July (i/dʒʊˈlaɪ/ juu-LY) is the seventh month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and one of seven months with the length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honor of the Roman general, Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis.
It is, on average, the warmest month in most of the Northern hemisphere (where it is the second month of summer) and the coldest month in much of the Southern hemisphere (where it is the second month of winter). The second half of the year commences in July. In the Southern hemisphere, July is the seasonal equivalent of January in the Northern hemisphere.
July starts on the same day of the week as April in a common year, and January in leap years. In a common year no other month ends on the same day as July, while in a leap year July ends on the same day of the week as January.
The birthstone for July is a ruby.
In the Northern Hemisphere:
- Dog days begin in early July, when the hot sultry weather of summer usually starts.
- Summer school is under way for many students in the USA.
- Spring lambs, born in late winter or early spring, are usually sold before July 1.
- Tanabata, a Japanese traditional seasonal "make-a-wish" celebration, July 7
- The traditional period known as "fence month" (the closed season for deer in England) ended July 9 (date varied)
- End of the Trinity term (sitting of the High Court of Justice of England) July 31
- Elections of Japanese House of Councillors, replacing half of its seats, held every three years (the latest one in 2010).
- Captive Nations Week is the third week of July in the United States. It is aimed at raising public awareness of the oppression of nations under the control of Communist and other non-capitalist government systems, an ethnocentric attempt at dislodging the U.S.S.R.
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