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The following events occurred in July 1900.
- 1 July 1, 1900 (Sunday)
- 2 July 2, 1900 (Monday)
- 3 July 3, 1900 (Tuesday)
- 4 July 4, 1900 (Wednesday)
- 5 July 5, 1900 (Thursday)
- 6 July 6, 1900 (Friday)
- 7 July 7, 1900 (Saturday)
- 8 July 8, 1900 (Sunday)
- 9 July 9, 1900 (Monday)
- 10 July 10, 1900 (Tuesday)
- 11 July 11, 1900 (Wednesday)
- 12 July 12, 1900 (Thursday)
- 13 July 13, 1900 (Friday)
- 14 July 14, 1900 (Saturday)
- 15 July 15, 1900 (Sunday)
- 16 July 16, 1900 (Monday)
- 17 July 17, 1900 (Tuesday)
- 18 July 18, 1900 (Wednesday)
- 19 July 19, 1900 (Thursday)
- 20 July 20, 1900 (Friday)
- 21 July 21, 1900 (Saturday)
- 22 July 22, 1900 (Sunday)
- 23 July 23, 1900 (Monday)
- 24 July 24, 1900 (Tuesday)
- 25 July 25, 1900 (Wednesday)
- 26 July 26, 1900 (Thursday)
- 27 July 27, 1900 (Friday)
- 28 July 28, 1900 (Saturday)
- 29 July 29, 1900 (Sunday)
- 30 July 30, 1900 (Monday)
- 31 July 31, 1900 (Tuesday)
- 32 References
- 33 External links
July 1, 1900 (Sunday)
- Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary, married a the daughter of a Czech aristocrat, Sophie Chotek von Chotkova at Reichstadt in Bohemia (now Zakupy in the Czech Republic. The couple had four children: Princess Sophie von Hohenberg who was born the following year on 24 July 1901, while Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg was born on 28 September 1902 and Prince Ernst von Hohenberg in 1904. There was also a stillborn son born in 1908. The couple were shot on Sunday June 28, 1914 in Sarejvo by one of a team of Serbian nationalists.
- In Beijing, the Chinese army temporarily drove off German and American defenders within the legation area, and left one side unprotected for more than an hour. Had an attack been made at that time, the Chinese soldiers would have been able to overrun the foreign legations.
July 2, 1900 (Monday)
- Starting at 8:03 pm, the first rigid airship flew from the Manzell district of Friedrichshafen, Germany, near Lake Constance. Luftschiff Zeppelin 1 (or LZ1), with Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin and four others aboard, flew at an altitude of 1,300 feet (400 m), going 3.75 miles (6.04 km) in 18 minutes before being forced to land due to a broken part.
- From China came dispatches that, fortunately, proved to be wrong. According to some reports, the foreign legations in Beijing had been overrun and burned, and "the public execution of foreigners has been in progress since June 20." The New York Times published the rumors on page 7. The London Daily Mail printed a similar dispatch on July 16, 1900, and a memorial service was planned for St. Paul's Cathedral, then cancelled after the veracity of the Shanghai cable was questioned. Still, as rumors continued to be received from dispatches, the consensus was that it was unlikely that the heavily outnumbered foreigners could hold out against the Chinese armies.
- David Sarnoff, 9, arrived in the New York after emigrating from Uzlyany in Russia, and went to work selling newspapers. After becoming an office boy at American Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co., Sarnoff worked his way up and in 1916, would write a memo outlining his vision of making the radio as common a household item "as the piano or the phonograph". Over the next several decades, Sarnoff oversaw the spread of radio and then television across the world.
July 3, 1900 (Tuesday)
- U.S. Secretary of State John Hay, following up on the Open Door Policy toward China sent a diplomatic note to the European powers, making it clear that the Allied expedition against the Boxers should be limited to release of the legations, and that no attempt should be made to divide China among the victors in the invasion. "The policy of the Government of the United States is to seek a solution which may bring about permanent safety and peace to China, preserve Chinese territorial and administrative entity, protect all rights guaranteed to friendly Powers by treaty and international law, and safeguard for the world the principle of equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese Empire."
