Julius Tandler

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Commemorative plaque of Tandler, Kinderübernahmestelle in Wien-Alsergrund, Ayrenhoffgasse 9

Julius Tandler (February 16, 1869, Jihlava - August 25, 1936) was a physician and Social Democratic politician in Vienna, Austria. He is considered a leading personality of Red Vienna.

Born in Jihlava, Moravia, Tandler spent his schoolyears in Vienna. Later, his anatomical research secured him a lasting place in the history of anatomy. His main claim to fame, however, was his ambition to introduce a comprehensive system of health and social services in the Vienna municipality in the interwar years. On the other hand, he vehemently advocated euthanasia and proposed the sterilisation or extermination of "unworthy life" (unwertes Leben).

After the Februarkämpfe of 1934, Tandler had to quit his job. In 1936, he followed a call to Moscow to be an advisor in the Soviet hospital reform, but died there the same year.

The square in front of Vienna Franz Josef Station is named "Julius-Tandler-Platz", and a student residence in the Döbling district is named "Julius-Tandler-Heim".

Selected works[edit]

  • Anatomie des Herzens, 1913 - Anatomy of the heart.
  • Die biologischen Grundlagen der sekundären Geschlechtscharaktere, 1913 - The biological basis of secondary sexual characteristics.
  • Topographie dringlicher Operationen, 1916.
  • Lehrbuch der systematischen Anatomie, four volumes 1918-24 - Textbook of systematic anatomy.
  • Das Wohlfahrtsamt der Stadt Wien, 1931 - Welfare of the city of Vienna.[1]


  • Felix Czeike: Historisches Lexikon Wien, vol.5 (Kremayr & Scheriau: Vienna, 1997), p.415.
  • "Julius Tandler", in: Gerhard Heindl (ed.), Wissenschaft und Forschung in Österreich: Exemplarische Leistungen österreichischer Naturforscher, Techniker und Mediziner (Frankfurt am Main, 2000) 89-104.
  • "Zur Umsetzung und Verbreitung von eugenischem/rassenhygienischem Gedankengut in Österreich bis 1934 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung Wiens", in: Sonia Horn (ed.), Medizin im Nationalsozialismus—Wege der Aufarbeitung (Vienna, 2001) 99-127.