Juice

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A glass of orange juice.

Juice is a liquid that is naturally contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with these or other biological food sources such as meat and seafood. It is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods.

Preparation[edit]

Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, and tomato juice is the liquid that results from pressing the fruit of the tomato plant. Juice may be prepared in the home from fresh fruit and vegetables using a variety of hand or electric juicers. Juice is one of the most popular drinks to go with breakfast in the morning.

Many commercial juices are filtered to remove fiber or pulp, but high-pulp fresh orange juice is a popular beverage.

Common methods for preservation and processing of fruit juices include canning, pasteurization, concentrating,[1] freezing, evaporation and spray drying.

Terminology[edit]

In the United Kingdom the name or names of the fruit followed by juice can only legally be used to describe a product which is 100% fruit juice, as required by the Fruit Juices and Fruit Nectars (England) Regulations[2] and the Fruit Juices & Fruit Nectars (Scotland) Regulations 2003.[3] However, a juice made by reconstituting concentrate can be called juice. A product described as fruit "nectar" must contain at least 25% to 50% juice, depending on the fruit. A juice or nectar including concentrate must state that it does. The term "juice drink" is not defined in the Regulations and can be used to describe any drink which includes juice, however little.[4] Comparable rules apply in all EU member states in their respective languages.

In the US fruit juice can only legally be used to describe a product which is 100% fruit juice. A blend of fruit juice(s) with other ingredients, such as high-fructose corn syrup, is called a juice cocktail or juice drink.[5] According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the term "nectar" is generally accepted in the US and in international trade for a diluted juice to denote a beverage that contains fruit juice or puree, water, and which may contain artificial sweeteners.[6]

"No added sugar" is commonly printed on labels of juice containers, but the products may contain large amounts of naturally occurring sugars;[7][8] however, sugar content is listed with other carbohydrates on labels in many countries.

Health benefits[edit]

Juices are often consumed for their perceived health benefits. For example, orange juice is rich in vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, is an excellent source of bioavailable antioxidant phytochemicals[9] and significantly improves blood lipid profiles in people affected with hypercholesterolemia.[10] Prune juice is associated with a digestive health benefit. Cranberry juice has long been known to help prevent or even treat bladder infections, and it is now known that a substance in cranberries prevents bacteria from binding to the bladder.[11]

Many fruit juices have a higher sugar (fructose) content than sweetened soft drinks; e.g., typical grape juice has 50% more sugar than Coca-Cola.[12] While soft drinks (e.g. Coca-Cola) cause oxidative stress when ingested and may even lead to insulin resistance in the long term, the same thing cannot be attributed to fruit juices. On the contrary, fruit juices are actually known for their ability to raise serum antioxidant capacity and even offset the oxidative stress and inflammation normally caused by high-fat and high-sugar meals.[13]

Fruit juice consumption overall in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and the US has increased in recent years,[14] probably due to public perception of juices as a healthy natural source of nutrients and increased public interest in health issues. Indeed, fruit juice intake has been consistently associated with reduced risk of many cancer types,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] might be protective against stroke[23] and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease.[24]

The perception of commercial fruit juice as equal in health benefit to fresh fruit has been questioned, mainly because it lacks fiber and has often been highly processed.[25] High-fructose corn syrup, an ingredient of many juice cocktails, has been linked to the increased incidence of type II diabetes. High consumption of juice is also linked to weight gain in some studies,[26][27] but not in others.[28] In a controlled clinical study, regular consumption of grape juice for 12 weeks did not cause any weight gain in volunteers, but consumption of a soft drink did.[29] Fruit juice in moderate amounts can help children and adults meet daily recommendations for fruit consumption, nutrient intake and calories.[30][31]

The American Academy of Pediatrics says that fruit juice should not be given to infants before 6 months of age. For children ages 1 to 6, intake of fruit juice should be limited to 4 to 6 ounces per day (about a half to three-quarters of a cup). Giving children excessive juice can lead to poor nutrition, diarrhea, gas, abdominal pain, bloating, and tooth decay.[32][33]

Juice bars[edit]

A juice bar is an establishment that primarily serves prepared juice beverages such as freshly squeezed or extracted fruit juices, juice blends, fruit smoothies (a thick fruit drink, often iced), or other juices such as fresh wheatgrass juice. Sometimes other solid ingredients or nutritional supplements may be added as boosters, such as fresh bananas, eggs, nuts or nut butter, bodybuilding supplements, soy protein powder or others such as whey or hemp protein powders, wheat germ, or Spirulina (dietary supplement) or Chlorella. Also if less juice is used with these same ingredients drinks called health shakes may be produced.

Juice bars share some of the characteristics of a coffeehouse, a soda fountain, a café, and a snack bar.

Juice bars may be stand alone businesses in cities, or located at gyms, along commuter areas, near lunch time areas, at beaches, and at tourist attractions.

In Mexico, juice bars have become more popular in recent times. Mexican juice bars will often sell healthy beverages and snacks that are popular in Mexico.