- In Beijing, a force of 23 British, 15 Russian and 15 American defenders departed the safety of the walled legation compound to go on the offensive. The multinational force destroyed a tower that the Chinese armies had been building outside the legation grounds. *In Beijing, the Chinese army temporarily drove off German and American defenders within the legation area, and left one side unprotected for more than an hour. Had an attack been made at that time, the Chinese soldiers would have been able to overrun the foreign legations.
- In Paris, a statue of George Washington was unveiled at the Place d'Iena, as a gift of the women of the United States to the people of France. [P1190516.jpg].
July 4, 1900 (Wednesday)
- During his lifetime, Louis Armstrong gave his birthdate as July 4, 1900. After the jazz musician died in 1972, however, author Gary Giddins located the birth certificate that showed Armstrong was born in New Orleans on August 4, 1901.
- The latest addition to William Randolph Hearst's newspaper empire was the Chicago American, which published its first edition on this day. The paper lasted 74 years, changing its name to Chicago Today, and publishing its final issue on September 13, 1974.
- One of the worst streetcar accidents in American history occurred in Tacoma, Washington, when a car plunged 100 feet into a ravine, killing 43 people and injuring 65. The passengers were coming from Lakeview, Parkland, and other southern suburbs for Tacoma's Independence Day celebration. Shortly after 8:00 a.m., the car jumped the track at 26th and C Streets. A 1910 streetcar accident in Kingsland, Indiana, had killed 41 people.
- The Standard Oil refinery in Bayonne, New Jersey, was destroyed. A lightning strike set fire to three of the 40,000-gallon tanks, which then spread to explode seven others. Windows were shattered in the Hook Village section of town, and the bay itself was set on fire. The fire, which caused $2.5 million in damage, was brought under control by July 7.
- Born: Robert Desnos, surrealist French poet, in Paris; died in 1945 of typhoid fever contracted while in German concentration camp.
July 5, 1900 (Thursday)
- The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act passed the British Parliament.
- In Kansas City, at the 1900 Democratic National Convention, William Jennings Bryan was nominated for President. The nomination, set for July 4, had been delayed over a battle on the "16 to 1" ratio of silver to gold as part of the Democratic platform. The proposition passed 26–24, with the margin coming from delegates from Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Hawaii, which were not yet states, while Alaska was against the proposition).
July 6, 1900 (Friday)
- The Allies were forced to retreat from Tien-tsin after a six-hour battle against Chinese troops. However, reinforcements arrived and the Eight-Nation Alliance would take the city on July 14.
- Warren Earp, 45, was shot and killed at the Headquarters Saloon in Willcox, Arizona. The town still holds its Western Heritage Days in acknowledgment of the event.
- Born: Frederica Sagor Maas, American screenwriter, in New York; died in 2012 at age 111, having lived in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries
July 7, 1900 (Saturday)
- In China, Bishop Antonino Fantosati and Father Joseph Gambaro were tortured and killed as they were returning by boat from a pastoral visit in the Hunan Province. Both men were among the Martyr Saints of China who would be canonized in 2000.
July 8, 1900 (Sunday)
- Henry D. Cogswell, an American philanthropist who championed the construction of drinking fountains across the nation as an aid to combatting the consumption of alcohol, died at the age of 80.
- Elliott Frost, son of poet Robert Frost, died at age three of typhoid fever. Frost, who blamed himself for not calling his personal physician sooner, later wrote about the tragedy in the poem "Home Burial" .
July 9, 1900 (Monday)
- In China, the Taiyuan Massacre took place as Governor Yu-Hsien of the Shanxi Province ordered captive foreign missionaries and their families to be executed. After being promised an escort to safety, the prisoners were brought before the Governor, who ordered their beheading. Reverend George Farthing was the first to die, and after all the men had been executed, Farthing's wife and three young children were killed along with the remaining foreigners. Forty-six (34 Protestant and 12 Catholic) died in one day. – forty-six altogether.
