Jurassic Park (film)
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Steven Spielberg|
|Produced by||Kathleen Kennedy
Gerald R. Molen
|Screenplay by||Michael Crichton
|Based on||Jurassic Park
by Michael Crichton
|Music by||John Williams|
|Editing by||Michael Kahn|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Running time||126 minutes|
Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science fiction action film directed by Steven Spielberg and the first of the Jurassic Park franchise. It is based on the 1990 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton, with a screenplay written by Crichton and David Koepp. It stars Sam Neill, Laura Dern, Jeff Goldblum, Richard Attenborough, Ariana Richards, Joseph Mazzello, Martin Ferrero, Wayne Knight, Samuel L. Jackson and Bob Peck. The film centers on the fictional Isla Nublar near Costa Rica's Pacific Coast, where a billionaire philanthropist and a small team of genetic scientists have created a wildlife park of cloned dinosaurs.
Before Crichton's book was published, four studios put in bids to acquire the film rights. Spielberg, with the backing of Universal Studios, acquired the rights for $1.5 million before publication in 1990, and Crichton was hired for an additional $500,000 to adapt the novel for the screen. David Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence and made numerous changes to the characters. Filming took place in California and Hawaii. The dinosaurs were created through groundbreaking computer-generated imagery by Industrial Light & Magic in conjunction with life-sized animatronic dinosaurs built by Stan Winston's team.
Following an extensive $65 million marketing campaign, which included licensing deals with 100 companies, Jurassic Park grossed over $900 million worldwide in its original theatrical run. It surpassed Spielberg's 1982 film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial to become the highest-grossing film at the time (a distinction it would yield to Titanic four years later). The film was well received by critics, who praised it for its special effects and Spielberg's direction but criticized the writing. The film won more than 20 awards, mostly for its visual effects. Following a 3D re-release in 2013 to celebrate its 20th anniversary, Jurassic Park's total gross eclipsed $1 billion, making it the 17th film to do so. It currently ranks as the 13th-highest-grossing film worldwide, the 16th-highest-grossing film in North America (unadjusted for inflation), and the highest-grossing film released by Universal and directed by Spielberg. Jurassic Park is considered by many as one of the greatest science fiction films ever made, as well as a landmark in the use of computer-generated imagery. The film was followed by two sequels, The Lost World: Jurassic Park and Jurassic Park III, which both became box office successes but received a mixed critical response. A fourth film entitled Jurassic World is scheduled for release in 2015.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Cast
- 3 Production
- 4 Dinosaurs on screen
- 5 Release and promotion
- 6 Reception
- 7 Legacy
- 8 References
- 9 External links
John Hammond (Richard Attenborough), the founder and CEO of bioengineering company InGen, has created on Isla Nublar, a tropical island near Costa Rica, a theme park called Jurassic Park, populated with cloned dinosaurs. After a park worker is killed by a Velociraptor, the park's investors, represented by the lawyer Donald Gennaro (Martin Ferrero), demand that experts visit the park and certify it as safe. Gennaro invites the mathematician Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) while Hammond invites paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant (Sam Neill) and paleobotanist Dr. Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern). Upon arrival on Isla Nublar, the group is stunned to see a Brachiosaurus and a herd of Parasaurolophus in the distance.
At the visitor center, the crew learns through an explanatory video and a tour through a laboratory that the cloning was accomplished by extracting the DNA of dinosaurs from mosquitoes that had been preserved in amber. However, the strands of DNA were incomplete, so DNA from frogs were used fill in the gaps. The dinosaurs all were cloned genetically as females in order to prevent breeding.
The group is then joined by Hammond's grandchildren, Lex and Tim Murphy (Ariana Richards and Joseph Mazzello) for a tour of the park, while Hammond oversees the trip from the park's control room. However, the tour does not go as planned, with most of the dinosaurs failing to appear and a Triceratops becoming ill. As a tropical storm approaches Isla Nublar, most of the park employees depart on a boat for the mainland and the visitors returns to the electric tour vehicles except Ellie, who stays with the park's veterinarian to study the Triceratops.