Juice bar chains[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Understanding Concentrated Juice". 
  2. ^ Fruit Juices and Fruit Nectars (England) Regulations
  3. ^ Fruit Juices & Fruit Nectars (Scotland) Regulations 2003
  4. ^ Parents beware: Juice in juice drinks costs up to £34 $10 per litre!
  5. ^ The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Sec. 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice
  6. ^ FDA Juice HACCP Regulation: Questions & Answers
  7. ^ Canadian Food Inspection Agency: Criteria for the Nutrient Content Claim No Added Sugars
  8. ^ Food Standards Australia New Zealand[dead link]
  9. ^ Franke AA, Cooney RV, Henning SM, Custer LJ. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of orange juice components in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 29 June 2005;53(13):5170-8.
  10. ^ Kurowska EM, Spence JD, Jordan J, Wetmore S, Freeman DJ, Piché LA, Serratore P. HDL-cholesterol-raising effect of orange juice in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Nov;72(5):1095-100.
  11. ^ Drug Watch: Cranberry juice reduces bacteriuria and pyuria
  12. ^ JUST WHAT IS THE SUGAR CONTENT OF FRUIT JUICE
  13. ^ Ghanim H, Sia CL, Upadhyay M, Korzeniewski K, Viswanathan P, Abuaysheh S, Mohanty P, Dandona P. Orange juice neutralizes the proinflammatory effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal and prevents endotoxin increase and Toll-like receptor expression. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr;91(4):940-9. Epub 2010 Mar 3.
  14. ^ [Report] West Europe Fruit Juice Market Research, Trends, Analysis TOC
  15. ^ Brock KE, Berry G, Mock PA, MacLennan R, Truswell AS, Brinton LA. Nutrients in diet and plasma and risk of in situ cervical cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 15 June 1988;80(8):580-5.
  16. ^ Uzcudun AE, Retolaza IR, Fernández PB, Sánchez Hernández JJ, Grande AG, García AG, Olivar LM, De Diego Sastre I, Barón MG, Bouzas JG. Nutrition and pharyngeal cancer: results from a case-control study in Spain. Head Neck. 2002 Sep;24(9):830-40.
  17. ^ Radosavljević V, Janković S, Marinković J, Dokić M. Non-occupational risk factors for bladder cancer: a case-control study. Tumori. 2004 Mar-Apr;90(2):175-80.
  18. ^ Kwan ML, Block G, Selvin S, Month S, Buffler PA. Food consumption by children and the risk of childhood acute leukemia. Am J Epidemiol. 1 December 2004;160(11):1098-107.
  19. ^ Chan JM, Wang F, Holly EA. Vegetable and fruit intake and pancreatic cancer in a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco bay area. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Sep;14(9):2093-7.
  20. ^ Maserejian NN, Giovannucci E, Rosner B, Zavras A, Joshipura K. Prospective study of fruits and vegetables and risk of oral premalignant lesions in men. Am J Epidemiol. 15 September 2006;164(6):556-66. Epub 17 July 2006.
  21. ^ Wu H, Dai Q, Shrubsole MJ, Ness RM, Schlundt D, Smalley WE, Chen H, Li M, Shyr Y, Zheng W. Fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with lower risk of colorectal adenomas. J Nutr. 2009 Feb;139(2):340-4. Epub 17 December 2008.
  22. ^ Lewis JE, Soler-Vilá H, Clark PE, Kresty LA, Allen GO, Hu JJ. Intake of plant foods and associated nutrients in prostate cancer risk. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):216-24.
  23. ^ Feldman EB. Fruits and vegetables and the risk of stroke. Nutr Rev. 2001 Jan;59(1 Pt 1):24-7.
  24. ^ Dai Q, Borenstein AR, Wu Y, Jackson JC, Larson EB. Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer's disease: the Kame Project. Am J Med. 2006 Sep;119(9):751-9.
  25. ^ Sugar Is a Poison, Says UCSF Obesity Expert
  26. ^ Myles S. Faith,Barbara A. Dennison,Lynn S. Edmunds,Howard H. Stratton (2006-07-27). "Fruit Juice Intake Predicts Increased Adiposity Gain in Children From Low-Income Families: Weight Status-by-Environment Interaction". American Academy of Pediatrics. 
  27. ^ Andrea M Sanigorski,A Colin Bell,Boyd A Swinburn (2006-07-04). "Association of key foods and beverages with obesity in Australian schoolchildren". Public Health Nutrition: 10(2), 152–157. 
  28. ^ O'Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Kleinman R. Relationship between 100% juice consumption and nutrient intake and weight of adolescents. Am J Health Promot. 2010 Mar-Apr;24(4):231-7.
  29. ^ Hollis JH, Houchins JA, Blumberg JB, Mattes RD. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Oct;28(5):574-82.
  30. ^ "A Scientific Literature Review:Fruit juice consumption not related to overweight in children". fruitjuicefacts.org. 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2010-09-02. [dead link]
  31. ^ "Inside the Pyramide". USDA. January 22, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  32. ^ Feeding Your Baby and Toddler (Birth to Age Two): Your Child: University of Michigan Health System
  33. ^ American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. The use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2001 May;107(5):1210-3.

External links[edit]