- Queen Victoria signed the An Act to Constitute the Commonwealth of Australia (Stat. of Victoria, 63 & 64, Chap. 12), in duplicate, keeping one copy for the United Kingdom, and giving the other document to the representatives of the Australian colonies to take home with them—along with the table, the inkstand, and the pen that had been used for the signing. Under the Act, the Queen would proclaim that five of the six colonies (Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland) and "if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto", a sixth, would "unite in one indissoluble Federal Commonwealth under the Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland." The proclamation was made on September 17, 1900, and the Commonwealth came into being on January 1, 1901.
July 10, 1900 (Tuesday)
- "Nipper", the RCA Victor dog, was registered as a trademark and became one of the advertising icons of the 20th century. The dog belonged to Francis Barraud, whose painting His Master's Voice showed the animal listening to just that on a gramophone.
July 11, 1900 (Wednesday)
- Charlotte Cooper of Great Britain became the first woman to ever win an Olympic medal, when she defeated Helene Prevost in the tennis competition at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris. The first revived games, at Athens in 1896, had been for men only.
- In the first and only Olympic competition for croquet, French athletes were the sole participants in all events. Gaston Aumoitte and Chrétien Waydelich won medals in the one-ball and two-ball competitions 
- The Buddhasasanangha Library was founded in Wat Benchamabophit, Siam (now Thailand. King Chulalongkorn intended to amassthe largest collection of Buddhist scriptures and books up to that time.
July 12, 1900 (Thursday)
- U.S. President William McKinley, vacationing at his home in Canton, Ohio, was formally notified of his renomination. An observer at the time noted that he made a long speech in reply, that was notable "because of the fact that he did not make a solitary reference to the Trusts."
- A German cruise liner, the SS Deutschland, broke the Blue Riband record for the first time with an average speed of 22.42 knots (41.52 km/h; 25.80 mph).
- Juan Gomez, described by the St. Augustine Record as "the oldest man in the United States", drowned while fishing in Florida—supposedly at the age of 122. Gomez had long claimed to be one of the crew of the pirate José Gaspar (Gasparilla), who terrorized the high seas until his death 1821.
July 13, 1900 (Friday)
- The Earl of Hopetoun, John Adrian Louis-Hope, was selected to be the first Governor-General of Australia. Hopetoun had been Governor of New South Wales from 1889 to 1895.
- Born: George Lewis, American jazz clarinetist; born as George Zenon in New Orleans; (d. 1968)
July 14, 1900 (Saturday)
- In China, Tientsin (Tianjin) was captured by the Allied forces after a three-day battle. The Allies had 775 killed or wounded, mostly from Russian troops and Japanese troops under the command of the Japanese Colonel Kuriya. Parties of German and French soldiers destroyed the enemy's guns, while American, British, Japanese and Austrian troops, and the Welsh Fussillers captured the arsenal.
July 15, 1900 (Sunday)
- The village of Tchou-kia-ho (Zhujiahe) in Qin County of Hebei Province was besieged by the Boxers and by Imperial soldiers. The walled village had, since May, been a haven for 3,000 Chinese Christians, and held out for three days before being overrun, and a massacre followed. Some catholic defenders, including Peter Zhu Rixing and Mary Zhu Wu, would later be canonized.
- On the same day, Chinese residents of the Russian city of Blagoveshchensk were slaughtered by Russian troops. By July 17, thousands of Chinese had been forced into the flood-swollen Amur River where they drowned.
July 16, 1900 (Monday)
- At the 1900 Summer Olympics nine track and field (athletics) events were held, closing out three days of competition. Ray Ewry, an American who had recovered from a crippling bout with polio, won three gold medals on the same day, in the standing high jump, the standing long jump and the standing triple jump, all events that were later discontinued. NYPD cop John Flanagan won the hammer throw, and a combined Denmark/Sweden team beat France to win the first Olympic tug of war competition.
- A few months after his return from exile in Siberia, Vladimir Lenin left Russia for Munich, Germany, to begin a five-year self-imposed exile. From there, he began work on publishing the newspaper Iskra, with the first issue created on December 11, 1900.
July 17, 1900 (Tuesday)
- In Beijing, a temporary truce was called between the Chinese army and the multinational defending force within the legation. Food was provided, and the foreign ambassadors were allowed to send telegrams back to their capitals. By month's end, the siege resumed.
