Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer
An artistic montage for the JUICE mission
|Mission type||Orbiter - Planetary science|
|Carrier rocket||Ariane 5|
|Launch site||Guiana Space Centre|
|Mission duration||7.6 years cruise;
3.5 years in the Jovian system.
|Flyby of||Ganymede, Callisto, Europa|
|Satellite of||Jupiter, Ganymede|
|Orbital insertion date||2030 (Jupiter)
|Power||Solar array of about 60 – 75 m2|
|Data rate||1.4 Gb daily downlink|
The Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) is a planned European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft to visit the Jovian system, focused in particular on studying three of Jupiter's moons; Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa. It will characterise these worlds, all thought to have significant bodies of liquid water beneath their surfaces, as potentially habitable environments. Selection of the mission for the L1 launch slot of ESA's Cosmic Vision science programme was announced on May 2, 2012.
The mission started as a reformulation of the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter proposal, which was to be ESA's component of the former Europa Jupiter System Mission - Laplace (EJSM-Laplace). It is a candidate to become the first L-class mission (L1) of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. In April 2012 JUICE was recommended over the proposed ATHENA X-ray telescope and a gravitational wave observatory (New Gravitational wave Observatory (NGO)).
A proposed timeline is launch in 2022 on an Ariane 5 carrier rocket and arrival at the Jupiter system in 2030. By 2033 the spacecraft should enter orbit around Ganymede, after completing various manoeuvres around Jupiter and the other moons. Proposed instruments included cameras, spectrometers, and radar.
The Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) would perform detailed investigations on Ganymede as a planetary body and evaluate its potential to support life. Investigations of Europa and Callisto would complete a comparative picture of these Galilean moons. The three moons are believed to harbour internal liquid-water oceans, and so are central to understanding the habitability of icy worlds.
The main science objectives for Ganymede, and to a lesser extent for Callisto, are:
- Characterisation of the ocean layers and detection of putative subsurface water reservoirs;
- Topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface;
- Study of the physical properties of the icy crusts;
- Characterisation of the internal mass distribution, dynamics and evolution of the interiors;
- Investigation of Ganymede's tenuous atmosphere;
- Study of Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere.
For Europa, the focus is on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non-water-ice material. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface sounding of the moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions.
The main spacecraft design drivers are related to the large distance to the Sun, the use of solar power generation, and Jupiter's harsh radiation environment. The orbit insertions at Jupiter and Ganymede and the large number of flyby manoeuvres (more than 25 gravity assists, and two Europa flybys) requires the spacecraft to carry about 3,000 kg (6,600 lb) of chemical propellant.
Gravity assists include:
- Interplanetary transfer (Earth, Venus, Earth, Earth)
- Jupiter orbit insertion and apocentre reduction with multiple Ganymede gravity assists
- Reduction of velocity with Ganymede–Callisto assists
- Increase inclination with 10–12 Callisto gravity assists
The Russian Space Research Institute is currently evaluating the Ganymede Lander (GL) mission, with emphasis in astrobiology. Cooperation and a possible synergy with JUICE Ganymede orbital mission is being discussed between ESA and Roscosmos. See also Ganymede mission concepts
On 21 February 2013, after a fierce competition, 11 instruments were selected by ESA, which will be developed by scientific and engineering teams from all over Europe, with participation from the USA and Japan:
- JANUS: Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator, camera system
- MAJIS: Moons and Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer
- UVS: UV Imaging Spectrograph
- SWI: Sub-millimetre Wave Instrument
- GALA: Ganymede Laser Altimeter
- RIME: Radar for Icy Moons Exploration
- J-MAG: Magnetometer for JUICE
- PEP: Particle Environment Package
- RPWI: Radio & Plasma Wave Investigation
- 3GM: Gravity & Geophysics of Jupiter and Galilean Moons
- PRIDE: Planetary Radio Interferometer & Doppler Experiment
- Exploration of Jupiter
- Galileo — former Jupiter orbiter
- Juno — en-route Jupiter orbiter
- Jupiter flybys: Pioneer 10/11; Voyager 1/2; Ulysses; Cassini–Huygens; New Horizons
- Moons of Jupiter
- ESA - Selection of the L1 mission - April 17, 2012
- "Esa selects 1bn-euro Juice probe to Jupiter". BBC News Online. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
- JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer): a European-led mission to the Jupiter system
- "JUICE: Europe's next mission to Jupiter?". The Planetary Society. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
- "Disappointed astronomers battle on". BBC News Online. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
- "JUICE - Science objectives". European Space Agency. 16 Mar 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
- "JUICE - Spacecraft". European Space Agency. 16 Mar 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
- "JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer)". European Space Agency. Mar 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
- "International Colloquium and Workshop - "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments"". Russia Space Research Institute (IKI). Roscosmos. November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- Stephen Clark Russia May Land Probe on Jupiter's Moon Ganymede with Europe's Help, SPACE.com, June 19, 2013.
- "ESA CHOOSES INSTRUMENTS FOR ITS JUPITER ICY MOONS EXPLORER". ESA. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- ESA's JUICE page
- Future Planetary Exploration JUICE – Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter Revised Proposal
- Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (2011) (OPAG October 2011 Presentations)
- JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) (OPAG March 2012 Presentations)