Junkers F.13

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F.13
Junkers-f13.jpg
Junkers F.13 in the Deutsches Museum
Role small passenger transport
Manufacturer Junkers
Designer Otto Reuter
First flight June 25, 1919[1]
Introduction 1920
Retired late 1930s
Primary users Junkers Luftverkehr
DLH, LAB, LOT, ÖLAG
Produced 1919-1932
Number built 322

The Junkers F.13 (also known as the F 13) was the world's first all-metal transport aircraft, developed in Germany at the end of World War I. It was an advanced cantilever-wing monoplane, with enclosed accommodation for four passengers. Over 300 were sold. It was in production for thirteen years and in commercial service for almost twenty.

Design and development[edit]

The F.13[2] was a very advanced aircraft when built, an aerodynamically clean all-metal low-wing cantilever (without external bracing) monoplane. Even later in the 1920s, it and other Junkers types were unusual as unbraced monoplanes in a biplane age, with only Fokker's designs of comparable modernity. It was the world's first all-metal passenger aircraft and Junkers' first commercial aircraft.

Junkers F-13 of Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano in 1925.

The designation letter F stood for Flugzeug, aircraft; it was the first Junkers aeroplane to use this system. Earlier Junkers notation labelled it J 13. Russian built aircraft used the designation Ju 13.

Like all Junkers duralumin-structured designs, from the 1918 J 7 to the 1932 Ju 46, some 35 models, it used an aluminium alloy (duralumin) structure entirely covered with Junkers' characteristic corrugated and stressed duralumin skin. Internally, the wing was built up on nine circular cross-section duralumin spars with transverse bracing. All control surfaces were horn balanced.

Behind the single engine was a semi-enclosed cockpit for the crew, roofed but without side glazing. There was an enclosed and heated cabin for four passengers with windows and doors in the fuselage sides. Passenger seats were fitted with seat belts, unusual for the time. The F.13 used a fixed conventional split landing gear with a rear skid, though some variants landed on floats or on skis.

The F 13 first flew on 25 June 1919,[3] powered by a 127 kW (170 hp) Mercedes D IIIa in-line upright water-cooled engine. The first production machines had a wing of greater span and area and had the more powerful 140 kW (185 hp) BMW IIIa upright in-line water-cooled motor.

Many variants[4] were built using Mercedes, BMW and Junkers liquid-cooled inline engines, see Variants below and by Armstrong Siddeley Puma, Gnome-Rhône Jupiter and Pratt & Whitney Hornet radial engines. The variants were mostly distinguished by a two letter code, the first letter signifying the airframe and the second the engine. Junkers L5-engined variants all had second letter -e, so type -fe was the long fuselage -f airframe with a L5 engine.

Operational history[edit]

F 13 fy D-190 of Lloyd Ostflug then Junkers Luftverkehrs AG.

Any manufacturer of civil aircraft immediately after World War I was faced with competition from the very large numbers of surplus warplanes that might be cheaply converted - for example, the DH.9C. German manufacturers had further problems with the restrictions imposed by the Inter-Allied Aeronautical Commission of Control, which banned the production of warplanes and of any aircraft in the period of 1921-2. Junkers[5] picked up orders abroad in 1919 in Austria, Poland and the USA and, in the following years with SCADTA (Colombia) and the United States Post Office Department. John Larsen Aircraft in the USA purchased a production licence, their machines being designated JL-6. In 1922 there were sales in England, France Italy and Japan.

In Bolivia, LAB's first airplane was a Junkers F-13; first flight took off from Cochabamba on September 23, 1925.

Junkers set up its own airline - Junkers Luftverkehr AG in 1921 - to encourage the acquisition of the F.13 by German airlines which was flying 60 of them by 1923. They also established a branch of this airline in Iran. Other marketing techniques were used, providing F.13s on cheap leases and free loans, with such effect that some 16 operators across Europe were flying them. When Junkers Luftverkehr merged into Luft Hansa in 1926, 9.5 million miles had been flown by them. Luft Hansa itself bought 55 aircraft and in 1928 were using them on 43 domestic routes. Even in 1937, their F.13s were flying over 50 flights per week on four routes. They were finally withdrawn in 1938.

Most of the F.13s produced before completion of the marque in 1932 were built at Junkers German base at Dessau. During the difficult 1921-3 period production was transferred to Junkers plants at Danzig and Reval. In 1922-3, Hugo Junkers signed a contract with the Soviet Union to produce the aircraft in a Soviet factory at Fili near Moscow which became known as "Plant no. 22". Some of these aircraft served Soviet airlines and some the Red Army.

There were some other military users. The Colombian Air Force used the F.13 (and the related W.33, W.34 and K.43) as bombers[citation needed] in the Colombia-Peru War in 1932-3. The Republic of China flew F.13s converted into scout bombers until the January 28 Incident in 1932, when they were destroyed by the Japanese along with the Shanghai Aircraft Factory. The Turkish Flying Forces flew a few.

Variants[edit]

F.13
first prototype, smaller wings (span 14.47 m/47 ft 5.75 in, area 38.9 m² /419 ft²) and less powerful engine 127 kW (170 hp) Mercedes D IIIa in-line) than production models.
F.13a
first production aircraft with 140 kW (185 hp) BMW IIIa motor.
F.13ba, ca, da, fa
all with the 149 kW (200 hp) Junkers L2 upright in-line water-cooled engine and a series of structural modifications. The fa variant was about 1 m (3 ft) longer.
F.13be, ce, de, fe
as the above but all with 230 kW (310 hp) Junkers L5 upright in-line water-cooled engines.
F.13dle, fle, ge, he, ke
variants with the Junkers L5 above.
F.13bi, ci, di, fi,
as ca to fa but all with the 186 kW (250 hp) BMW IV engine.
F.13co, fo, ko
with the 230 kW (310 hp) BMW Va engine.
Junkers-Larsen JL-6
American version of the F.13 built by Junkers-Larsen. Eight built.

