Judiciary Square is a neighborhood in Northwest Washington, D.C., the vast majority of which is occupied by various federal and municipal courthouses and office buildings. Judiciary Square is located roughly between Pennsylvania Avenue to the south, H Street to the north, 6th Street to the west, and the Interstate 395 access tunnel to the east.
The center of the neighborhood is an actual plaza named Judiciary Square. The square itself is bounded by 4th Street to east, 5th Street to the west, D Street to the south, and F Street to the north. The neighborhood is served by the Judiciary Square station on the Red Line of the Washington Metro.
During the first half of the 19th century, Judiciary Square had a heavily residential population. Its proximity to the courthouses drew lawyers, judges, and clerks to the neighborhood, while its location between the White House and the United States Capitol made it ideal for government employees. Among its most prominent residents were Senator Thomas Hart Benton, Vice President John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster. As of 2006, however, nearly all of the rowhouses in the area were gone, with the remaining houses mostly centered around the intersection of 5th and D Streets.
Around the turn of the 20th century, the eastern side of Judiciary Square became an enclave of Italian immigrants in Washington; the equivalent of a Little Italy, although it was never called that. The Italian neighborhood rested on the eastern edge of the square proper, stretching eastward to about 2nd Street NW. The heart of the community was Holy Rosary Church, a chapel built at 3rd and F Streets NW. The neighborhood grew throughout the 20th century, with a particular surge of Italian immigrants in the 1950s and 60s. However, the construction of Interstate 395 through the city in the 1970s razed about half of the neighborhood and forced its remaining residents to move away from the heavy commuter traffic. Today, the former Italian enclave is dominated by Federal office buildings and law offices. The Holy Rosary Church remains standing and continues to draw a heavily Italian congregation along with its "Casa Italia" cultural center next door.
Among the buildings in Judiciary Square are:
- H. Carl Moultrie Courthouse, which houses the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, the local trial court
- District of Columbia City Hall, which now houses the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, the District's highest court
- E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse, which houses both the United States District Court for the District of Columbia and the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
- United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces and the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims
- Henry J. Daly Building, Metropolitan Police Department Headquarters
- United States Tax Court Building, which houses the United States Tax Court
- Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington field office
- Frances Perkins Building, which houses the United States Department of Labor
- Steve Young Law Enforcement Legislative Advocacy Center of the Fraternal Order of Police
- US General Accounting Office Building, the headquarters of the Government Accountability Office
- United States Army Corps of Engineers, headquarters
- Jackson Graham Building, headquarters of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
- National Building Museum, formerly known as the Pension Building
- One Judiciary Square, which houses various D.C. government offices and temporarily housed the offices of the mayor and city council
Monuments and sculptures
- National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial
- Monuments to Abraham Lincoln, Albert Pike, John Marshall, and Sir William Blackstone
- George Gordon Meade Memorial
- Guns to Plowshares peace monument (removed 2008)
- Darlington Memorial Fountain
Center Leg Freeway development
The District government finalized a deal in 2010 with the Louis Dreyfus Group to construct a 2,100,000-square-foot (200,000 m2) mixed-use development in the airspace over the Center Leg Freeway (Interstate 395). The $425 million office, residential, and retail project at the east end of the Judiciary Square neighborhood will also restore the area's original L'Enfant Plan street grid by reconnecting F and G Streets over the freeway. The project is awaiting final regulatory approval and is expected to be complete by 2016.
- "History of Judiciary Square". Judiciary Square Master Plan. District of Columbia Courts. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- "History of the Holy Rosary Church". Holy Rosary Church. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Kennel-Shank, Celeste (July 12, 2010). "Peace art seeks new home in capital". Mennonite Weekly Review. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Farmer, Liz (October 19, 2010). "Major development over I-395 moves closer to reality". Washington Examiner. Retrieved November 2, 2011.