Banse received her vocal training at the Zürich Opera, and with Brigitte Fassbaender in Munich. She won first prize in the singing competition of the Kulturforum in Munich in 1989. She made her operatic debut that year as Pamina in Mozart's Die Zauberflöte at the Komische Oper Berlin. In 1993, the International Franz Schubert Institute, whose jury that year included Elisabeth Schwarzkopf and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, awarded her first prize in the International Franz Schubert Competition.
Banse created the role of Schneewittchen in Heinz Holliger's 1998 opera Schneewittchen at the Zürich Opera House. She gave the world premiere of Bach's in 2005 discovered aria, Alles mit Gott und nichts ohn' ihn, BWV 1127, with András Schiff and Quatuor Mosaïques. She made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2014 as Zdenka in Richard Strauss' Arabella when she was called to replaced the indisposed Genia Kühmeier (de).
- "Juliane Banse will make her Met debut as Zdenka in this season's performances of Arabella", The Metropolitan Opera, 19 February 2014