July 1946

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1946 : January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December
July 1, 1946: Bikini Atoll and 73 ships nuked
July 22, 1946: Zionists bomb the King David Hotel in Jerusalem
July 25, 1946: First underwater nuclear explosion
July 6, 1946: Future U.S. President George W. Bush born to future U.S. President George H.W. Bush, future First Lady Barbara Bush

The following events occurred in July 1946:

July 1, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

  • Operation Crossroads: At 8:59 am and 45 seconds local time, at the Bikini Atoll, an atomic bomb was detonated for the fourth time in human history. A fleet of 73 unmanned ships had been assembled in the South Pacific Ocean to observe the effects of the blast, and for the first time, the press and representatives of the rest of the world's nations had been invited. The explosion took place at 2159:45 UTC on June 30 (5:59 pm EST). The transport USS Gilliam, closest to the blast, and USS Carlisle sank immediately, while the destroyer USS Lamson was capsized.[1] The heavily armored Japanese ship Sakawa sank the next day.[2] Animals on the USS Burleson died of radiation poisoning over the weeks after initially showing normal bloodcounts.[3]

July 2, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Luce-Celler Act of 1946 was signed into law, giving all Philippines citizens living in the United States the right to become naturalized U.S. citizens.[4]
  • In the American Zone of Germany, Lt. Gen. Lucius D. Clay, the Deputy Military Governor, pardoned all Nazis under 27 years old, except for those accused of war crimes, and restored one million men to German citizenship. One commentator noted, "Clay acted on the assumption that many of these Germans became Nazis before they were old enough to realize what they were doing." [5]
  • The town of Kerman, California was incorporated.
  • Born: Richard Axel, American neuroscientist, 2004 Nobel Prize laureate, in New York City
  • Died: Howard Hyde Russell, 89, founder, Anti-Saloon League, and Mary Alden, 63, American stage & screen actress

July 3, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 4, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

President Roxas
Flag of the Philippines.svg
  • The Republic of the Philippines was born, and Manuel Roxas was inaugurated as its first President. Forty-eight years after the United States had first claimed the islands as an American territory, U.S. President Harry S. Truman issued a formal proclamation that "On behalf of the United States of America, I do hereby recognize the independence of the Philippines as a separate and self-governing nation and acknowledge the authority and control over the same of the government instituted by the people thereof, under the constitution now in force." Present at the raising of the Philippine flag were General Douglas MacArthur and U.S. Senator Millard Tydings, and Emilio Aguinaldo, who had begun the fight for independence in 1898.[8]
  • Kielce pogrom: After his 8 year old son lied about being kidnapped and held hostage by a group of Jews, Walenty Blaszczyk guided police to a Jewish neighborhood in Kielce, Poland. Over the next several hours, more than forty of the Jews were murdered by a mob, without interference from the police.[9] At 59, the boy, a retired pensioner who was still living in Kielce, told a Polish government inquest that his father had told him to lie to the police.[10]
  • Born: Michael Milken, American "junk bond" financier, in Encino, California; and Ron Kovic, author of Born on the Fourth of July, in Ladysmith, Wisconsin

July 5, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • At the Piscine Molitor in Paris, model Micheline Bernardini became the first woman to wear a two-piece swimsuit created by designer Louis Réard. In an homage to the site of the atomic bomb test earlier in the week, Reard named the garment the bikini.;[11]
100 quintillion pengos
  • As inflation in Hungary spiraled out of control, the national bank in Budapest put into circulation an unprecedented note of currency, a bill for one hundred quintillion (100,000,000,000,000,000) pengős.[12]
  • Leo Durocher, the manager of baseball's Brooklyn Dodgers, first uttered what would become a famous phrase, after the New York Giants beat them 7-6 to rise from last place to 7th in the National League. Frank Graham, a reporter for the Journal-American, wrote in his Sunday column that Durocher had pointed to the Giants' dugout and said, "The nice guys are all over there, in seventh place." Durocher recalled the remark nearly 30 years later as "Take a look at them. All nice guys. They'll finish last." The remark continued to be paraphrased, and in April 1948, Cosmopolitan magazine published an article about Durocher with the title "Nice Guys Finish Last".[13]

