The first gasoline filling station in America to use an enclosed gas pump opened on Oak Street and Young Street in Columbus, Ohio, dispensing Standard Oil gas. Gas stations had opened as early in 1905 in St. Louis, with gasoline dispensed by "a hose from a tall tank".
Died:Philip Parmalee, 24, American pilot, in an air show at North Yakima, Washington. Parmalee ignored requests to postpone his flight until heavy winds died down, and his plane dropped from a height of 400 feet.; and Daniel Burnham, 65, American urban planner who oversaw the renovation of Chicago
The first contest for a human-powered flying machine was sponsored by Robert Peugeot and attracted 23 entrants, none of which were able to leave the ground. Peugeot then offered a competition on July 4 for any plane that could stay 10 centimeters off the ground for a distance of 100 meters.
Massachusetts became the first state in the United States to pass a law authorizing a guaranteed minimum wage; the law would take effect on July 1, 1913 and provided only that a state commission would issue regulations. Eight other states followed in 1913, with Utah being third, but having its law taking effect first, immediately upon paasage on March 18, 1913. The Massachusetts law applied only to women and children, and penalties for its violation were light. Oregon, whose law passed second, would become the first state to have orders implementing a wage.
Canada agreed to join in the celebration of 100 years of Anglo-American peace since the War of 1812 fought in Canada and in the United States.
A group of 570 U.S. Marines landed in Cuba at Caimanera, the first sent to protect American citizens there. After rebel leader Evaristo Estenoz was killed on June 27, the Marines would withdraw on August 5.
After using "whistles, trumpets, rattles, or other instruments of the most discordant character" to shout down debates over the Army Bill, 75 members of the opposition party in Hungary were expelled by police, leaving a quorum from Prime Minister István Tisza's National Party, which passed the Army Bill. By the end of October, Tisza's powers would be extended to allow him to send a guard unit to use force against MPs as necessary.
Mexico's President Francisco I. Madero and the Standard Oil Company agreed to "one of the most one-sided business concessions imaginable"  with Standard Oil being allowed to operate in Mexico tax free for ten years, and the rights to eminent domain over any private or public property it wished to obtain to support its oil fields in four Mexican states.
Died:George S. Nixon, 52, U.S. Senator for Nevada since 1905, from an infection following surgery for an abscess in his nose.
The Mount Katmai volcano erupted in Alaska, dumping a foot of ashes at Kodiak and on other villages on Woody Island villages, killing hundreds of people. The 200 inhabitants of villages on the mainland near Shelikof Strait were gone when the tug Redondas arrived. The villages of Kanatuk, Savinodsky, Douglas, Cold Bay, Kamgamute and Katmai were empty. The revenue cutter Manning rescued 500 survivors left homeless by the volcano. Katmai was "one of the largest eruptions of the century" and produced 35 cubic kilometers of pumice, burying the Ukak River valley to a depth of 200 meters within sixty hours; steam and gas persisted for decades in the "Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes". The explosion of Katmai was heard in Juneau, 750 miles away, and spread an ash cloud of 100,000 square miles, with traces of dust were found as far east as Algeria. Eruptions would last until July 8.
Gyula Kovács, a legislator in the Hungarian House of Deputies, fired three gunshots at Prime Minister Tisza on the floor of Parliament, missed, and then shot himself. Tisza had just rid the chamber of opposition deputies and remarked, "Now that the House is cleared... we will proceed to work." Kovacs shouted out, "There is still a member of the Opposition in the House," while firing his gun before turning it on himself.
A 7.0 magnitude earthquake shook Alaska at 9:26 pm, as eruptions of Mount Kitmai continued.
Thirty soldiers and workmen were killed and 100 injured in an explosion of gunpowder at the Wöllersdorf ammunition factory in Austria-Hungary, near Wiener-Neustadt.