- Mount Adatara erupted in Japan, killing 72 workers who had been digging for sulfur on the southwest side of the mountain.
- Christy Mathewson, Hall of Fame baseball pitcher, made his major league debut for the Giants in the fifth inning of a game against the Dodgers game, losing 13–7. New York was in the midst of a heat wave.
July 18, 1900 (Wednesday)
- Symphony No. 1 in E Minor by composer Jean Sibelius was first performed as conductor Robert Kajanus introduced it in Berlin.
July 19, 1900 (Thursday)
- The first line of the Métro was inaugurated in Paris. The underground subway ran an east–west route from Porte de Vincennes to Porte Maillot
- Michel Théato won the Olympic marathon in a time of 15 seconds short of 3 hours (2:59:45). Only 8 of the 19 entrants finished the 40.26 kilometres (25.02 mi) race, run in Paris heat over 102 °F (39 °C).
July 20, 1900 (Friday)
- "For one month we have been besieged in British Legation under continued shot and shell from Chinese troops. Quick relief only can prevent general massacre. --CONGER." China's minister to the United States, Wu Tingfang, delivered the telegraphed message to Secretary of State Hay, providing the first confirmation that the foreign envoys in Beijing were still alive. The message, sent by U.S. Ambassador to China Edwin H. Conger in the U.S. State Department cipher, had been a reply to Hay's ciphered message of July 11. To rule out the possibility that the Chinese army had captured the cipher books, Secretary Hay sent a reply the next day: "Despatch received. Authenticity doubted. Answer this giving your sister's name." Conger's reply confirmed the news.
July 21, 1900 (Saturday)
- Martyr Saints of China – St. Alberic Crescitelli
- Sir Arthur Sullivan made his last public appearance, attending the performance at Crystal Palace of the song, The Absent-Minded Beggar, Rudyard Kipling's poem, which he had set to music. Sullivan died four months later.
July 22, 1900 (Sunday)
- At the 1900 Summer Olympics, Walter Tewksbury of the United States won the 200 meter race for his fifth medal of the games (2 golds, 2 silver and 1 bronze. In the first and last Olympic 5000 meter team race, a combined British and Australian team defeated a French team.
July 23, 1900 (Monday)
- King Alexander I of Serbia announced that he would marry his mistress, Dara Maschin, who was one of the servants for his queen, Natalie. The Cabinet resigned, including Alexander's father, who was Commander-in-Chief of the Serbian army after abdicating in 1889. Despite protests, the marriage took place on August 5. The King would be assassinated in 1903.
- The First Pan-African Conference took place in London, a three-day international gathering focused on strategies to bring about rights for all people of African ancestry, independence from colonialism for African countries and international Black unity. W. E. B. DuBois and Henry Sylvester Williams were among the prominent names associated with the conference.
July 24, 1900 (Tuesday)
- Revolutionaries in China signed the document "Regulations for Peaceful Rule", written by lawyer Kai Ho, including Sun Yat-sen, as well as Yang Chu-yun and Xie Zhantai (Tse Tsan Tai), for presentation to Hong Kong Governor Henry Arthur Blake, requesting British help in reconstructing China to a parliamentary government, with an advisory body composed of foreign ambassadors.
July 25, 1900 (Wednesday)
- In New Orleans, rioting broke out as white rioters began attacking black residents at random. The day before, Robert Charles, a black man, had shot and killed two policemen, then escaped. With Charles still on the loose, a mob gathered at the Lee Monument at 7 pm and then marched up St. Charles Avenue toward the Negro section of town. Two days later, Charles was located at 1208 Saratoga Avenue and killed, but not before he shot 24 people.
July 26, 1900 (Thursday)
- The Office of the Postmaster General of the United States issued its Order No. 875, which provided that "the introduction of rural free delivery will not increase or otherwise modify the present rate of postage on second-class matter", increasing the delivery of magazines and newspapers to rural locations.