July 6, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

George W. Bush
Sylvester Stallone
#Fred Dryer

July 7, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

July 8, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Soviet military government in Austria began deporting 54,000 persons who had moved there from Germany following the 1938 Anschluss, after setting a deadline of 6:00 am the day before.[23]
  • Died: Orrick Johns, 59, American writer, by suicide;

July 9, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

July 10, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 11, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Occupation of Germany: At the meeting in Paris of the foreign ministers of the four Allied powers, U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes proposed an economic merger of the occupation zones. The United Kingdom agreed on July 29, and the American and British zones became the "United Economic Area", informally referred to as "Bizonia", on January 1, 1947. The French zone joined in 1949, and the three areas would become West Germany later in the year.[28]

July 12, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

July 13, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Seven United States Marines were taken prisoner in China's Hebei Province by Communist forces, at the village of Hsinanchuang, near Qinhuangdao.[31] A truce team secured the men's release after eleven days.[32]
  • Born: Cheech Marin, American actor and comedian as Richard Anthony Marin in Los Angeles
  • Died: Alfred Stieglitz, 82, American photographer; and Riley Puckett, 52, country music singer and comedian

July 14, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The "Boudreau shift" was first employed by Lou Boudreau, manager and shortstop for the Cleveland Indians, in the second game of doubleheader against the Boston Red Sox. After Boston's Ted Williams hit three home runs to beat Cleveland 11-10, Boudreau moved all four infielders and two outfielders to the right side of the field when the left-handed Williams came to bat again. The Indians still lost, 6-4.[33]
  • Born: John Wood, Australian TV actor (Blue Heelers)

July 15, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

  • A loan of 3.75 billion dollars to the United Kingdom, at 1.62 percent interest, was approved 46-34 by the United States Senate, after the House had voted 219-155 in its favor. By July 15, 1947, "within six months of convertibility of sterling requirements coming into force," noted one historian later, "British gold and dollar reserves were exhausted. With bankruptcy staring it in the face, the Attlee government made plans for a severe austerity program at home and a strategic retrenchment abroad." [34]
  • President Truman presented the Presidential distinguished unit citation banner to the members of the 442nd Regiment of the U.S. Army, in a White House ceremony. Truman praised the regiment, made up of Japanese-American citizens, "for victory over both the enemy and over prejudice".[35]
  • "Felix", a cat living on the 9th floor of an apartment house in New York City, tumbled from a balcony, but landed, unharmed, on a ledge ten feet from the ground, then hopped down.[36]
  • Born: Linda Ronstadt, American singer and songwriter, in Tucson, Arizona; and Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei since 1967, at Bandar Seri Begawan
  • Died: Wen Yiduo, 46, Chinese poet and activist, was assassinated hours after he delivered the eulogy at a funeral for Li Gongpu.[37]

July 16, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

July 17, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • After formerly being limited to general elections only, African Americans voted in a primary election in Georgia for the first time, with more than 100,000 turning out to decide on the Democratic Party nominee for Governor.[40] Although the black vote was a factor in James V. Carmichael getting more votes than former Governor Eugene Talmadge (314,421 to 305,777), Talmadge won the nomination anyway, based on the state's "county unit" system, similar to an electoral vote.[41] Talmadge won the general election in November, but died a month later before he could be inaugurated. The unit vote system was later abolished.[42]
  • A plane crash in Ecuador killed all 26 passengers and 6 crew members on board. The Andesa Airlines flight from Guayaquil, piloted by two Americans, struck a hillside while attempting a landing at Cuenca.[43]
  • Born: Gerald Gallego, American serial killer, in Sacramento
  • Died: Gen. Draja Mihailovic, 50, and 8 other Chetniks were executed by a firing squad in Belgrade, after being convicted of collaborating with German invaders during World War II.

July 18, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

July 19, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • Introduced for the first time and endorsed by President Truman, the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution, failed to pass the U.S. Senate. Although the vote was 38-35 in favor of the proposal, a 2/3 majority was required for passage.[45]
  • Born: Ilie Năstase, Romanian tennis player, #1 in the world 1973-74, winner of U.S. Open, Wimbledon and French Open 1972-73; in Bucharest