Died:Hubert Latham, 29, French aviation pioneer, was fatally injured by a water buffalo while hunting in Africa. Latham had been with natives deep into the French Sudan, near the Bahr as Salamat and Lake Chad on the Chari River, when he shot the buffalo. The wounded animal then charged Latham, goring him and then trampling him. News did not reach the French Equatorial Africa Governor-General, Martial Henri Merlin, until six weeks later.
Universal Pictures was incorporated by Carl Laemmle as the "Universal Film Manufacturing Company", bringing together a consortium of six motion picture companies (Laemmle's Independent/IMP, Powers, Rex, Champion, Nestor and New York); supposedly, Laemmle was inspired to the name when a wagon of the "Universal Pipe Fittings" company passed beneath his window.
Max von Laue presented the confirmation of the theory of the diffraction of radiation by a three-dimensional lattice (for which he would win the Nobel Prize in 1914), describing the April 21 experiment by Walter Friedrich and Paul Knipping to the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich.
Abel Kiviat of the United States broke the world record for running the 1,500 meter race, and set the first record recognized by the IAAF, with a time of 3:55.8 at the U.S. Olympic Trials in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The record would stand for five years.
A monument to Christopher Columbus was unveiled at Washington D.C. President Taft eulogized Columbus as "the greatest mariner in history", before 100,000 visitors, many of them members of the Knights of Columbus.
Governor Cuvaj of Croatia escaped an assassination attempt by Bosnian law student Lukas Vukica. The bullet struck and killed Education Minister Hervoic instead.
Near the town of Villisca, Iowa, Joseph Moore, his wife and four children, and two girls visiting the home were killed by an ax murderer.
The Tsar Nicholas II of Russia pardoned Kate Malecka, on condition that she leave the country forever. Malecka had been sentenced to four years imprisonment for aiding secessionists in Poland, at that time the Polskoe province in the westernmost Russian Empire.
Former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, running for the Republican Party nomination against incumbent President William H. Taft, said in a speech that he was in favor of the right of women to vote in national elections.
The largest payoff in American horse racing history, according to the American Racing Manual, took place when "Wishing Ring", at 941-1 odds, won a race at the Latonia Race Track near Florence, Kentucky; a $2 bet would have returned $1,885.50 to the bettor.
U.S. President Taft vetoed the Army appropriation bill that had been passed by Congress with cuts of defense spending. "The army of the United States is far too vital an institution to the people of this country to be made the victim of hasty or imperfect theories of legislation. It was reported that Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson had threatened to resign if the bill was not vetoed.
The Supreme Court of Canada held that Parliament could not pass a national law governing marriage, and that mixed marriages solemnized by a Protestant clergyman could not be outlawed.
More than 60 people were killed in Guanajuato in Mexico after floodwaters swept through the town.
Died:Julia Clark, American aviatrix who had become 2nd woman to receive a pilot's license, at an airshow in Springfield, Illinois. Crashing into a tall tree while flying in a fog, she was the third woman to die in a plane crash, after Mme. Deniz Moore in July, and Suzanne Bernard on March 11, both at Etampes
The 1912 Republican National Convention opened in Chicago, with incumbent President Taft having 4541⁄2 delegates, former President Theodore Roosevelt 4691⁄2, and 239 claimed by both sides. With a simple majority (513 of 1026) required to win the nomination, the awarding of the contested delegates was critical to the nomination. The Republican National Committee, controlled by Taft's supporters, would resolve 6 in favor of Roosevelt, and the other 233 in favor of Taft.
The French dirigibleConte and its crew of six ascended to a record height of 9,922 feet. The previous record had been 7,053 feet on December 7, 1911.
Tennessee State University began its first classes, as the State Agricultural and Industrial Normal School, with 147 African-American students in its first summer class. A century later, TSU has 10,000 students on its Nashville campus.