During the storm, Jurassic Park's computer programmer, Dennis Nedry (Wayne Knight), who has secretly been paid by a corporate rival to steal dinosaur embryos, deactivates the park's security system to allow him access to the embryo storage room. Most of the park's electric fences are deactivated, leading the Tyrannosaurus to attack the tour group. Grant, Lex, and Tim narrowly escape while the T. Rex devours Gennaro and injures Malcolm. On his way to deliver the embryos to the island's docks, Nedry becomes lost, crashes his Jeep, and is killed by a Dilophosaurus.
Sattler assists the park's game warden, Robert Muldoon (Bob Peck), in a search for survivors, but only find Malcolm before the Tyrannosaurus returns and chases them in one of the vehicles, but ultimately fails to catch them. Unable to decipher Nedry's code to reactivate the security system, Hammond and the park's chief engineer Ray Arnold (Samuel L. Jackson) opt to reboot the park's computer and electrical network. The group shuts down the park's grid and retreats to an emergency bunker, while Arnold heads to a maintenance shed to complete the process of rebooting the system. When he fails to return, Sattler and Muldoon head to the shed themselves. They discover the shutdown has disabled the remaining fences and released the velociraptors; Muldoon distracts the raptors while Sattler turns the power back on, discovering the severed arm of Arnold afterwards. Soon after, the raptors ambush and kill Muldoon.
Alone in the park, Grant, Tim, and Lex discover the broken shells of dinosaur eggs. Grant concludes that this means the dinosaurs have been breeding, which occurred because they have the genetic coding of frog DNA—West African bullfrogs can change their gender in a single-sex environment, which the dinosaurs were able to do as well. On the way back to the visitor center the trio encounter a herd of Gallimimus when suddenly the Tyrannosaurus appears out of the jungle and kills one. Grant, Tim, and Lex reach the visitor center, and Grant leaves them there as he goes searching for the others. After finding the bunker, Grant and Sattler head back to the visitor center, where the children are being attacked by two velociraptors. The four head to the control room and Lex restores full power, which allows the group to call for rescue. While trying to leave, Grant's group is cornered by the raptors but escapes when the Tyrannosaurus suddenly appears and kills both raptors. Hammond arrives driving a Jeep carrying Malcolm, and the entire group flees together. Before they board a helicopter to leave the island, Grant says he will not endorse the park, a choice with which Hammond concurs.
- Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant, a leading paleontologist.
- Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler, a paleobotanist.
- Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm, a mathematician and chaos theorist.
- Richard Attenborough as John Hammond, InGen's billionaire CEO and the park's creator.
- Ariana Richards as Lex Murphy, Hammond's granddaughter.
- Joseph Mazzello as Tim Murphy, Hammond's grandson.
- Bob Peck as Robert Muldoon, the park's game warden.
- Martin Ferrero as Donald Gennaro, a lawyer who represents Hammond's concerned investors.
- Wayne Knight as Dennis Nedry, the disgruntled architect of the park's computer systems.
- Samuel L. Jackson as Ray Arnold, the park's chief engineer.
- Cameron Thor as Dr. Lewis Dodgson, the head of InGen's rival, BioSyn.
- Miguel Sandoval as Juanito Rostagno, the Mano de Dios amber mine's proprietor.
- Gerald R. Molen as Dr. Gerry Harding, the park's veterinarian.
- B. D. Wong as Dr. Henry Wu, the park's chief geneticist.
- Richard Kiley as himself, providing audio narration for the park's main tour.
- Greg Burson as the voice of Mr. D.N.A.
Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur; he continued to wrestle with his fascination with dinosaurs and cloning until he began writing the novel Jurassic Park. Even before publication, Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the television series ER. Before the book was published, Crichton demanded a non-negotiable fee of $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Sony Pictures Entertainment and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante bid for the rights, but Universal eventually acquired them in May 1990 for Spielberg. Universal paid Crichton a further $500,000 to adapt his own novel, which he had finished by the time Spielberg was filming Hook. Crichton noted that because the book was "fairly long" his script only had about 10 to 20 percent of the novel's content; scenes were dropped for budgetary and practical reasons. After completing Hook, Spielberg wanted to film Schindler's List. Music Corporation of America (then Universal Pictures' parent company) president Sid Sheinberg gave a green light to the film on one condition: that Spielberg make Jurassic Park first. Spielberg later said, "He knew that once I had directed Schindler I wouldn't be able to do Jurassic Park." The director later declared that by choosing a creature-driven thriller, "I was really just trying to make a good sequel to Jaws, on land."
To create the dinosaurs, Spielberg at first thought of hiring Bob Gurr, who designed a giant mechanical King Kong for Universal Studios Hollywood's King Kong Encounter. Upon considering that the life-sized dinosaurs would be too expensive and not all convincing, Spielberg instead decided to look after the best effects supervisors in Hollywood. Brought in were Stan Winston to create the animatronic dinosaurs, Phil Tippett to create go motion dinosaurs for long shots, Michael Lantieri to supervise the on-set effects, and Dennis Muren of Industrial Light & Magic to do the digital compositing. Paleontologist Jack Horner supervised the designs, to help fulfill Spielberg's desire to portray the dinosaurs as animals rather than monsters. This led to the entry of certain concepts about dinosaurs, such as the theory that dinosaurs had very little in common with lizards. Thus, Horner dismissed the raptors' flicking tongues in Tippett's early animatics, complaining, "[The dinosaurs] have no way of doing that!" Taking Horner's advice, Spielberg insisted that Tippett take the tongues out. Winston's department created fully detailed models of the dinosaurs before molding latex skins, which were fitted over complex robotics. Tippett created stop-motion animatics of major scenes, but, despite go motion's attempts at motion blurs, Spielberg still found the end results unsatisfactory in terms of working in a live-action feature film. Muren declared to Spielberg that he thought the dinosaurs could be built through computer-generated imagery, and the director asked him to prove it. ILM animators Mark Dippé and Steve Williams developed a computer-generated walk cycle for the T. rex skeleton, and was approved to do more. When Spielberg and Tippett saw an animatic of the T. rex chasing a herd of Gallimimus, Spielberg said, "You're out of a job," to which Tippett replied, "Don't you mean extinct?" Spielberg later wrote both the animatic and his dialogue between him and Tippett into the script, as a conversation between Malcolm and Grant. Although no go motion was used, Tippett and his animators were still used by the production for knowing how the dinosaurs should move correctly. Tippett acted as a consultant regarding dinosaur anatomy, and his stop motion animators were re-trained as computer animators.
Malia Scotch Marmo began a script rewrite in October 1991 over a five-month period, merging Ian Malcolm with Alan Grant. Screenwriter David Koepp came on board afterward, starting afresh from Marmo's draft, and used Spielberg's idea of a cartoon shown to the visitors to remove much of the exposition that fills Crichton's novel. Spielberg also excised a sub-plot of Procompsognathus escaping to the mainland and attacking young children, as he previously found it too horrific. This sub-plot was eventually used as a prologue in the Spielberg-directed sequel, The Lost World. Hammond was ultimately changed from a ruthless businessman to a kindly old man, because Spielberg identified with Hammond's obsession with showmanship. He also switched the characters of Tim and Lex; in the book, Tim is aged 11 and into computers, and Lex is only seven or eight and into sports. Spielberg did this because he wanted to work with the younger Joseph Mazzello, and it also allowed him to introduce the sub-plot of Lex's adolescent crush on Grant. Koepp changed Grant's relationship with the children, making him hostile to them initially to allow for more character development. Koepp also took the opportunity to cut out a major sequence from the book, for budgetary reasons, where the T. rex chases Grant and the children down a river before being tranquilized by Muldoon. This scene was eventually revived in part in Jurassic Park III with the Spinosaurus replacing the T. rex.