July 27, 1900 (Friday)
- Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave the infamous "Huns Speech" at Bremerhaven as he dispatched troops to fight in China. The most inflammatory line was, "Wie vor tausend Jahren die Hunnen unter ihrem König Etzel sich einen Namen gemacht, der sie noch jetzt in Überlieferung und Märchen gewaltig erscheinen läßt, so möge der Name Deutscher in China auf 1000 Jahre durch euch in einer Weise bestätigt werden, daß es niemals wieder ein Chinese wagt, einen Deutschen scheel anzusehen!" . "Just as the Huns under their King Etzel (figure of the "Nibelungenlied") made a name for themselves a thousand years ago which still, in saga and tradition, makes them appear powerful, so may the name "German" be impressed by you for a thousand years, that no Chinese will ever dare again look askance at a German!" The Germans were, for a century thereafter, referred to as "Huns".
July 28, 1900 (Saturday)
- In Zurich, Albert Einstein received his diploma from technical school, the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH)
- Hsi Ching-ch'eng, formerly China's ambassador to Russia, Germany, Austria, and Holland, was executed for his opposition to the Boxer faction in the Imperial Court.
July 29, 1900 (Sunday)
- At Monza, King Umberto I of Italy was assassinated by anarchist Gaetano Bresci, a resident of Paterson, New Jersey. The King had attended an awards ceremony at a gymnastics competition, and was preparing to leave at 10:00 p.m., when Bresci shot him three times. Umberto's son Victor Emmanuel III, the Prince of Naples, succeeded him. Back in the Paterson, where Mrs. Bresci still lived, Mayor John Hinchcliffe reassured the press that the city's 104 policemen were keeping an eye on possible terrorism. "There is one thing I want to say, and that is the plot to kill King Humbert was not hatched in New Jersey," said Governor Foster M. Voorhees, adding, "I am sure it was made up in New York if plotted in this country at all." Legend has it that King Umberto met his exact double the day before at a restaurant, and that the man died earlier in the day "of a shooting accident".
- Born: Eyvind Johnson, Swedish writer; witnner of Nobel Prize in Literature, 1974; in Boden, Sweden; (d. 1976)
July 30, 1900 (Monday)
- On the same day that Queen Victoria's second son, Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, died, her eldest, Albert, Prince of Wales, presided over the inauguration of the Central London Railway, London's third underground subway.
July 31, 1900 (Tuesday)
- By a margin of 44,800 to 19,691 voters in the colony of Western Australia approved the Australian Constitution, clearing the way for their admission as a state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
- "Archduke Franz Ferdinand Married", New York Times, July 2, 1900, p6
- Boot, Max (2003). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books. p. 83. ISBN 046500721X. LCCN 2004-695066.
- "Zeppelin, Ferdinand", The Americana (Scientific American, 1911)
- "All Foreigners in Peking Dead?", New York Times, July 3, 1900, p7
- James Louis Hevia, English Lessons: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-century China (Duke University Press, 2003), p192
- "Reign of Terror in China's Capital; No Hope Now Left that the Envoys Can Be Saved; Probably Killed Days Ago", New York Times, July 4, 1900, p1; "Allied Troops At Tien-Tsin Cut Off; The Massacre at Peking; Detailed Accounts Leave Hardly Any Room for Doubt that All Foreigners Are Dead-- Rising Spreads to South", NYT, July 6, 1900, p1; "Hope For Envoys Again Grows Dim", NYT, July 9, 1900, p1; "All Hope Lost For Peking Foreigners; Even State Department Now Believes They Are Dead", NYT, July 14, 1900, p1; "Still No Details Of Envoys' Fate; But All Hope is Given Up", NYT, July 15, 1900, p1; "Details of the Peking Tragedy; Foreigners All Slain After a Last Heroic Stand", NYT, July 16, 1900, p1
- Movers and Shakers: The 100 Most Influential Figures in Modern Business, pp1138–39 (Basic Books, 2003) p311
- Lyman Van Slyke, The China White Paper: August 1949 (Stanford University Press, 1967), p431
- "A Franco-American Fete", New York Times, July 4, 1900, p1
- Dan Rather and Walter Isaacson, People of the Century: One Hundred Men and Women Who Shaped the Last One Hundred Years (Simon & Schuster, 1999), p204
- Ben Proctor, William Randolph Hearst, p153
- "Last edition", Independent Press-Telegram (Long Beach, Cal.), September 14, 1974.
