Junior commissioned officer
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Junior commissioned officer (JCO) is a term describing a group of military ranks found in the Indian Army, Pakistan Army, Bangladesh Army and Nepal Army. Those soldiers holding JCO rank receive a commission from the President with commanding power.
Similar ranks, however, also exist in the French Army - those of Major, Chief Adjutant and Adjutant.
During British rule, these officers were known as viceroy's commissioned officers (VCOs) except in Nepal, which was never a British colony. Under the British, there was a clear colonial context, the JCOs(then VCOs)being the highest rank that most Indians could achieve while most commissioned officers were British – a distinction which disappeared with Indian independence.
Senior non-commissioned officers are promoted to JCO rank on the basis of merit and seniority, restricted by the number of vacancies. Junior commissioned officers are treated as a separate class, and hold many additional privileges. In the army, they have a separate mess (the JCOs' mess) / (the CPOs mess) / (the WOs mess), get well furnished family quarters, and are authorized to travel in AC II tier on the railways / Economy class in Airlines. With good pay and privileges, it is an ambition of most enlisted men to attain such rank. JCOs authorised to wear the insignia made of brass as a sign of commanding power. They were having the commanding powers over all the enlisted troops.
Due to their long years of service and experience, officers accord JCOs great respect and influence, especially in cases involving the enlisted ranks, their welfare and morale. Another custom religiously followed is that a JCO is never addressed using just his name or rank. The word Saheb (master) is added as a suffix (e.g.: Subedar Saheb or <<Name>> Saheb). It is said that even the President of India / President of Pakistan has to follow this tradition. The President of India / Pakistan is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces (Indian Army, Navy and Air Force).
- Naib Subedar (Nb Sub) / Naib Risaldar (Nb Ris)/ Naib Subedar (Nb Sub) (Citations required).
- Master chief petty officer Class 1 / Master chief petty officer
- Master chief petty officer Class 2 / Fleet chief petty officer
- Chief petty officer
- Master warrant officer / Chief warrant officer
- Warrant officer
- Junior warrant officer / Assistant warrant officer
While the JCOs from the Army receive a Parchment (appended below) from the President on commissioning whereas Naval Chief Petty Officer ranks and the Air Force Warrant Officer ranks receive a President Warrant on promotion to the rank of Chief Petty Officer and Junior Warrant Officer respectively. This is a certificate issued by the Commodore Bureau of Sailors or Air Marshal / AVM on behalf of the President of India / Pakistan to authenticate the promotion of a sailor to the chief rank, an air warrior to warrant rank as the CPO, MCPO II / FCPO, MCPO I / MCPO, JWO / AWO, WO, MWO / CWO ranks are classed as Junior Commissioned ranks. The warrant is made on pre-printed stationery written by hand. They are authorised to attest any legal documents/certificats as they are gazetted officers Class II. They can initiate arrest of any person who they seemed has violated the constitution. The status of class-II gazatted Officer bestowed on them from the date of granting such rank irrespective of they physically receive the President Warrant or not.
All Army JCOs, Navy Chief Petty Officers and Air Force warrant ranks (JWO to MWO) are group B officers with class II gazetted status. Army JCOs and air force warrant officers & MWOs are authorised salutes (including rifle salutes if given by an armed soldier, sailor or air warrior) while Indian navy chief petty officers are not authorised any form of salute.
Honorary commissions 
There is also a custom of giving honorary commissions to deserving Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs). Every year a list of eligible JCOs is drawn up based on their meritorious service and awarded them with honorary commissions during on 26 Jan and 15 Aug. This could be within last one year service or post retirement.
Honorary commissioned officers wear the appropriate rank insignia, but they do not become members of the officers' mess. They do, however, receive the pay and pension of their honorary rank. The honorary ranks in the various forces are: -
Indian Air Force:
Generally, in official documents the Junior Commissioned Officer rank held by the officer is also added before the honorary commission rank. For example, Sub & Hony Lt or Sub Maj & Hony Capt.
- Manual of Naval Law page 181
- Pakistan Navy Rule part 1 page IV