Operation Crossroads: At 8:59 am and 45 seconds local time, at the Bikini Atoll, an atomic bomb was detonated for the fourth time in human history. A fleet of 73 unmanned ships had been assembled in the South Pacific Ocean to observe the effects of the blast, and for the first time, the press and representatives of the rest of the world's nations had been invited. The explosion took place at 2159:45 UTC on June 30 (5:59 pm EST). The transport USS Gilliam, closest to the blast, and USS Carlisle sank immediately, while the destroyer USS Lamson was capsized. The heavily armored Japanese ship Sakawa sank the next day. Animals on the USS Burleson died of radiation poisoning over the weeks after initially showing normal bloodcounts.
The Luce-Celler Act of 1946 was signed into law, giving all Philippines citizens living in the United States the right to become naturalized U.S. citizens.
In the American Zone of Germany, Lt. Gen. Lucius D. Clay, the Deputy Military Governor, pardoned all Nazis under 27 years old, except for those accused of war crimes, and restored one million men to German citizenship. One commentator noted, "Clay acted on the assumption that many of these Germans became Nazis before they were old enough to realize what they were doing." 
The Republic of the Philippines was born, and Manuel Roxas was inaugurated as its first President. Forty-eight years after the United States had first claimed the islands as an American territory, U.S. President Harry S. Truman issued a formal proclamation that "On behalf of the United States of America, I do hereby recognize the independence of the Philippines as a separate and self-governing nation and acknowledge the authority and control over the same of the government instituted by the people thereof, under the constitution now in force." Present at the raising of the Philippine flag were General Douglas MacArthur and U.S. Senator Millard Tydings, and Emilio Aguinaldo, who had begun the fight for independence in 1898.
Kielce pogrom: After his 8 year old son lied about being kidnapped and held hostage by a group of Jews, Walenty Blaszczyk guided police to a Jewish neighborhood in Kielce, Poland. Over the next several hours, more than forty of the Jews were murdered by a mob, without interference from the police. At 59, the boy, a retired pensioner who was still living in Kielce, told a Polish government inquest that his father had told him to lie to the police.
At the Piscine Molitor in Paris, model Micheline Bernardini became the first woman to wear a two-piece swimsuit created by designer Louis Réard. In an homage to the site of the atomic bomb test earlier in the week, Reard named the garment the bikini.;
Leo Durocher, the manager of baseball's Brooklyn Dodgers, first uttered what would become a famous phrase, after the New York Giants beat them 7-6 to rise from last place to 7th in the National League. Frank Graham, a reporter for the Journal-American, wrote in his Sunday column that Durocher had pointed to the Giants' dugout and said, "The nice guys are all over there, in seventh place." Durocher recalled the remark nearly 30 years later as "Take a look at them. All nice guys. They'll finish last." The remark continued to be paraphrased, and in April 1948, Cosmopolitan magazine published an article about Durocher with the title "Nice Guys Finish Last".
Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini (1850–1917) became the first American citizen to be elevated to sainthood in the Roman Catholic Church, canonized under the authority of Pope Pius XII. Mother Cabrini, a native of Italy, came to the United States in 1889 and began a career of founding schools and hospitals. She became a U.S. citizen on October 9, 1909, and had been beatified on November 13, 1938.
Multi-millionaire Howard Hughes was seriously injured when his XF-11 plane crashed into a home on North Linden Drive in Beverly Hills. Hughes, who was rescued from the burning wreckage by a passerby, sustained third degree burns and began a lifelong addiction to painkillers.
Occupation of Germany: At the meeting in Paris of the foreign ministers of the four Allied powers, U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes proposed an economic merger of the occupation zones. The United Kingdom agreed on July 29, and the American and British zones became the "United Economic Area", informally referred to as "Bizonia", on January 1, 1947. The French zone joined in 1949, and the three areas would become West Germany later in the year.
Seven United States Marines were taken prisoner in China's Hebei Province by Communist forces, at the village of Hsinanchuang, near Qinhuangdao. A truce team secured the men's release after eleven days.
