Dongmyeong of Goguryeo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Jumong)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Jumong" and "Chumong" redirect here. For the historical drama, see Jumong (TV series).
Statue of King Dongmyeong at the Tomb of King Dongmyeong in Pyongyang
Dongmyeong of Goguryeo
Chosŏn'gŭl 동명성왕 or 동명왕
Hancha 東明聖王 or 東明王
Revised Romanization Dongmyeong-seongwang or Dongmyeong-wang
McCune–Reischauer Tongmyŏng-sŏngwang or Tongmyŏng-wang
Birth name
Chosŏn'gŭl 고주몽 or 추모
Hancha 高朱蒙 or 鄒牟
Revised Romanization Go Jumong or Chumo
McCune–Reischauer Ko Chumong or Ch'umo
Monarchs of Korea
Goguryeo
  1. King Chumo 37-19 BCE
  2. King Yuri 19 BCE-18 CE
  3. King Daemusin 18-44
  4. King Minjung 44-48
  5. King Mobon 48-53
  6. King Taejodae 53-146
  7. King Chadae 146-165
  8. King Sindae 165-179
  9. King Gogukcheon 179-197
  10. King Sansang 197-227
  11. King Dongcheon 227-248
  12. King Jungcheon 248-270
  13. King Seocheon 270-292
  14. King Bongsang 292-300
  15. King Micheon 300-331
  16. King Gogug-won 331-371
  17. King Sosurim 371-384
  18. King Gogug-yang 384-391
  19. King Gwanggaeto 391-413
  20. King Jangsu 413-490
  21. King Munja 491-519
  22. King Anjang 519-531
  23. King An-won 531-545
  24. King Yang-won 545-559
  25. King Pyeong-won 559-590
  26. King Yeong-yang 590-618
  27. King Yeong-nyu 618-642
  28. King Bojang 642-668

King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo (58 BC – 19 BC, r. 37 BC – 19 BC) or Dongmyeongseongwang (동명성왕, 東明聖王), which literally means Holy King of the East, also known by his birth name Jumong(주몽, 朱蒙), was the founding monarch of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the Gwanggaeto Stele, he is called Chumo-wang (King Chumo). In the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa, he is recorded as Jumong, with the surname Go. The Samguk Sagi states that he was also known as Chumo or Sanghae (상해, 象解). The name is also transcribed in other records as Chumong (추몽, 鄒蒙), Jumong (중모, 中牟 or 仲牟), or Domo (도모, 都牟).[1]

Birth[edit]

The founding myths of Goguryeo are related in ancient Korean texts, including the Gwanggaeto stele. The best-known version is found, with slight variations, in the "Samguk Sagi", "Samguk Yusa", and the "Dongmyeong Wangpyeon" (동명왕편, 東明王篇, Volume of King Dongmyeong) of the "Donggukyisanggukjip" (동국이상국집, 東國李相國集, Collected Works of Minister Yi of Korea) by Yi Kyu-Po.

There have been disputes over who the father of Jumong really was. In one legend Jumong is son of Hae Mo-su (해모수, 解慕漱) and Yuhwa (유화, 柳花), daughter of the river god named Habaek (하백, 河伯). Hae Mo-su met Yuhwa by a river where she was bathing, but the river god disapproved of Hae Mo-su, who returned to heaven. The river god chased Yuhwa away to Ubal river (우발수, 優渤水), where she met and became the concubine of King Geumwa of Dongbuyeo. Yuwha was impregnated by sunlight and gave birth to an egg.[2] Geumwa tried to destroy the egg, and tried to feed it to animals, who instead protected the egg from harm. Geumwa returned it to Yuhwa. From the egg hatched a baby boy, who was named Jumong, meaning "skilled archer" in the ancient Buyeo language.

Leaving Dongbuyeo, Jumong was known for his exceptional skill at archery . Eventually, Geumwa's sons Daeso and Yongpo became jealous of him, and Jumong left Buyeo to follow Hae Mo-su's dream to unify Gojoseon territories which had been broken up as a result of the Han Dynasty's corrupt government and rescue Gojoseon's population that had been left in Dongbuyeo. According to legend, as he fled on his horse, he approached a fast-running river. Turtles and creatures of the water rose up and formed a bridge.[3] He entered the land south of the river. In 37 BC, Jumong became the first king of Goguryeo, and reunited all of the five tribes of Jolbon into one kingdom. So Seo-no, who was a Jolbon chief's daughter, became his second wife. So Seono was previously married to Wutae and gave birth to his son Onjo (who eventually established the kingdom of Baekje).

