Judicial System of Peru
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The Judicial System of Peru, usually known as the Judicial Power in Peru, is an organism of the government of the Republic of Peru composed of a hierarchic organization of institutions, that exercise equal justice to all people.
It is headed by the Supreme Court of the Republic that has jurisdiction over the whole nation. The second hierarchic level is made up of the Superior Courts which have jurisdiction over an entire Judicial District which are more or less synonymous to the 25 Regions or Departments of Peru. There are 28 Judicial Districts. The third hierarchic level is formed by the Courts of First Instance (trial court), which have jurisdiction over each province. The fourth and lowest hierarchic level of the Peruvian Judicial Power, are the Courts of Peace who only have jurisdiction over a single district.
The predecessor to the Judicial Power in Peru was the Real Audencia. During the rule of the Viceroyalty of Peru, there were many subdivisions which are equal to almost all South American countries today:
- Audencia of Panama (Panama)
- Audencia of Santa Fe de Bogotá (Colombia)
- Audencia of La Plata de los Characas (Bolivia), parts of Brazil, Paraguay
- Audencia of Quito (Ecuador), parts of Brazil
- Audencia of Chile (Chile)
- Audencia of Buenos Aires (Argentina), parts of Brazil, Uruguay
- Audencia of Caracas (Venezuela)
Later, Simón Bolívar established the makings of the current Judicial system, with the creation of the Superior Court of Justice of Lima, the Superior Court of Justice of Cusco, the Superior Court of Justice of La Libertad, and the Superior Court of Justice of Huamanga.