Near Douai in France, Captain Marcel Dubois and Lt. Albert Peignan, each piloting a different vehicle, were killed the first fatal mid-air collision between two airplanes, and only the second mid-air airplane collision in history. The first, on September 27, 1911 between Eugene Ely and Harry Atwood, did not seriously injure either pilot.
Lt. (j.g.) John H. Towers survived the U.S. Navy's first fatal airplane accident after Ensign W. L. Billingsly, the pilot, was thrown out of the plane at 1,700 feet. Towers, a passenger, was able to hold onto the plane and survived a crash landing, then set about to design the first safety belt for an airplane.
U.S. President Taft implemented the first specific regulations governing the proportions and design of the flag of the United States, with the signing of Executive Order 1566. The President accepted the recommendation of a committee, chaired by former U.S. Admiral George Dewey, for the new, 48 star flag, to be arranged in six rows of eight stars each. The most prominent design rejected was that of Wayne Whipple, consisting of a six sided star containing 13 stars, surrounded by a circle of 25 stars (for additional states admitted in the nation's first century) and an outer circle of 10 stars for those admitted after 1876. The 48 star flag would remain the standard until 1959. The ratio of height to width of the flag ever-after would be 1:1.9
The Bornean Baillon's Crake (Porzana pusilla mira), a subspecies of the waterbird Baillon's Crake, was collected for the first and last time in Borneo, never located again, and is presumed to be extinct.
At Alcorta, in the Santa Fe Province of Argentina, a crowd of 2,000 tenant farmers went on strike to protest high rents, inaugurating the first organized farm movement in that nation.
On the first ballot at the Democratic Party convention, former House Speaker Champ Clark received 4401⁄2 votes, New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson 324, Judson Harmon 148, Oscar Underwood 1171⁄2 and Thomas R. Marshall 31. Thirteen more ballots were taken without any candidate receiving the 2/3rds majority of delegates.
The resignation of Premier Tang Shaoyi was accepted by President Yuan Shikai.
The "Korean Conspiracy Trial" began for 123 defendants, mostly Christians, accused of inciting rebellion against the Japanese colonial government. On September 28, 106 would be convicted of treason and sentenced to terms of five years or more, although worldwide criticism of the unfairness of the trial would lead to the release of most of them the following year.
Champ Clark moved closer to the Democratic nomination for President, when a shift of New York's votes gave him 556 of the 1,094 delegates, more than all of the other candidates combined, but still short of the two-thirds (730) needed to win.
Thirty five Arabs were sentenced to death by a French court for participating in November 8 riots in Tunisia.
The Regina Cyclone, deadliest tornado in Canadian history, killed 28 people after touching down at 4:50 pm in the provincial capital of Saskatchewan.
On the 30th ballot, New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson edged ahead of former House Speaker Champ Clark for the first time, with 460 votes to 455, as the Iowa delegation swung its support to Wilson. On the next ballot, Wilson's lead was 475 1/2 to 446.
^"Biplanes Crash; 2 Killed", New York Times, June 20, 1912
^Vaclav Smil, Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867-1914 and Their Lasting Impact (Oxford University Press, Aug 25, 2005) p47
^"Life Saving", by Commander James E. Sullivan, Flying magazine (February 1943) p186
^David L. Fleitz, Ghosts in the Gallery at Cooperstown: Sixteen Little-Known Members of the Hall of Fame (McFarland, 2004) p139
^"Vote for Taft Was 561", New York Times, June 23, 1912
^"Harding Nominates Taft", New York Times, June 23, 1912; "TAFT AND SHERMAN ARE AGAIN CHOSEN THE REPUBLICAN PARTY LEADERS —Roosevelt Forces Quit in the Face of Defeat", Milwaukee Journal, June 23, 1912, p1
^"250 In River As Pier Falls", New York Times, June 24, 1912, p1; "Rotten Dock Is Fatal to Thirty", Milwaukee Journal, June 24, 1912, p2; "Niagara Pier Victims Number 39", New York Times, June 26, 1912