Rule[edit]

In 37 BC, Jumong established Goguryeo, and became its first king. During that same year, King Songyang (송양, 松讓) of Piryu surrendered to him after receiving assistance in defeating the Malgal tribe's invasion. In 34 BC, along with the palace, Goguryeo's first capital city Jolbon, was completed. Four years later, in 28 BC, Jumong sent General Pu Wi Yeom (부위염, 扶尉厭) to conquer the Northern Okjeo.[4] [5] During that same year, Jumong's mother, Lady Yuhwa, died in the palace of Dongbuyeo, and was given the burial ceremony of a Royal Queen even though she was only a concubine and not a Royal Wife.

Jumong sent a messenger and numerous gifts to King Geumwa in gratitude for King Geumwa's generosity. In 19 BC, Jumong's first wife Lady Ye, fled Dongbuyeo with their son Yuri and settled in Goguryeo.[6] Ye became the queen, causing tension as Jumong's second wife, So Seono, feared for her sons' positions in Goguryeo. So Seo-no left Goguryeo with her two sons and some of her subordinates and headed further south into the Korean peninsula, into what is now South Korea. There she established Baekje. Jumong elected his first son Yuri as the successor to the throne.

Demise[edit]

Jumong died in 19 BC at the age of 40.[6] Crown Prince Yuri buried his father in a pyramid tomb and gave him the posthumous name of Chumo Seongwang.

Legacy[edit]

Jumong's kingdom of Goguryeo eventually evolved into a great regional territory with considerable power and influence. Goguryeo stood for 705 years and was ruled in total by 28 consecutive emperors in the Go Royal Family until it was conquered by the Silla-Tang alliance in 668. Balhae and Goryeo succeeded it, and the modern descendants of Jumong still bear his family name "Go."

In Goguryeo, Jumong was deified into an ancestor deity, and he was worshipped in his temple, next to his tomb.

In popular culture[edit]

From 2006 to 2007, MBC aired a highly popular 81 episode drama, Jumong, to mark their anniversary. The series took elements from historical records and mythology, and retold the story in a more down to earth manner than found in the myths, recounting how Jumong, the spoiled step-child of the Buyeo royal family, embarks on a journey of self-discovery, becoming a leading figure of Buyeo, but retreating from Buyeo after his step-brothers' betrayal. Relaunching the armed and militarily capable guerrilla fighters' force his biological father Hae Mo-su once headed, Jumong goes on a life-mission to rescue and band together the refugees of the ancient Joseon peoples, leading the fight against the oppression of Imperial China, finally establishing himself as the king of the new nation Goguryeo.

From 2010 to 2011, KBS1 aired King Geunchogo, also known as The King of Legend. In this series, Jumong is portrayed as a tyrant, who could not accept sharing the power over his kingdom Goguryeo with So Seo-no and the Jolbon faction. After Yuri's arrival, the declared crown prince and successor to Jumong's throne and Seono decide to leave "their beloved Goguryeo" with all her subordinates and servants to establish a new kingdom - one "much more powerful than Goguryeo ever was."

Family[edit]

  1. Yuri (King Yuri),
  1. Biryu (adopted)
  2. Onjo (King Onjo) (adopted)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Digital Korean Studies http://www.koreandb.net/KPeople/KPShow.asp?ID=0003672&Type=L
  2. ^ Retrieved on March 6th of 2008. http://www.koreandb.net/KPeople/KPShow.asp?ID=0003672&Type=L
  3. ^ http://www.seelotus.com/gojeon/gojeon/seol-hwa/dong-myeong-wang.htm (Kor)
  4. ^ History of Korea (Korean) http://www.koreandb.net/KoreanKing/html/person/p121_03672.htm
  5. ^ 《三国史记》:“六年 秋八月 神雀集宫庭 冬十月 王命乌伊扶芬奴 伐太白山东南人国 取其地为城邑。十年 秋九月 鸾集于王台 冬十一月 王命扶尉 伐北沃沮灭之 以其地为城邑”
  6. ^ 秋九月 王升遐 時年四十歲 葬龍山 號東明聖王, 《Samguksagi》 Goguryeo, volume 13.
Dongmyeong of Goguryeo
Regnal titles
New title King of Goguryeo
37 BC – 19 BC
Succeeded by
King Yuri