After 25 months of pre-production, filming began on August 24, 1992, on the Hawaiian island of Kauaʻi. The three-week shoot involved various daytime exteriors. On September 11, Hurricane Iniki passed directly over Kauaʻi, which caused the crew to lose a day of shooting. Several of the storm scenes from the movie are actual footage shot during the hurricane. The scheduled shoot of the Gallimimus chase was moved to Kualoa Ranch on the island of Oahu and one of the beginning scenes had to be created by digitally animating a still shot of scenery. Additional scenes were filmed on the "forbidden island" of Niihau. By mid-September, the crew moved back to California, to shoot at Universal Studios's Stage 24 for scenes involving the raptors in the kitchen. The crew also shot on Stage 23 for the scenes involving the power supply, before going on location to Red Rock Canyon for the Montana dig scenes. The crew returned to Universal to shoot Grant's rescue of Tim, using a fifty-foot prop with hydraulic wheels for the car fall, and the Brachiosaurus encounter. The crew filmed scenes for the Park's labs and control room, which used animations for the computers lent from Silicon Graphics and Apple. While Crichton's book features Toyota cars on Jurassic Park, Spielberg got a deal with the Ford Motor Company to get jeeps and Ford Explorers. The Explorers were modified by ILM's crew and veteran customizer George Barris to create the illusion that they were autonomous cars by hiding the driver in the car's trunk.
The crew moved to Warner Bros. Studios' Stage 16 to shoot the T. rex's attack on the SUVs. Shooting proved frustrating due to water soaking the foam rubber skin of the animatronic dinosaur, which caused the animatronic T. rex to shake and quiver from the extra weight when the foam absorbed the water. The ripples in the glass of water caused by the T. rex's footsteps was inspired by Spielberg listening to Earth, Wind and Fire in his car, and the vibrations the bass rhythm caused. Lantieri was unsure of how to create the shot until the night before filming, when he put a glass of water on a guitar he was playing, which achieved the concentric circles in the water Spielberg wanted. The next morning, guitar strings were put inside the car and a man on the ground plucked the strings to achieve the effect. Back at Universal, the crew filmed scenes with the Dilophosaurus on Stage 27. Finally, the shoot finished on Stage 12, with the climactic chases with the raptors in the Park's computer rooms and Visitor's Center. Spielberg brought back the T. rex for the climax, abandoning his original ending in which Grant uses a platform machine to maneuver a raptor into a fossil tyrannosaur's jaws. The film wrapped twelve days ahead of schedule on November 30, and within days, editor Michael Kahn had a rough cut ready, allowing Spielberg to go ahead with filming Schindler's List.
Special effects work continued on the film, with Tippett's unit adjusting to new technology with Dinosaur Input Devices: models which fed information into the computers to allow themselves to animate the characters traditionally. In addition, they acted out scenes with the raptors and Gallimimus. As well as the computer-generated dinosaurs, ILM also created elements such as water splashing and digital face replacement for Ariana Richards' stunt double. Compositing the dinosaurs onto the live action scenes took around an hour. Rendering the dinosaurs often took two to four hours per frame, and rendering the T. rex in the rain even took six hours per frame. Spielberg monitored their progress from Poland during the filming of Schindler's List. The sound effects crew, supervised by George Lucas, were finished by the end of April. Jurassic Park was finally completed on May 28, 1993.
Composer John Williams began scoring the film at the end of February, and it was conducted a month later. John Neufeld and Alexander Courage provided the score's orchestrations. Like with another Spielberg film he scored, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Williams felt he needed to write "pieces that would convey a sense of 'awe' and fascination" given it dealt with the "overwhelming happiness and excitement" that would emerge from seeing live dinosaurs. In turn more suspenseful scenes such as the Tyrannosaurus attack earned frightening themes. The first soundtrack, released on May 25, 1993, included unused material. For the 20th anniversary of the release of the film, a new soundtrack was issued for digital download on April 9, 2013 including four bonus tracks personally selected by Williams.
