Junta of National Reconstruction
The Junta of National Reconstruction (Junta de Gobierno de Reconstrucción Nacional) officially ruled Nicaragua from July 1979 to January 1985, though effective power was in the hands of the Sandinista National Liberation Front's National Directorate.
The Sandinista rebels announced the Junta as its provisional government on June 16, 1979, as the civil war against the Anastasio Somoza Debayle regime entered its final phase. It was composed of five members: a member of the FSLN directorate, Daniel Ortega; two left-wing activists, Sergio Ramírez and Moisés Hassan Morales; and two right-wing representatives, Alfonso Robelo and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro.
In the first half of July, United States government envoy William Bowdler pressured the Sandinistas to broaden the junta by adding more members, such as Adolfo Calero, Ismael Reyes, and Mariano Fiallos. The Sandinistas, not wishing to alienate the US, were willing to acquiesce. However, Chamorro and Robelo, representing business and corporate interests, objected to the plan, and it was rejected.[clarification needed]
After the fall of Somoza, it quickly became apparent to Robelo and Chamorro that they did not have any real power and Chamorro resigned on April 19, 1980, followed by Robelo three days later. On May 18, they were replaced by Arturo Cruz and Rafael Córdova Rivas. Cruz would resign in March 1981, though he agreed for a time to be ambassador to the United States. On March 4, Cruz's appointment to Washington was announced, together with Hassan's departure for the Council of State and Ortega's promotion to Coordinator of the now three-member junta. While the junta may have offered little authority to its non-Sandinista members, the public role did help to solidify Ortega's primacy within the FSLN directorate and enhance Ramírez's prominence.
On November 4, 1984, a presidential election was held, which was won by leading junta member and revolutionary Daniel Ortega and his running mate, Sergio Ramírez as vice president. However, some opposition parties boycotted it, claiming unfair conditions. While the Reagan administration and many mainstream United States media outlets alleged the election would be neither free nor fair, numerous electoral watchers affiliated with Western European governments, as well as United States non-governmental organizations, declared the results legitimate. Ortega took office on January 10, and the junta was dissolved.
- "On this day: 1984: Sandinistas claim election victory". BBC News. November 5, 1984. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
|Presidency of Nicaragua
July 1979– January 1985
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