July 20, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

  • "Report of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack" was released. Chaired by U.S. Senator Alben W. Barkley, with U.S. Representative Jere Cooper as vice-chairman, the ten member committee had voted 8-2 to approve the finding that "The committee has found no evidence to support the charges, made before and during the hearings, that the President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, or the Secretary of Navy tricked, provoked, incited, cajoled, or coerced Japan into attacking this Nation in order that a declaration of war might be more easily obtained from the Congress," [46] and assigned blame to the highest-ranking officer in Hawaii at the time, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and Lt. Gen. Walter C. Short. U.S. Senators Homer Ferguson and Owen Brewster dissented, saying that President Roosevelt and his military advisors "were just as responsible for the nation's worst military disaster".[47]
  • Born: Leonard Lake, American serial killer (d. 1985)

July 21, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

July 22, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

July 23, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The last German prisoners of war in the United States were released, as 1,385 POWs were placed on the ship General Yates, following detention at Camp Shanks in New York. In all, there had been 375,000 German prisoners kept in the U.S. at the end of World War II.[54]
  • The Zaibatsu, the Japanese corporations that had financed that nation's war effort, were abolished by imperial order. Many of the corporations began to be reconstituted in 1953.[55]
  • A month after Bill Veeck had purchased the Cleveland Indians, he staged the first of many unprecedented promotions, with a 15-piece band in Indian attire and a post-game fireworks display.[56]

July 24, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 25, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

Martin and Lewis

July 26, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • The U.S. Office of Price Administration, authorized to act after a 25-day lapse in its activities, issued orders restoring price controls, but at a higher effectively raising prices on thousands of items sold in the United States. Under the "OPA Revival Act" that had been signed by President Truman the day before, food prices would not be controlled again until August 20.[63]

July 27, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

July 28, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Howard C. Petersen, the Assistant Secretary of War, announced that, in addition to deaths in combat, 131,028 American and Filipino citizens, mostly civilians, had died "as a result of war crimes" from December 7, 1941 until the end of World War II. The group included 91,184 Filipino civilians and 595 American civilians who had been killed as a result of "murder, cruelty and torture, starvation and neglect, or.. other assaults and mistreatment".[65]
  • Born: Linda Kelsey, American actress (Lou Grant), in Minneapolis
  • Died: Alphonsa Muttathupadathu, 35, Indian nun

July 29, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

July 30, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The passenger ship MV Vipya capsized in a storm while traveling on Lake Nyasa near Chilumba in Malawi, drowning 145 of the 194 passengers and crewmen on board. The ship, built by the same company that had constructed RMS Titanic, was only on its fourth trip. Reportedly, the ship's captain refused to return to shore when the vessel began taking on water.[68]
  • Born: Neil Bonnett, American NASCAR driver, in Hueytown, Alabama (killed in accident, 1994), and Barbara Kopple, American film director, in New York City