Born:Cheech Marin, American actor and comedian as Richard Anthony Marin in Los Angeles
The "Boudreau shift" was first employed by Lou Boudreau, manager and shortstop for the Cleveland Indians, in the second game of doubleheader against the Boston Red Sox. After Boston's Ted Williams hit three home runs to beat Cleveland 11-10, Boudreau moved all four infielders and two outfielders to the right side of the field when the left-handed Williams came to bat again. The Indians still lost, 6-4.
A loan of 3.75 billion dollars to the United Kingdom, at 1.62 percent interest, was approved 46-34 by the United States Senate, after the House had voted 219-155 in its favor. By July 15, 1947, "within six months of convertibility of sterling requirements coming into force," noted one historian later, "British gold and dollar reserves were exhausted. With bankruptcy staring it in the face, the Attlee government made plans for a severe austerity program at home and a strategic retrenchment abroad." 
President Truman presented the Presidential distinguished unit citation banner to the members of the 442nd Regiment of the U.S. Army, in a White House ceremony. Truman praised the regiment, made up of Japanese-American citizens, "for victory over both the enemy and over prejudice".
"Felix", a cat living on the 9th floor of an apartment house in New York City, tumbled from a balcony, but landed, unharmed, on a ledge ten feet from the ground, then hopped down.
After formerly being limited to general elections only, African Americans voted in a primary election in Georgia for the first time, with more than 100,000 turning out to decide on the Democratic Party nominee for Governor. Although the black vote was a factor in James V. Carmichael getting more votes than former Governor Eugene Talmadge (314,421 to 305,777), Talmadge won the nomination anyway, based on the state's "county unit" system, similar to an electoral vote. Talmadge won the general election in November, but died a month later before he could be inaugurated. The unit vote system was later abolished.
A plane crash in Ecuador killed all 26 passengers and 6 crew members on board. The Andesa Airlines flight from Guayaquil, piloted by two Americans, struck a hillside while attempting a landing at Cuenca.
Introduced for the first time and endorsed by President Truman, the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution, failed to pass the U.S. Senate. Although the vote was 38-35 in favor of the proposal, a 2/3 majority was required for passage.
Born:Ilie Năstase, Romanian tennis player, #1 in the world 1973-74, winner of U.S. Open, Wimbledon and French Open 1972-73; in Bucharest
"Report of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack" was released. Chaired by U.S. Senator Alben W. Barkley, with U.S. Representative Jere Cooper as vice-chairman, the ten member committee had voted 8-2 to approve the finding that "The committee has found no evidence to support the charges, made before and during the hearings, that the President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, or the Secretary of Navy tricked, provoked, incited, cajoled, or coerced Japan into attacking this Nation in order that a declaration of war might be more easily obtained from the Congress,"  and assigned blame to the highest-ranking officer in Hawaii at the time, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and Lt. Gen. Walter C. Short. U.S. Senators Homer Ferguson and Owen Brewster dissented, saying that President Roosevelt and his military advisors "were just as responsible for the nation's worst military disaster".
King David Hotel bombing: At 12:37 pm  in Jerusalem, the Zionist terrorist group Irgun detonated 350 kilograms of gelignite explosives at the King David Hotel, headquarters of the British Mandate for Palestine, collapsing a section of the building and killing ninety-one people. The final death toll was 28 British nationals, 41 Palestinian Arabs, 17 Jewish residents, and five foreign guests. Members of the group had smuggled the bomb material into the hotel in seven milk cans, and claimed later that they had telephoned a warning which had been ignored by the Chief Secretary, Sir John Shaw.
Moore's Ford Lynching: Two African American couples, George and Mae Dorsey, and Roger and Dorothy Malcolm, were murdered by a mob of white men, after their car was stopped near Monroe, Georgia. Although the crime aroused outrage across the United States, nobody was ever prosecuted for the murders.
The U.S. Office of Price Administration, authorized to act after a 25-day lapse in its activities, issued orders restoring price controls, but at a higher effectively raising prices on thousands of items sold in the United States. Under the "OPA Revival Act" that had been signed by President Truman the day before, food prices would not be controlled again until August 20.
Howard C. Petersen, the Assistant Secretary of War, announced that, in addition to deaths in combat, 131,028 American and Filipino citizens, mostly civilians, had died "as a result of war crimes" from December 7, 1941 until the end of World War II. The group included 91,184 Filipino civilians and 595 American civilians who had been killed as a result of "murder, cruelty and torture, starvation and neglect, or.. other assaults and mistreatment".
