Following unsuccessful studies of pharmacy, and a stint as a mathematics teacher at the Lycée du Quesnoy, he pursued a career in natural history. In 1853 he became a preparateur of geology at the Sorbonne, later obtaining his doctorate with a thesis titled Mémoire sur les terrains primaires de la Belgique, des environs d'Avesnes et du Boulonnais (1860). Gosselet is credited with providing a thorough description of the geological beds in the limestone at Étrœungt (schistes et calcaire d’Etroeungt).
He later taught high school physics and chemistry in Bordeaux, afterwards serving as an instructor of natural history at the Faculty of Poitiers. In 1864 he was appointed to the chair of geology at the recently established Faculty of Lille. In 1913 he became a non-resident member of the Academy of Sciences.
Gosselet is remembered for his geological studies of northern France, as demonstrated by the title of one of his better known works - Esquisse géologique du Nord de la France et des contrées voisines (Geological sketches of Nord and neighboring regions), (1880). Other significant writings include a geological treatise on the Ardennes- L'Ardenne (1888), and hydrogeological research on the aquifers of Nord - Leçons sur les nappes aquifères du Nord (1887).
- Prix Gosselet - Société géologique de France (biography)
- Strunian Geologica Belgica (2006) 9/1-2: 105-109
- Mémoire sur les terrains primaires de la Belgique by Jules Auguste A. Gosselet
- Google Books Esquisse géologique du nord de la France et des contrées voisines
- Google Books Leçons sur les nappes aquifères du Nord
- Bulletin de la Société d'histoire naturelle des Ardennes: 1893-1898 by Société d'histoire naturelle des Ardennes
- The Type Mineralogy of Belgium Annales de le Societe Geologique Belgiquie. February, 1994. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
- Drupal Gardens (bibliography)