Dinosaurs on screen
Despite the title of the film referencing the Jurassic period, most of the dinosaurs featured did not exist until the Cretaceous period, with the exception of Brachiosaurus and Dilophosaurus, both of which lived in the Jurassic period. The screenplay acknowledges this when Dr. Grant describes the ferocity of the Velociraptor to a young boy, saying "Try to imagine yourself in the Cretaceous period..."
- Velociraptor has a major role and it is also the main villain. The animal's depiction was not based on the actual dinosaur genus in question (which itself was significantly smaller). Coincidentally, shortly before Jurassic Park's theatre release, the similar Utahraptor was discovered, though was proved bigger in appearance than the film's raptors; this prompted Stan Winston to joke, "We made it, then they discovered it." For the attack on character Robert Muldoon, the raptors were played by men in suits. Dolphin screams, walruses bellowing, geese hissing, an African crane's mating call, and human rasps were mixed to formulate various raptor sounds. Following discoveries made after the film's release, most paleontologists theorized that dromaeosaurs like Velociraptor and Deinonychus had feathers. This feature is only included in Jurassic Park III for the male raptors.
- Tyrannosaurus is, according to Spielberg, the reason he rewrote the ending for fear of disappointing the audience. Before, a much less surprising ending was written in the script, where one of the raptors was shot dead and the other killed by a falling fossil. Winston's animatronic T. rex stood 20 feet (6.1 m), weighed 17,500 pounds (7,900 kg), and was 40 feet (12 m) long. Jack Horner called it "the closest I've ever been to a live dinosaur". The dinosaur is depicted with a vision system based on movement. Its roar is a baby elephant mixed with a tiger and an alligator, and its breath is a whale's blow. A dog attacking a rope toy was used for the sounds of it tearing a Gallimimus apart.
- Dilophosaurus was also very different from its real-life counterpart, made significantly smaller to make sure audiences did not confuse it with the raptors. Its neck frill and its ability to spit venom are fictitious. Its vocal sounds were made by combining a swan, a hawk, a howler monkey, and a rattlesnake.
- Brachiosaurus is the first dinosaur seen by the park's visitors. It is inaccurately depicted as chewing its food, holding its head high into the air (which would have resulted in its passing out) and standing up on its hind legs to browse among the high tree branches. Despite scientific evidence of their having limited vocal capabilities, sound designer Gary Rydstrom decided to represent them with whale songs and donkey calls to give them a melodic sense of wonder. Penguins were also recorded to be used in the noises of the dinosaurs.
- Triceratops has an extended cameo, being sick with an unverified disease. Its appearance was a particular logistical nightmare for Stan Winston when Spielberg asked to shoot the animatronic of the sick creature earlier than expected. Winston also created a baby Triceratops for Ariana Richards to ride, which was cut from the film for pacing reasons. The redundant Triceratops model was later used in Spielberg's 1997 sequel.
- Gallimimus are featured in a stampede scene where one of them is devoured by the Tyrannosaurus.
- Parasaurolophus appear in the background during the first encounter with the Brachiosaurus.
Release and promotion
Universal spent $65 million on the marketing campaign for Jurassic Park, making deals with 100 companies to market 1,000 products. These included three Jurassic Park video games by Sega and Ocean Software, a toy line by Kenner that was distributed by Hasbro, and a novelization aimed at young children.
The film's trailers only gave fleeting glimpses of the dinosaurs, a tactic journalist Josh Horowitz described as "that old Spielberg axiom of never revealing too much" when Spielberg and director Michael Bay did the same for their production of Transformers in 2007. The film was marketed with the tagline "An Adventure 65 Million Years In The Making." This was a joke Spielberg made on set about the genuine, thousands of years old mosquito in amber used for Hammond's walking stick.
The film premiered at the National Building Museum on June 9, 1993, in Washington, D.C., in support of two children's charities. Two days later it opened nationwide, in 2,404 theater locations and an estimated 3,400 screens.