July 31, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Venona project: American cryptanalyst Meredith Gardner was able to make the first breakthrough in a team project to crack the secret codes used by the Soviet Union in its espionage activities in the United States. After his successful decryption of one encoded phrase within intercepted telegrams, the team was able to deconstruct more of the coded transmissions.[69]
  • The Morrison-Grady Plan, proposed by Herbert Morrison of Britain and Henry F. Grady of the U.S., providing for the division of Palestine into four, with 17% of the land set aside for up to 100,000 Jewish immigrants, 40% for Palestinian Arabs, and 43% for a neutral zone under British control. The plan was endorsed by President Truman and Prime Minister Attlee, but Jewish and Arab groups both rejected the proposal.[70]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SPECTACULAR ATOM BOMB BLAST SINKS TWO SHIPS, DAMAGES 20", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 1, 1946, p1
  2. ^ "Jap Cruiser Sinks After Atomic Blast", Post-Gazette, July 2, 1946, p1
  3. ^ "Atom Test Animals Melt Away", Post-Gazette, July 15, 1946, p3
  4. ^ "Roots in the Sand", pbs.org; Barbara Mercedes Posadas, The Filipino Americans (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999) p26
  5. ^ "Younger Nazis Given Pardons In U.S. Zone", Post-Gazette, July 3, 1946, p4
  6. ^ Murray Levine, The History and Politics of Community Mental Health (Oxford University Press US, 1981) p43
  7. ^ "Communist Named Czech Premier" Miami Daily News, July 4, 1946, p1
  8. ^ "Republic of Philippines Born Amid Rubble of War- Roxas Sworn In As First President" St. Petersburg Times, July 4, 1946, p1
  9. ^ "The Kielce Pogrom" by Bozena Szaynok, Jewish Virtual Library; "40 Die in Attacks on Polish Jews; False Story by Boy, 8, Starts Riots", Pittsburgh Press, July 5, 1946, p1
  10. ^ "Remembering the Pogrom of Kielce", Chicago Tribune, May 24, 1996, p1
  11. ^ "The bikini turns 60 -- and still looking good", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 11, 2006 Claudia Mitchell and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh, Girl Culture (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008) p182
  12. ^ "More Valueless Money", Pittsburgh Press, July 5, 1956, p17
  13. ^ "On Language", by William Safire, New York Times, October 27, 2002
  14. ^ Bill Minutaglio, First Son: George W. Bush and the Bush Family Dynasty (Random House, Inc., 1999)
  15. ^ John Sarkett, Extraordinary Comebacks: 201 Inspiring Stories of Courage, Triumph and Success p143 (Sourcebooks, Inc., 2007)
  16. ^ Biography for Fred Dryer at the Internet Movie Database
  17. ^ "U.S. Nun Elevated To Sainthood By Pope", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 8, 1946, p1
  18. ^ Phyllis G. Jestice, Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 3 (ABC-CLIO, 2004), p153
  19. ^ "Riots Mark End of Vote In Mexico", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 8, 1946, p1
  20. ^ "Episcopalians, Presbyterians Map Merger", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 8, 1946, p1
  21. ^ "Howard Hughes Hurt As Test Plane Crashes", Post-Gazette, July 8, 1946, p1; Donald T. Lunde, M.D., Hearst to Hughes: Memoir of a Forensic Psychiatrist (AuthorHouse, 2007) p190-191
  22. ^ Robert P. Watson, ed., Laura Bush: The Report to the First Lady 2005 (Nova Publishers, 2005) p146
  23. ^ "Boxcars Used In Austrian Mass Eviction", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 9, 1946, p1
  24. ^ Tom Meany, Baseball's Greatest Hitters (A.S. Barnes, 1950)
  25. ^ Mark Ribowsky, Josh Gibson: The Power and the Darkness (University of Illinois Press, 2004) pp288-289
  26. ^ Don Sanders and Susan Sanders, American Drive-in Movie Theater (MBI Publishing Company, 2003) p104
  27. ^ Hyperinflation: Mugabe Versus Milosević
  28. ^ Detlef Junker and Philipp Gassert, The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945-1990 (Cambridge University Press, 2004) p61
  29. ^ "Hungary Kills Pengo To End Its Rise", Chicago Tribune p13
  30. ^ Robert A. Brady Crisis in Britain: Plans and Achievements of the Labour Government (University of California Press, 1950) p110
  31. ^ "Seven Marines Kidnapped", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 16, 1946, p3
  32. ^ "Truce Team Wins Freedom of Marines", Deseret News (Salt Lake City), July 24, 1946, p5
  33. ^ William Marshall, Baseball's pivotal era, 1945-1951 (University Press of Kentucky, 1999) pp330-331; "Indians Use Trick Defense in Trying to Halt Williams", Pittsburgh Press, July 15, 1946, p17
  34. ^ tewart Patrick, Best Laid Plans: The Origins of American Multilateralism and the Dawn of the Cold War (Rowman & Littlefield, 2009) p161
