics producer Dave Eringa) was later released on the 2003 double-album of B-sides and rarities, Lipstick Traces. Richey was a great fan of Judge Dredd and even had one of his drawings published in the comic during his late childhood. Richey himself was later parodied as "Clarence" of the "Crazy Sked Moaners" in the Dredd story Muzak Killer: Live! Part 3 (prog 838, 5 June 1993), in a scene which parodied the infamous 1991 incident of Richey carving 4 REAL into his forearm with a razor (Clarence lasers 4 RALE [sic] into his forehead).
- Simon Pegg is a fan of 2000 AD, and Judge Dredd memorabilia (supplied by the comic) appears in the background of several episodes of Spaced.
- There is a rapper from Houston, Texas who goes by the name of Judge Dredd. He was featured on two tracks on Chamillionaire's Greatest Hits Mixtape.
- A sleeve illustration on German metal band Helloween's album Keeper of the Seven Keys Part 1 depicts a pumpkin-headed character (a band trademark) wearing a distinctive Judge's uniform. It's placed next to the lyrics for the song "Future World", and was used as the sleeve illustration for the single release of that track.
- Multiple references to the movie are made on the sitcom Scrubs, notably by J.D. at the end of the episode "His Story II", while being wooed by Elliot.
- Finnish power metal band Sonata Arctica references Judge Dredd in the song Peacemaker.
- The British band Pitchshifter, also fans of 2000 AD, released a Judge Dredd t-shirt for their final tour. It included the slogan "13 years punk," referring to how long the band had been together before they broke up.
- In the Warhammer 40,000 universe, the Imperium's police force, the Arbites, (Latin; translates as Judge or judgment) were visually based upon Judge Dredd stemming from the time Games Workshop held the rights to Judge Dredd games. The current range is more similar in design to RoboCop. The original designs for the Space Marine power armour and bikes also drew heavily on the Judges' uniform and Lawmaster bikes. In return the original design for the Space Marine jet bike also featured in an episode of Judge Dredd as a Judge antigravity bike. A number of artists who have worked on Judge Dredd have also worked for Games Workshop.
- In the episode "Respawn" of 30 Rock, Liz Lemon is in court purposely trying to get community service in order to avoid spending the summer with Tracy Jordan. While in the court room, the judge's name is "Gregory L. Dredd" or "Judge Dredd".
- Judge Elmer Dwedd
- Judge Dredd was satirized by Marvel Comics, by combining the lawman with Looney Tunes character Elmer Fudd to create Judge Elmer Dwedd. This pastiche of Dredd appeared in a handful of issues of Howard the Duck prior to the release of the Judge Dredd movie, and the character was discontinued afterwards.
- Justice Peace
- A former officer of the Time Variance Authority, he rides a flying and (formerly) time traveling Hopsikle, wields a Peacemaker multipurpose gun, is based in "Brooklynopolis" and is genetically incapable of both lying and humor.
- Judge Dudd
- Appeared in Buster comic, which was published by Fleetway. As his name implies, Dudd was an inept law officer.
- Judge Fredd
- Appeared in the D&D spoof card game Munchkin and "beats you to death for resisting arrest" if you fail to defeat him.
- Psycho Gran vs. Judge Dredd
- In an issue of Oink! comic, which was published by Fleetway, Psycho Gran was transported through a time warp into the far future and materialised in Mega City One just as she is training in a boxing gym and Judge Dredd was arresting a perp. She punches Dredd, knocking him out before apologising and disappearing back through the time warp. Dredd, explaining away his bandaged nose, later tells the Chief Judge that he was attacked by a gang of giant mutants, while behind his back he has the fingers of one hand crossed.
- Judge Dreck
- Stan Hart and Mort Drucker parodied the 1995 film Judge Dredd in Mad magazine #338, August 1995. The cover of the magazine painted by Frank Frazetta portrayed Judge Dredd with Alfred E. Neuman.
- Judge Dredd Megazine
- 2000 AD crossovers. Judge Dredd's timeline has crossed over with many other 2000 AD stories.
- The original launch story written by Wagner and drawn by Ezquerra was published several years later in an annual.
- Mills also included an idea suggested by Kelvin Gosnell: Jarman & Acton, p. 48.
- Excluded from the Complete Case Files series were the stories "America" (Megazine vol. 1 #1–7) and "Beyond Our Kenny" (vol. 1 #1–3). These were originally published not as mainstream Judge Dredd stories but as spin-off series. However their respective sequels appeared under the Judge Dredd banner, and they are collected in trade paperbacks under the titles "Judge Dredd: America" and "Judge Dredd: The Art of Kenny Who?"