Operators[edit]

Junkers F 13
 Afghanistan
 Argentina
 Austria
 Bolivia
  • Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano received the first F.13 as a gift from the German community on the occasion of the centennial of Bolivian independence.
 Brazil
 Chile
 China
 Bulgaria
 Colombia
Free City of Danzig Free City of Danzig
 Estonia
  • Aeronaut operated F.13 between 1922 and 1927.
 Finland
 France
 Germany
 Hungary
 Iceland
  • Air Iceland operated three aircraft between 1928 and 1931.
 Iran
 Italy
 Japan
 Lithuania
  • Lithuanian Air Force operated prototype aircraft, that crash landed in Lithuania after illegally passing its border in 1919.
 Mongolia
 Poland
 Portugal
 Romania
 Soviet Union
 South Africa
 Spain
 Sweden
  Switzerland
  • Ad Astra Aero operated at least four F.13s (registered CH-91/92/93/94) between 1919 and probably 1930.
 Turkey
 United Kingdom
  • Civil register lists five F.13s during the 1930s[7]
 United States

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 8 June 1924, a SCADTA F.13, registration A13, stalled and crashed into a tree on takeoff from Barranquilla, Colombia, killing all five on board.
  • On 22 March 1925, a Zakavia F.13, registration R-RECA, crashed on takeoff from Tiflis, Georgia, killing all five on board.
  • On 24 July 1926, a Deutsche Luft Hansa F.13, registration D-272, crashed at Juist, Germany due to weather, killing all four on board.
  • On 3 September 1926, a SCADTA F.13, registration A-10, collided with cloud-obscured terrain between Honda and La Victoria, Colombia. The two crew and two passengers were injured, and the aircraft was a total loss.
  • On 27 July 1927, a Deutsche Luft Hansa F.13, registration D-206, crashed at Amoneburg, Germany after attempting an emergency landing due to engine failure, killing all five on board.
  • On 26 May 1928 at 08:15, a Deutsche Lufthansa Junkers F 13, registration D-583, crashed at Hahnenberg, Radevormwald, Germany due to pilot error, killing three of five on board.
  • On 21 July 1930, a Walcot Air Line F.13ge, registration G-AAZK, crashed at Meopham, Kent due to structural failure, killing all six on board.
  • On 2 November 1932 a Deutsche Luft Hansa F.13, registration D-724, crashed at Echterpfuhl, Germany due to wing separation, killing all five on board.
  • On 9 October 1935, an Aero/OY F.13, registration OH-ALI, crashed into the Gulf of Finland in fog, killing all six on board.

Survivors[edit]

Serial number 715 at Tekniska Museet in Sweden. It flew with Junkers Luftverkehr (D-343) until 1924 and AB Aerotransport (SE-AAC) until 1935 [8]
Aircraft on display
F 13 remains from Canada in the Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin
In storage or under restoration

Specifications (F.13)[edit]

Data from Wagner 1996 p.155 & Turner 1971 p.20

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity: 4 passengers or 689 kg (1,519 lb) payload
  • Length: 9.59 m (31 ft 6 in)
F.13fe: 10.50 m (34 ft)
  • Wingspan: 14.8 m (48 ft 7 in)
F.13fe: 17.75 m (58 ft)
  • Height: 3.50 m (11 ft 6 in)
F.13fe: 3.60 m (12 ft)
  • Wing area: 34.50 m2 (371.4 sq ft)
F.13fe: 44 m2 (474 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 951 kg (2,097 lb)
F.13fe: 1,480 kg (3,263 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 1,640 kg (3,616 lb)
F.13fe: 2,318 kg (5,110 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IIIa 6-cyl.water-cooled in-line piston engine, 118 kW (158 hp)
F.13fe: 1 x 228 kW (306 hp) Junkers L5 6-cyl. water-cooled in-line piston engine

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 173 km/h (107 mph; 93 kn)
F.13fe: 198 km/h (123 mph)
  • Cruising speed: 160 km/h (99 mph; 86 kn)
F.13fe: 170 km/h (106 mph)
  • Range: 1,400 km (870 mi; 756 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 5,000 m (16,404 ft)
F.13fe: 5,090 m (16,699 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 2.40 m/s (472 ft/min)
  • Power/mass: 0.0712 kW/kg (0.0443 hp/lb)

See also[edit]

Related developments[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Turner, P.St. John; Nowarra, Heinz J. (1971). Junkers: an aircraft album No.3. New York: Airco Publishing Co. Inc. pp. 17–20. ISBN 0-668-02506-9. 

Further reading[edit]

From The Hugo Junkers site

  • Waernberg: Junkers F-13 det forsta trafikflygplanet i Sverige (Karlskrona 1992, ISBN 0345-3413)
  • Vagvolgyi: Junkers F-13 : a Junkers repulogepek tortenete 1909-tol 1932-ig"
  • Stroud: Wings of Peace: The Junkers F13 (Aeroplane Monthly)
  • Pohlmann: Prof. Junkers nannte es "Die Fliege" (ISBN 3-87943-982-6)
  • Wagner: Junkers F13 und ihre Vorlaeufer (ISBN 3-88064-015-7)
  • Endres: The Junkers F13 in Poland (Air Pictorial)
  • Cicalesi, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Santiago (2009). Núñez Padin, Jorge Felix, ed. Junkers F13 / W34 / K43 / Ju52. Serie en Argentina (in Spanish) 3. Bahía Blanca, Argentina: Fuerzas Aeronavales. ISBN 978-987-20557-7-6. 

External links[edit]