Juno and the Paycock
Juno and the Paycock is a play by Sean O'Casey, and one of the most highly regarded and often performed plays in Ireland. It was first staged at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin in 1924. It is set in the working class tenements of Dublin in the early 1920s, during the Irish Civil War period.
Juno and the Paycock concerns the Boyle family, who live in the Dublin tenements during the Irish Civil War. The father, "Captain" Jack Boyle (so called because of his status as a retired merchant seaman, his propensity for telling colourful stories of the sea, and his incessant wearing of his nautical-looking hat) constantly tries to evade work by pretending to have pains in his legs, and spends all his money at the pub with his ne'er-do-well "butty", Joxer Daly. The mother, Juno, is the only member of the family working, as the daughter Mary is on strike, and the son, Johnny, lost his arm in the War of Independence. Johnny betrayed Tancred, a neighbour and fellow comrade in the IRA, who was subsequently killed by Free State supporters; Johnny is afraid that he will be executed as punishment. A distant relative dies, and an English solicitor, Mr Bentham, brings news that the family has come into an inheritance. The family buys goods on credit, and borrows money from neighbours with the intent of paying them back when the fortune arrives. They hold a party during Tancred's funeral procession, halting it only when Tancred's aged mother passes by their door.
In the third act tragedy befalls the Boyle family. Mr Bentham, who had been courting Mary, ceases all contact with the family, and it becomes apparent that no money will be forthcoming because Bentham (who drafted the will) failed to include the beneficiaries' names but referred to them only as "my first cousin" and "my second cousin"; numerous cousins are claiming the inheritance, which is rapidly being eaten up by legal costs. As the goods bought with the borrowed money are being taken back, Mr and Mrs Boyle learn that Mary has been impregnated by Mr Bentham. "Captain" Boyle goes with Joxer to a pub to spend the last of his money and take his mind off of the situation. While he is gone, Mrs Boyle learns that her son, Johnny, has been killed, presumably by the IRA. Mary and Juno leave to live with Juno's sister. Captain Boyle and Joxer return to the stage drunk, not knowing that Johnny is dead, or that his house will be empty when he gets home.
Original cast 
The first production was in the Abbey Theatre, on 3 March 1924. The cast included:
- Sara Allgood as Juno Boyle
- Barry Fitzgerald as Captain Jack Boyle
- F.J. McCormick as Joxer Daly
- Eileen Crowe as Mary Boyle
- Maureen Delany as Mrs. Maisie Madigan
- Conor Kennedy as Jerry Devine
"I ofen looked up at the sky an' assed meself the question - what is the moon, what is the stars?" - 'Captain Boyle, Act I
"Th' whole worl's in a terrible state o' chassis" - Captain Boyle, Act III
“Never tired o’ lookin’ for a rest" - Juno Boyle, Act I
"it's nearly time we had a little less respect for the dead, an' a little more regard for the living." - Juno Boyle, Act II
"Isn't all religions curious?-if they weren't you wouldn't get anyone to believe in them" - Captain Boyle, Act II
“It’ll have what’s far better- it’ll have two mothers" - Juno Boyle, Act III
"A darlin' (noun), a daarlin' (repeat noun)!" (Joxer's habitual exclamation throughout the play.)
"It doesn't matter what you say, ma - a principle's a principle." - Mary Boyle speaking about the strike
- Barry Fitzgerald as The Orator
- Maire O'Neill as Mrs. Maisie Madigan
- Edward Chapman as Captain Boyle
- Sidney Morgan as 'Joxer' Daly
- Sara Allgood as Mrs. Boyle ('Juno')
- John Laurie as Johnny Boyle
There are three television adaptions of Juno and the Paycock:
- 1938: Starring Maire O'Neill as Juno and Harry Hutchinson as Captain Jack.
- 1960: Starring Hume Cronyn and Walter Matthau.
- 1980: Starring Frances Tomelty as Juno and Dudley Sutton as Captain Jack.
A musical adaptation of the play, titled Juno, was created by Marc Blitzstein (music, lyrics) and Joseph Stein (book) and opened on Broadway in 1959. Shirley Booth starred as Juno Boyle and Melvyn Douglas as the Captain. The musical version was a flop, closing after 16 performances, but Blitzstein's score was preserved on the original cast album and is today considered one of the composer's masterpieces. O'Casey gave his blessing to the project, but never saw the production.
- Shirley Booth as Juno Boyle
- Melvyn Douglas as Captain Boyle
- Jack MacGowran as Joxer
- Tommy Rall as Johnny Boyle 
Sound recording 
A recording of the play was made by Cyril Cusack Productions, Ireland, in Dublin in June 1955, in connection with the Abbey Theatre, and was issued commercially on an LP double album. The performance has a spoken introduction by the author. The cast included:
- Séamus Caomhánach as Captain Jack
- Siobhán McKenna as Juno Boyle
- Cyril Cusack as Joxer Daly
- Maire Kean as Mrs Maisie Madigan
- Leo Leyden as Jonny Boyle
- Maureen Cusack as Mary Boyle
- "IrishPlayography.com: Juno and the Paycock". Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- IMDB entry for Hitchcock's 1930 Juno and the Paycock
- IMDB Entry for 1938 Television version of Juno and the Paycock
- IMDB Entry for 1960 Television version of Juno and the Paycock
- IMDB Entry for 1980 Television version of Juno and the Paycock
- IBDB Entry for Juno
- Columbia Records 33 CCX 1-2. See Library catalogue reference
- Juno and the Paycock at IBDB
- Andrew E. Malone:Ireland Gives a new Playwright to the World
- Photos of a production of Juno and the Paycock