Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly
Portrait by Émile Lévy
|Born||Jules Amédée Barbey
November 2, 1808
Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte, Normandy, France
|Died||April 23, 1889
|Occupation||novelist, essayist, critic|
|Literary movement||Realism, Decadence, "Dandyism"|
|Notable works||Les Diaboliques|
Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly (2 November 1808 – 23 April 1889) was a French novelist and short story writer. He specialised in mystery tales that explored hidden motivation and hinted at evil without being explicitly concerned with anything supernatural. He had a decisive influence on writers such as Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Henry James and Marcel Proust.
Jules-Amédée Barbey — the d'Aurevilly was a later inheritance from a childless uncle — was born at Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte, Manche in Lower Normandy. In 1827 he went to the Collège Stanislas de Paris. After getting his baccalauréat in 1829, he went to Caen University to study law, taking his degree three years later. As a young man, he was a liberal and an atheist, and his early writings present religion as something that meddles in human affairs only to complicate and pervert matters. In the early 1840s, however, he began to frequent the Catholic and legitimist salon of Baroness Amaury de Maistre, niece of Joseph de Maistre. In 1846 he converted to Roman Catholicism.
His greatest successes as a literary writer date from 1852 onwards, when he became an influential literary critic at the Bonapartist paper Le Pays, helping to rehabilitate Balzac and effectually promoting Stendhal, Flaubert, and Baudelaire. Paul Bourget describes Barbey as an idealist, who sought and found in his work a refuge from the uncongenial ordinary world. Jules Lemaître, a less sympathetic critic, thought the extraordinary crimes of his heroes and heroines, his reactionary opinions, his dandyism and snobbery were a caricature of Byronism.
Beloved of fin-de-siècle decadents, Barbey d'Aurevilly remains an example of the extremes of late romanticism. Barbey d'Aurevilly held extreme Catholic opinions, yet wrote about risqué subjects, a contradiction apparently more disturbing to the English than to the French themselves. Barbey d'Aurevilly was also known as a dandy artisan of his own persona, adopting an aristocratic style and hinting at a mysterious past, though his parentage was provincial bourgeois nobility, and his youth comparatively uneventful.
|French literary history|
Inspired by the character and ambience of Valognes, he set his works in the society of Normand aristocracy. Although he himself did not use the Norman patois, his example encouraged the revival of vernacular literature in his home region.
Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly died in Paris and was buried in the cimetière de Montparnasse. During 1926 his remains were transferred to the churchyard in Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte.
- Le Cachet d’Onyx (1831)
- Léa (1832)
- La Bague d’Annibal (1842)
- Une Vieille maîtresse (A Former Mistress, 1851)
- L'Ensorcelée (The Bewitched, 1854. An episode of the royalist rising among the Norman peasants against the first republic).
- Le Chevalier Des Touches (1863)
- Un Prêtre marié (1864)
- Les Diaboliques (The She-Devils, 1874, a collection of short stories, each of which relates a tale of a woman who commits an act of violence or revenge, or other crime).
- Une Histoire sans nom (1882) (Translated into English as The Story Without a Name)
- Ce qui ne meurt pas (What never dies, 1883)
"Next to the wound, what women make best is the bandage." (Auden & Kronenberger, 1966)
Essays and criticism
- Du Dandysme et de Georges Brummel (The Anatomy of Dandyism, 1845)
- Les Prophètes du passé (1851)
- Les Oeuvres et les hommes (1860–1909)
- Les Quarante médaillons de l'Académie (1864)
- Goethe et Diderot (1880)
- Les Ridicules du temps (1883)
- Pensées détachées, Fragments sur les femmes (1889)
- Polémiques d'hier (1889)
- Dernières Polémiques (1891)
His complete works are published in two volumes of the Bibliothèque de la Pléiade.
Caricature by André Gill
Portrait bust of Barbey d'Aurevilly, 1909, by Auguste Rodin
Barbey d'Aurevilly is buried alongside the castle of Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte
Notes and references
- Robinson-Weber, Anne-Gaëlle. "Présentation de l'auteur", in Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly, Les Diaboliques, Paris: Bréal, 2000, pp. 15-17.
- Rousselot, Marguerite. "Une Vieille maitresse, roman d'un Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly a-religieux ou converti?"
- Rudwin, Maximilian J., “The Satanism of Barbey d’Aurevilly,” The Open Court, Vol. XXXV, N°. 2, February 1921.
- Guérard, Albert Leon, “The Gospel of Authority – Barbey d’Aurevilly and Veuillot.” In French Prophets of Yesterday, Book I, Chap. 3, T. Fisher Unwin. London, 1913.
- Beum, Robert, "Ultra-Royalism Revisited: An Annotaded Bibliography," Modern Age, Summer 1997.
- Attacked at the time of its publication on a charge of immorality, it was adapted for the cinema by Catherine Breillat. Its English title is The Last Mistress.
- English text from Google Books
- Auden, W.H.; Kronenberger, Lewis (1966), The Viking Book of Aphorisms, New York: Viking Press.
- Beyham-Edwards, Matilda (1911). "French Author and Publisher Barbey d’Aurévilly and Trebutien." In: French Men, Women and Books. Chicago: A.C. McClurg and Co., pp. 95–104.
- Bradley, William Aspenwall (1910). "Barbey D'Aurevilly: A French Disciple of Walter Scott," The North American Review, Vol. 192, No. 659, pp. 473–485.
- France, Anatole (1922). "Barbey d’Aurevilly." In: On Life and Letters. London: John Lane, the Bodley Head, pp. 37–44.
- Gosse, Edmund (1905). "Barbey d’Aurevilly." In: French Profiles. London: William Heinemann, pp. 92–107.
- Jackson, Holbrook (1914). "The New Dandyism." In: The Eighteen Nineties. London: Grant Richards Ltd., pp. 105–116.
- Jamieson, T. John (1985). "Conservatism's Metaphysical Vision: Barbey d'Aurevilly on Joseph de Maistre," Modern Age, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 28–37.
- Lowrie, Joyce O. (1974). The Violent Mystique: Thematics of Retribution and Expiation in Balzac, Barbey d'Aurevilly, Bloy and Huysmans. Genève: Droz.
- Menczer, Béla (1962). "The Primacy of Imagination: From Diderot to Barbey d’Aurevilly." In: Catholic Political Thought. University of Notre Dame Press, pp. 49–57.
- Turquet-Milnes, G. (1913). "Barbey d'Aurevilly." In: The Influence of Baudelaire. London: Constable and Company, Ltd., pp. 135–145.
- Thiollet, Jean-Pierre (2006). Barbey d'Aurevilly ou le Triomphe de l'Écriture. Paris: H & D Editions ISBN 2-914266-06-5
- Whibley, Charles (1897). "Barbey d’Aurevilly," The New Review, Vol. XVI, pp. 204–212.
- Whitridge, Arnold (1922). "Barbey d’Aurevilly," The Cornhill Magazine, New Series, Vol. LIII, pp. 49–56.
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- Works by Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly at Project Gutenberg (plain text and HTML)
- Works by or about Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly at Internet Archive
- Jules-Amédée Barbey d’Aurevilly: Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Jules-Amédée Barbey d’Aurevilly: Encyclopédie de L'Agora
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barbey d'Aurevilly, Jules Amédée". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.