- "Forty Killed in Tacoma", New York Times, July 5, 1900, p6
- David E. Nye, Electrifying America: Social Meanings of a New Technology, 1880–1940 (MIT Press, 1992), p102
- Kathleen Middleton, Bayonne (Arcadia Publishing, 1995), pp64–66
- "Bryan Nominated; 16 To 1 Platform", New York Times, July 6, 1900, p1
- Library of World History (Western Press Assn. 1914) p4684
- Wesley Treat, Weird Arizona (Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2007), p200
- Tim Drake, Saints of the Jubilee (AuthorHouse, 2002), p81
- Jay Parini, Robert Frost: A Life (Macmillan, 2000), pp67–68
- Robert Coventry Forsyth, The China Martyrs of 1900: A Complete Roll of the Christian Heroes Martyred in China in 1900 (Religious Tract Society, 1904), pp38–40
- Richard Jebb, Studies in Colonial Nationalism (E. Arnold, 1905), p82
- William Harrison Moore, The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia (G. Partridge & Co., 1902), pp335–336
- Vaclav Smil, Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867–1914 and Their Lasting Impact (Oxford University Press US, 2005), p240
- Phil Cousineau, The Olympic Odyssey: Rekindling the True Spirit of the Great Games (Quest Books, 2003), p118
- Allen Kent, Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Volume 43, p215
- William H. Muldoon, Mark Hanna's "moral Cranks" And—others: A Study of Today (G.F. Spinney Co., 1900), p. 319
- Charlie Carlson, Weird Florida (Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2005), p39
- "Earl of Hopetoun selected", New York Times, July 14, 1900, p1
- "Allies Victorious; Tien-Tsin Captured", New York Times, July 18, 1900, p1
- Ann Ball, Young Faces of Holiness, p174
- Wirt Gerrare, Greater Russia: The Continental Empire of the Old World (Macmillan, 1904) pp232–33
- William F. Nimmo, Stars and Stripes Across the Pacific, p49 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001)
- David Wallechinsky, The Complete Book of the Olympics (Penguin Books, 1984), pp120–122
- Lenin (Fleet Street Press, reprinted in READ BOOKS, 2006) pp35–36
- A Handbook for Travellers in Japan (J. Murray 1907), p487
- Michael Hartley, Christy Mathewson: A Biography (McFarland, 2004) p20
- David Ewen, Music for the millions – The Encyclopedia of Musical Masterpieces (READ Books, 2007) p533
- David C. Goodman and Colin Chant, ed. European Cities & Technology (Routledge, 1999), p208
- "Word Received From Mr. Conger", New York Times, July 21, 1900, p1
- William Roscoe Thayer, "The Life and Letters of John Hay" (Houghton Mifflin, 1916) p237
- The Annual Register of World Events For the Year 1900 (Longmans, Green and Co., 1901) p24
- "This Week in Black History", New Pittsburgh Courier.
- Jung-Fang Tsai, Hong Kong in Chinese History (Columbia University Press, 1995), pp165–66
- "Mob Rule In New Orleans", New York Times, July 26, 1900, 1
- William Ivy Hair, Carnival of Fury: Robert Charles and the New Orleans Race Riot of 1900 (LSU Press, 1986), p1
- Senate Documents, Vol. 8, (G.P.O. 1908) pp54–56
- Manfred Jonas, The United States and Germany: A Diplomatic History (Cornell University Press, 1985) p63
- John B. Severance, Einstein: Visionary Scientist (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999), pp28–32
- Lo Hui-min, ed. The Correspondence of G.E. Morrison (CUP Archive, 1976), p407
- "King of Italy Assassinated", New York Times, July 30, 1900, p1
- Mark Mappen, Jerseyana: The Underside of New Jersey History (Rutgers University Press, 1992), pp120–121
- Vikas Khatree, 136 Incredible Coincidences (Pustak Mahal) pp16–18
- Brian Cudahy, A Century of Subways: Celebrating 100 Years of New York's Underground Railways (Fordham University Press, 2004), pp138–139
- "Australian Federation", New International Encyclopedia, 2d Ed. (Dodd, Mead, 1914), p405