- The Judge Dredd timeline from the 2000 AD website
- The A-Z of Judge Dredd: The Complete Encyclopedia from Aaron Aardvark to Zachary Zziiz (by Mike Butcher, St. Martin's Press, March 1995, ISBN 0-312-13733-8)
- Judge Dredd: The Mega-History (by Colin M. Jarman and Peter Acton, Lennard Publishing, 144 pages, 1995, ISBN 1-85291-128-X)
- Thrill-Power Overload (by David Bishop, Judge Dredd Megazine vol 4 issues 9–18, issues 201–209, 2002–2003, collected and expanded, Rebellion, 260 pages, February 2007, ISBN 1-905437-22-6)
- Dredd's universe at the International Catalogue of Superheroes
- 2000 AD #406
- 'Judge Dredd' powers for police urged, The Daily Telegraph, 22 September 2005 (from archive.org)
- ''Empire:'' The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters. Empire (5 December 2006). Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- IGN. IGN. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Judge Dredd: The Mega-History," by Colin M. Jarman and Peter Acton (Lennard Publishing, 1995), p. 17.
- Pat Mills's blog, 20 September 2012 (retrieved 12 November 2012).
- Jarman & Acton, pp. 21–22
- Jarman & Acton, p. 30.
- Jarman & Acton, pp. 18 and 24.
- Jarman & Acton, p. 34.
- Jarman & Acton, pp. 42–43.
- Jarman & Acton, pp. 62–63.
- Jarman & Acton, p. 128.
- Judge Dredd in the ''Daily Star''. 2000adonline.com. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Judge Dredd in ''Metro''. 2000ad.org. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Jarman & Acton, pp. 74–75.
- Jarman & Acton p. 75
- 2000 AD #30 and 1187
- Jarman & Acton, pp. 56 and 74.
- "The Face Change Crimes" in 2000 AD #52 (18/2/1978), written by John Wagner, with art by Brian Bolland. Page 14.
- Jarman & Acton, p. 22.
- Jarman & Acton, pp. 89–90.
- Jarman & Acton, p. 112.
- Empireonline.com "Exclusive: John Wagner And Alex Garland Talk Dredd"
- "A Case for Treatment," in 2000 AD #389
- "Origins," in 2000 AD #1515
- "Origins," in 2000 AD #1515
- 2000 AD #1517
- "Origins," 2000 AD #1530
- "The Return of Rico," in 2000 AD #30
- "The Day the Law Died," in 2000 AD #108
- "Judgement Day," in 2000 AD #786–799
- "Robot Wars," 2000 AD #11; "Tale of the Dead Man," #668
- "Nightmares," 2000 AD #706
- "Prologue," Judge Dredd Megazine vol. 2 #57
- "The Spirit of Christmas," 2000 AD #2008 (a December 2007 New Year issue)
- "The Edgar Case," 2000 AD #1595
- "Tour of Duty," 2000 AD #1693
- "Day of Chaos," 2000 AD #1789
- 2000 AD #116 and #1300
- 2000 AD #1186–88, #1280
- Judge Dredd Megazine vol. 3 #1–7
- 2000 AD #1632
- 2000 AD #60 and 288
- 2000 AD #1101–1110, 1167; Megazine vol. 3 #52–59
- 2000 AD #1511–1512, #1542–48, #2008
- 2000 AD #387, 662–668, 775
- 2000 AD #261, 630, 1337, and Batman vs. Judge Dredd: Die Laughing (1998)
- 2000 AD #108
- 2000 AD #89
- 2000 AD #727 and 804
- 2000 AD #4
- 2000 AD #9
- 2000 AD #290
- 2000 AD #4 and 61
- 2000 AD #117 and 118
- 2000 AD #489
- 2000 AD #182
- 2000 AD #236–244
- 2000 AD #245–270
- 2000 AD #160–161
- Judge Dredd Megazine volume 2 #7
- 2000 AD #128–129
- 2000 AD #485
- 2000 AD #727–732
- 2000 AD #266–267
- 2000 AD #270
- 2000 AD #608–611
- 2000 AD #451
- 2000 AD #160
- 2000 AD #42
- 2000 AD #30
- 2000 AD #771
- File description page
- File description page at WikiCommons
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- Editor Steve MacManus, quoted in John Hicklenton's afterword to the 2009 trade paperback Heavy Metal Dredd.
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