At the Anping district of China's Hebei Province, near the village of Hohsiwu, a 300 man force of the Communist People's Liberation Army ambushed a supply convoy of 41 United States Marines. In the battle that followed, four Americans  and at least fifteen Chinese members of the died.
The passenger ship MV Vipya capsized in a storm while traveling on Lake Nyasa near Chilumba in Malawi, drowning 145 of the 194 passengers and crewmen on board. The ship, built by the same company that had constructed RMS Titanic, was only on its fourth trip. Reportedly, the ship's captain refused to return to shore when the vessel began taking on water.
Venona project: American cryptanalystMeredith Gardner was able to make the first breakthrough in a team project to crack the secret codes used by the Soviet Union in its espionage activities in the United States. After his successful decryption of one encoded phrase within intercepted telegrams, the team was able to deconstruct more of the coded transmissions.
The Morrison-Grady Plan, proposed by Herbert Morrison of Britain and Henry F. Grady of the U.S., providing for the division of Palestine into four, with 17% of the land set aside for up to 100,000 Jewish immigrants, 40% for Palestinian Arabs, and 43% for a neutral zone under British control. The plan was endorsed by President Truman and Prime Minister Attlee, but Jewish and Arab groups both rejected the proposal.
^"Bread Rationing on Sunday", Glasgow Herald, July 19, 1946, p5
^"The Fabulous Phantom" (Wings Magazine, December 1985), reprinted in The Best of Wings Magazine (Brassey's, 2001), p234
^Richard Worth, The Arab-Israeli Conflict (Marshall Cavendish, 2006) p36
^"54 Die, Many Hurt By Bomb In Palestine" St. Petersburg Times, July 23, 1946, p1; Harvey W. Kushner, Encyclopedia of Terrorism (SAGE, 2003) pp180-181
^Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober, Israel at Sixty: A Pictorial and Oral History of a Nation Reborn (John Wiley and Sons, 2008) p64
^"Huge Staging Area Becomes Ghost Town", Reading (PA) Eagle, July 23, 1946, p3; John Hammond Moore, The Faustball Tunnel: German POWs in America And Their Great Escape By (Naval Institute Press, 1978) pp238-241
^Edwin M. Martin, The Allied Occupation of Japan (Stanford University Press, 1948) p78
^"Soviet Rejects U.S. Proposal to Control Atom", Chicago Tribune, July 25, 1946, p1; Robert Jungk, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1970) p250
^"BOMB BLASTS MILLION TONS OF WATER 9,000 FEET INTO AIR", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 25, 1946, p1
^Eric Croddy and James J. Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology and History, Vol. 2 (ABC-CLIO, 2005) p30
^Jerry Lewis with James Kaplan, Dean and Me: A Love Story (Random House, Inc., 2005) p1
^"REVIVED OPA INCREASES MANY PRICES", Spokane Daily Chronicle, July 26, 1946, p1
^M.P. Ajithkumar, India-Pakistan Relations: The Story of a Fractured Fraternity (Gyan Books, 2006) p53; S.M. Ikram, Indian Muslims and Partition of India (Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1995) p389
^"Thousands Slain By Japs, War Crime Survey Shows", St. Petersburg Times, July 29, 1946, p3
^"Three Marines Killed in China", Berkeley Daily Gazette, July 31, 1946, p1; "Chinese Communists Acknowledge Battle With Marines, Call Upon Americans to Quit Country", Schenectady (NY) Gazette, August 2, 1946, p1; George B. Clark, Treading Softly: U.S. Marines in China, 1819-1949 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) pp153-154
^Pradeep Kumar Johri, Encyclopaedia Of Tourism In 21St Century (Anmol Publications 2005) p49; Air India history
^Philip Briggs, Malawi, 5th ed., (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010) p288; "Disaster in Africa", Eugene (OR) Register-Guard, August 2, 1946, p3
^Peter Grose, Operation Rollback: America's Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001) p88
^Michael B. Oren, Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East, 1776 to the Present (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p487; H.H. Ben-Sasson A History of the Jewish People (Harvard University Press, 1976)