  35. ^ "Truman Cites Nisei Unit", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 16, 1946, p3; William Pencak, ed., Encyclopedia of the Veteran in America, Volume 1 (ABC-CLIO, 2009) p250
  36. ^ "Cat Tumbles Nine Floors, Walks Away", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 16, 1946, p3
  37. ^ Mark Willhardt, ed., Who's Who in Twentieth-Century World Poetry (Routledge, 2002) p341
  38. ^ David A. Adams, Renewable Resource Policy: The Legal-institutional Foundations (Island Press, 1993) p74
  39. ^ Carl E. Van Horn and Herbert A. Schaffner, Work in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Policy, and Society (ABC-CLIO, 2003) p501
  40. ^ "100,000 Negroes Vote In Orderly Georgia Primary" St. Petersburg Times, July 18, 1946, p 1
  41. ^ "Talmadge Wins But Carmichael Gets Most Votes", St. Petersburg Times, July 20, 1946, p1; "GEORGIA: Comfortable Again", TIME Magazine, July 29, 1946
  42. ^ Pippa Holloway, Other Souths: diversity and difference in the U.S. South, Reconstruction to Present Day (University of Georgia Press, 2008) p 244
  43. ^ "Ecuador Plane Crash Kills 32", Los Angeles Times, July 18, 1946, p 5
  44. ^ University website
  45. ^ "Equal Rights Bill Rejected", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 20, 1946, p1; Cynthia Harrison, On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women's Issues, 1945-1968 (University of California Press, 1989) p22
  46. ^ Text of report
  47. ^ "Pearl Probers Give Roosevelt Clean Slate", Pittsburgh Press, July 21, 1946, p1;
  48. ^ "PRESIDENT OF BOLIVIA KILLED", St. Petersburg Times, July 22, 1946, p1; "BOLIVIA: Death at the Palace", TIME magazine, July 29, 1946
  49. ^ "Bread Rationing on Sunday", Glasgow Herald, July 19, 1946, p5
  50. ^ "The Fabulous Phantom" (Wings Magazine, December 1985), reprinted in The Best of Wings Magazine (Brassey's, 2001), p234
  51. ^ Richard Worth, The Arab-Israeli Conflict (Marshall Cavendish, 2006) p36
  52. ^ "54 Die, Many Hurt By Bomb In Palestine" St. Petersburg Times, July 23, 1946, p1; Harvey W. Kushner, Encyclopedia of Terrorism (SAGE, 2003) pp180-181
  53. ^ Deborah Hart Strober and Gerald S. Strober, Israel at Sixty: A Pictorial and Oral History of a Nation Reborn (John Wiley and Sons, 2008) p64
  54. ^ "Huge Staging Area Becomes Ghost Town", Reading (PA) Eagle, July 23, 1946, p3; John Hammond Moore, The Faustball Tunnel: German POWs in America And Their Great Escape By (Naval Institute Press, 1978) pp238-241
  55. ^ Edwin M. Martin, The Allied Occupation of Japan (Stanford University Press, 1948) p78
  56. ^ William Marshall, Baseball's Pivotal Era, 1945-1951 (University Press of Kentucky, 1999) p172
  57. ^ "Soviet Rejects U.S. Proposal to Control Atom", Chicago Tribune, July 25, 1946, p1; Robert Jungk, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1970) p250
  58. ^ "BOMB BLASTS MILLION TONS OF WATER 9,000 FEET INTO AIR", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 25, 1946, p1
  59. ^ Eric Croddy and James J. Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology and History, Vol. 2 (ABC-CLIO, 2005) p30
  60. ^ Jerry Lewis with James Kaplan, Dean and Me: A Love Story (Random House, Inc., 2005) p1
  61. ^ "Armed Mob Slays 4 Georgia Negroes", Spokane Daily Chronicle, July 26, 1946, p1
  62. ^ http://www.mooresford.org ; Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: The Last Mass Lynching in America (Scribner, 2003)
  63. ^ "REVIVED OPA INCREASES MANY PRICES", Spokane Daily Chronicle, July 26, 1946, p1
  64. ^ M.P. Ajithkumar, India-Pakistan Relations: The Story of a Fractured Fraternity (Gyan Books, 2006) p53; S.M. Ikram, Indian Muslims and Partition of India (Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1995) p389
  65. ^ "Thousands Slain By Japs, War Crime Survey Shows", St. Petersburg Times, July 29, 1946, p3
  66. ^ "Three Marines Killed in China", Berkeley Daily Gazette, July 31, 1946, p1; "Chinese Communists Acknowledge Battle With Marines, Call Upon Americans to Quit Country", Schenectady (NY) Gazette, August 2, 1946, p1; George B. Clark, Treading Softly: U.S. Marines in China, 1819-1949 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) pp153-154
  67. ^ Pradeep Kumar Johri, Encyclopaedia Of Tourism In 21St Century (Anmol Publications 2005) p49; Air India history
  68. ^ Philip Briggs, Malawi, 5th ed., (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010) p288; "Disaster in Africa", Eugene (OR) Register-Guard, August 2, 1946, p3
  69. ^ Peter Grose, Operation Rollback: America's Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001) p88
  70. ^ Michael B. Oren, Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East, 1776 to the Present (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p487; H.H. Ben-Sasson A History of the Jewish People (Harvard University Press, 1976)