Following the film's release, a traveling exhibition began. Steve Englehart wrote a series of comic books published by Topps Comics. They acted as a continuation of the film, consisting of the two-issue Raptor, the four-issue Raptors Attack and Raptors Hijack, and Return to Jurassic Park, which lasted nine issues. All published issues were republished under the single title Jurassic Park Adventures in the United States and as Jurassic Park in the United Kingdom.
Jurassic Park was broadcast on television for the first time on May 7, 1995, following the April 26 airing of The Making of Jurassic Park. Some 68.12 million people tuned in to watch, garnering NBC a 36 percent share of all available viewers that night. Jurassic Park was the highest-rated theatrical film broadcast on television by any network since the April 1987 airing of Trading Places. In June–July 1995 the film was aired a number of times on the TNT network.
"The Jurassic Park Ride" went into development in November 1990 and premiered at Universal Studios Hollywood on June 15, 1996, at a cost of $110 million. Islands of Adventure in Orlando, Florida, has an entire section of the park dedicated to Jurassic Park that includes the main ride, christened "Jurassic Park River Adventure", and many smaller rides and attractions based on the series. The Universal Studios theme park rides have been designed to support the film's plot, with Hammond supposedly having been contacted to rebuild the Park at the theme park location.
In anticipation to the Blu-ray release, Jurassic Park had a digital print released in UK cinemas on September 23, 2011. It wound up grossing £245,422 from 276 theaters, finishing at eleventh on the weekend box office.
Two years later, the 20th anniversary of Jurassic Park lead to a theatrical release of a 3-D version of the film. Spielberg declared that he had produced the film with a sort of "subconscious 3D", as scenes feature animals walking toward the cameras and some effects of foreground and background overlay. In 2011, he stated in an interview that Jurassic Park was the only of his works he had considered a conversion, and once he saw the 3D version of Titanic in 2012, he liked the new look of the film so much that hired the same retrofitting company, Stereo D. Spielberg and cinematographer Janusz Kaminski supervised the nine month process closely in-between the production of Lincoln. Stereo D vice-president Aaron Parry declared that the conversion was an evolution of what the company had done with Titanic, "being able to capitalize on everything we learned with Jim on Titanic and take it into a different genre and movie, and one with so many technical achievements." The studio had the help of ILM, which contributed some elements and updated effects shots for a better visual enhancement. It opened on the United States and seven other territories on April 5, 2013, with other countries receiving the re-release in the following six months.
Jurassic Park became the highest grossing film released worldwide up to that time, beating Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial which previously held the title (though it did not top E.T. in North America). Following $3.1 million from midnight screenings on June 10, the film earned $47 million in its first weekend, with the $50.1 million total breaking the opening weekend record set by Batman Returns the year before. By the end of its first week, Jurassic Park had grossed $81.7 million, and stayed at number one for three weeks. It eventually grossed $357 million in the U.S. and Canada. The film also did very well in international markets, breaking opening records in the United Kingdom, Japan, India, South Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan, ultimately earning $914 million worldwide, with Spielberg reportedly making over $250 million from the film. Jurassic Park's worldwide gross was topped five years later by James Cameron's Titanic.
It collected nearly ₹150 million at Indian Box office in 1993 with dubbed versions of Hindi, Telugu, Tamil. The 3D re-release of Jurassic Park opened at fourth place in North America, with $18.6 million from 2,771 locations. IMAX showings accounted for over $6 million, with the 32 percent being the highest IMAX share ever for a nationwide release. The international release had its most successful weekend on the last week of August, when it managed to climb to the top of the overseas box office with a $28.8 million debut in China. The reissue earned $45,385,935 in North America and $44,500,00 internationally as of August 2013, leading to a lifetime gross of $402,453,882 in North America and $626,700,000 overseas, totaling up to a worldwide gross of $1,029,153,882. This makes Jurassic Park the 17th film to reach $1 billion and ranks it as the 13th highest-grossing film of all time.
