Juneau-class cruiser

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Croiseur léger USS Juneau en 1950.jpg
USS Juneau (CL-119)
Class overview
Name: Juneau-class cruiser
Operators: US flag 48 stars.svg United States Navy
Preceded by: Fargo class
Succeeded by: Worcester class
Completed: 3
Retired: 3
Preserved: 0
General characteristics
Class & type: Light cruiser
Displacement: 6,500 tons (standard); 8,450 tons (loaded)
Length: 541 ft 0 in (164.90 m)
Beam: 52 ft 10 in (16.10 m)
Draft: 20 ft 6 in (6.25 m)
Propulsion: 4 × 665 psi boilers
2 geared steam turbines
78,749 hp (58.723 MW)
Speed: 32.7 knots (61 km/h) (37.9 mph)
Range: 6,440 nautical miles (11,930 km) at 20 knots (37 km/h)
Complement: Officer: 47
Enlisted: 695
Armament:

12 × 5 in (127 mm)/38 cal guns
32 x 40 mm/56 cal anti-aircraft guns (6 x 4, 4 x 2)

16 × 20 mm/70 cal anti-aircraft cannons (8 x 2)
Armor:

Belt: 1.1-3.5 in (27-88.9 mm)
Deck: 1.25 in (31.75 mm)

Turrets: 1.25 in (31.75 mm)

The Juneau-class cruisers were United States Navy light cruisers which were modified version of the Atlanta-class cruiser design. The ships had the same dual-purpose main armament as USS Oakland (CL-95) with a much heavier secondary antiaircraft battery, while the anti-submarine depth charge tracks and torpedo tubes were removed along with a redesigned superstructure to reduce weight and increase stability. Three ships were ordered and built, all completed shortly after World War II, but only Juneau (CL-119) remained active long enough to see action during the Korean War.

Redesign[edit]

The Atlanta-class cruisers increased wartime complement and armament and loss of Atlanta and Juneau revealed weaknesses in their stability and hull integrity of the ships which was addressed in a 1942 redesign at the same time as the modified Cleveland-class cruiser, the Fargo-class cruiser. The ships had the same main armament as USS Oakland (CL-95), but the bridge and superstructure were redesigned to remove weight and increase visibility, and the reduction in weight allowed increased antiaircraft guns to be added with increased stability. Watertight integrity was improved by removing doors on the lowest decks of the ship between bulkheads. In addition, all the anti-submarine armament was removed, along with the torpedo battery.[1]

Specifications[edit]

The main gun battery of the Juneau-class was composed of six dual 5 inch/38 caliber (127 mm) gun mounts (12 5-inch guns).[2] The class was designed with a secondary anti-aircraft armament of thirty-two Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns, and sixteen 20 mm rapid-fire anti-aircraft cannons with high-explosive shells.[3] After the war, the ships were planned to convert to a 3 inch/50 caliber (76 mm) secondary armament to replace the 40mm guns, but only the Juneau was converted.[4]

The class was powered by the same equipment as the Atlanta-class: four 665 psi boilers, connected to 2 geared steam turbines producing 75,000 hp (56 MW), and the ships could maintain a top speed of 33.6 knots (62 km/h). On trial the Juneau made 32.48 knots (60 km/h) at 78,985 SHP. The ships of the Juneau-class had the same armor as the Atlanta-class: a maximum of 3.5 in (88.9 mm) on their sides, with the captain's bridge and the 5-inch gun mounts being protected by a mere 1.25 in (31.75 mm).[3] The ships were originally designed for 47 officers and 695 men.[5]

Service history[edit]

Three ships were built and none of the ships served during World War II; the lead ship of this class, the Juneau (CL-119) which was named after the war loss Juneau (CL-52), was launched on 15 July 1945 and commissioned on 15 February 1946. Spokane (CL-120) was launched on 22 September 1945, and commissioned on 17 May 1946. Fresno (CL-121) was launched on 5 March 1946 and commissioned on 27 November 1946.[6]

Spokane and Fresno were decommissioned in 1949 and 1950 prior to the start of the Korean War, but Juneau, at this point redesignated as an anti-aircraft cruiser CLAA-119, participated in the conflict. On 2 July 1950, Juneau, along with HMS Jamaica, and HMS Black Swan were attacked by 4 torpedo boats and 2 motor gunboats of the North Korean navy, and the combined firepower of the Anglo-American ships sank three enemy torpedo boats and both gunboats near Chumonchin Chan.[7] She was decommissioned in 1955, shortly after the war ended. All three ships were considered for refitting as guided missile cruisers or ASW ships but ultimately were sold for scrap in the 1960s.[8]

Ships in class[edit]

Ship Name Hull No. Builder Commission–
Decommission
Juneau CL-119 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 15 February 1946 – 23 July 1955
Spokane CL-120 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 17 May 1946 – 27 February 1950
Fresno CL-121 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 27 November 1946 – 17 May 1949

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Friedman 1984, pp. 240–241
  2. ^ Friedman 1984, pp. 231–233
  3. ^ a b Friedman 1984, pp. 236, 238–239
  4. ^ Friedman 1984, p. 242
  5. ^ Friedman 1984, p. 238
  6. ^ Friedman 1984, p. 452
  7. ^ "Naval Battles of the Korean War". United States Navy. Retrieved 2011-07-15. 
  8. ^ "Juneau CL-119". Department of the Navy. Retrieved 1 April 2011. 

References[edit]