Jurassic Park received widespread critical acclaim. High praise was heaped on the visual effects, although there was some criticism leveled at departures from the book. Janet Maslin of The New York Times called it "a true movie milestone, presenting awe- and fear-inspiring sights never before seen on the screen… On paper, this story is tailor-made for Mr. Spielberg's talents…[but] [i]t becomes less crisp on screen than it was on the page, with much of the enjoyable jargon either mumbled confusingly or otherwise thrown away." In Rolling Stone, Peter Travers described the film as "colossal entertainment—the eye-popping, mind-bending, kick-out-the-jams thrill ride of summer and probably the year [...] Compared with the dinos, the characters are dry bones, indeed. Crichton and co-screenwriter David Koepp have flattened them into nonentities on the trip from page to screen." Roger Ebert noted, "The movie delivers all too well on its promise to show us dinosaurs. We see them early and often, and they are indeed a triumph of special effects artistry, but the movie is lacking other qualities that it needs even more, such as a sense of awe and wonderment, and strong human story values." Henry Sheehan argued, "The complaints over Jurassic Park's lack of story and character sound a little off the point," pointing out the story arc of Grant learning to protect Hammond's grandchildren despite his initial dislike of them. Empire magazine gave the film five stars, hailing it as "...quite simply one of the greatest blockbusters of all time." Rotten Tomatoes rated the film a "Certified Fresh" of 93%, with an average score of 8.2 out of 10. The site's consensus states "Jurassic Park is a spectacle of special effects and life-like animatronics, with some of Spielberg's best sequences of sustained awe and sheer terror since Jaws."
In 1994, the film won all three Academy Awards it was nominated for: Best Visual Effects, Best Sound Mixing, and Best Sound Editing (at the same ceremony, Steven Spielberg, Michael Kahn, and John Williams took home Academy Awards for Schindler's List). The film won honors outside the U.S. including the 1994 BAFTA for Best Special Effects, as well as the Award for the Public's Favorite Film. It won the 1994 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, and the 1993 Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film, Best Direction, Best Writing for Crichton and Koepp and Best Special Effects. The film won the 1993 People's Choice Awards for Favorite All-Around Motion Picture. Young Artist Awards were given to Ariana Richards and Joseph Mazzello, with the film winning an Outstanding Action/Adventure Family Motion Picture award.
|1993||Bambi Awards||International Film||Joseph Mazzello and Ariana Richards||Won|
|1994||66th Academy Awards||Best Visual Effects||Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri||Won|
|Best Sound Mixing||Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins||Won|
|Best Sound Editing||Gary Rydstrom and Richard Hymns||Won|
|Saturn Awards||Best Director||Steven Spielberg||Won|
|Best Science Fiction Film||Jurassic Park||Won|
|Best Special Effects||Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri||Won|
|Best Writing||Michael Crichton and David Koepp||Won|
|Best Actress||Laura Dern||Nominated|
|Best Music||John Williams||Nominated|
|Best Performance by a Young Actor||Joseph Mazzello||Nominated|
|Best Performance by a Young Actor||Ariana Richards||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actor||Jeff Goldblum||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actor||Wayne Knight||Nominated|
|Awards of the Japanese Academy||Best Foreign Film||Jurassic Park||Won|
|BAFTA Awards||Best Special Effects||Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri||Won|
|Best Sound||Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins||Nominated|
|BMI Film Music Award||BMI Film Music Award||John Williams||Won|
|Blue Ribbon Awards||Best Foreign Language Film||Steven Spielberg||Won|
|Bram Stoker Award||Screenplay||Michael Crichton and David Koepp||Nominated|
|Cinema Audio Society||Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for a Feature Film||Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins||Nominated|
|Czech Lions||Best Foreign Language Film||Steven Spielberg||Won|
|Grammy Awards||Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television||John Williams||Nominated|
|MTV Movie Award||Best Action Sequence||Nominated|
|Best Movie||Jurassic Park||Nominated|
|Best Villain||T. rex||Nominated|
|Mainichi Film Concours||Best Foreign Language Film||Steven Spielberg||Won|
|Motion Picture Sound Editors||Best Sound Editing||Won|
|People's Choice Awards||Favorite Motion Picture||Jurassic Park||Won|
|Young Artist Awards||Best Youth Actor Co-Starring in a Motion Picture Drama||Joseph Mazzello||Won|
|Best Youth Actress Leading Role in a Motion Picture Drama||Ariana Richards||Won|
|Outstanding Family Motion Picture - Action/Adventure||Jurassic Park||Won|
|Hugo Awards||Best Dramatic Presentation||Jurassic Park||Won|
In the years following its release, Jurassic Park has frequently been cited by film critics and industry professionals as one of the greatest movies of the action and thriller genres. The American Film Institute named Jurassic Park the 35th most thrilling film of all time on June 13, 2001. The Chicago Film Critics Association also ranked Jurassic Park as the 55th scariest movie of all time and, in 2005, Bravo chose the scene in which Lex and Tim are stalked by two raptors in the kitchen as the 95th scariest movie moment ever. On Empire magazine's fifteenth anniversary in 2004, it judged Jurassic Park the sixth most influential film of the magazine's lifetime. Empire called the first encounter with a Brachiosaurus the 28th most magical moment in cinema. In 2008, an Empire poll of readers, filmmakers, and critics also rated it one of the 500 greatest films of all time. On Film Review's fifty-fifth anniversary in 2005, it declared the film to be one of the five most important in the magazine's lifetime. In 2006, IGN ranked Jurassic Park as the 19th greatest film franchise ever. In a 2010 poll, the readers of Entertainment Weekly rated it the greatest summer movie of the previous 20 years.
The biggest impact Jurassic Park had on subsequent films regarded Industrial Light and Magic's computer-generated visual effects. Film historian Tom Shone commented on the film's innovation and influence, saying that "In its way, Jurassic Park heralded a revolution in movies as profound as the coming of sound in 1927." Many filmmakers saw Jurassic Park's effects as a realization that many of their visions, previously thought unfeasible or too expensive, were now possible. Stanley Kubrick, the director of 2001: A Space Odyssey, contacted Spielberg to direct A.I. Artificial Intelligence. Filmmaker Werner Herzog was similarly impressed, citing the movie as an example of Spielberg being a "great storyteller" and that he knows how to weave special effects into coherent stories. The breakthrough in computer-generated graphics opened possibilities to other filmmakers also: George Lucas realizing the success of creating realistic live dinosaurs by his own company, started to make the Star Wars prequels, and Peter Jackson began to re-explore his childhood love of fantasy films, a path that led him to The Lord of the Rings and King Kong. Jurassic Park has also inspired films and documentaries such as the American adaptation of Godzilla, Carnosaur, and Walking with Dinosaurs. Stan Winston, enthusiastic about the new technology pioneered by the film, joined with IBM and director James Cameron to form a new special effects company, Digital Domain.
Sequels and merchandise
After the enormous success of the film, Spielberg requested Michael Crichton to write a sequel novel, leading to the 1995 book The Lost World, which in turn was adapted as The Lost World: Jurassic Park in 1997, also directed by Spielberg and written by David Koepp. Another film, Jurassic Park III, was released on 2001 under the direction of Joe Johnston. Jurassic World was originally scheduled to be released on June 13, 2014, but has re-entered development with a June 12, 2015 release date. Many video games continuing the story of the film were also made, at times even unattached to the film sequels themselves. These include Ocean Software's Jurassic Park 2: The Chaos Continues (1994), Vivendi's Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis (2003) and Telltale Games' Jurassic Park: The Game (2011).
Jurassic Park was first released on DVD on October 10, 2000, finishing the year with 910,000 units sold. The film was also released in a package with The Lost World: Jurassic Park. The DVD was re-released with both sequels on December 11, 2001, as the Jurassic Park Trilogy, and as the Jurassic Park Adventure Pack on November 29, 2005. The trilogy got a Blu-ray release on October 25, 2011. The Blu-ray box set was nominated as the best release of the year by both the Las Vegas Film Critics Society and the Saturn Award.
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