Jurassic Park

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Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park Adventure Pack.jpg
Jurassic Park Adventure Pack DVD Box Set
Directed by Steven Spielberg (1–2)
Joe Johnston (3)
Colin Trevorrow (4)
Produced by Kathleen Kennedy (1, 3)
Gerald R. Molen (1–3)
Colin Wilson (2)
Larry J. Franco (3)
Patrick Crowley (4)
Frank Marshall (4)
Screenplay by Michael Crichton (1)
David Koepp (1–2)
Peter Buchman (3)
Alexander Payne (3)
Jim Taylor (3)
Rick Jaffa (4)[1]
Amanda Silver (4)[1]
Based on Jurassic Park 
by Michael Crichton
Starring Sam Neill
Laura Dern
Jeff Goldblum
Richard Attenborough
Julianne Moore
Pete Postlethwaite
Arliss Howard
Vince Vaughn
William H. Macy
Tea Leoni
Alessandro Nivola
Bryce Dallas Howard
Music by John Williams (1–2)
Don Davis (3)
Cinematography Dean Cundey (1)
Janusz Kaminski (2)
Shelly Johnson (3)
John Schwartzman (4)
Editing by Michael Kahn (1–2)
Robert Dalva (3)
Studio Amblin Entertainment
Legendary Pictures (4)
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release dates 1993 – present
Country United States
Language English
Budget $229.000.000
Box office $2.016.573.690

Jurassic Park is an American franchise consisting of books, films, comics, videos, and video games centering on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs. It began in 1990 when Universal Studios bought the rights to the novel by Michael Crichton before it was even published.

The book was successful, as was the 1993 film adaptation which led to two sequels, although the last was not based on a novel, as the previous films were. The software developers Ocean Software, BlueSky Software, Sega of America, and Telltale Games have had the rights to developing video games since the 1993 film, and numerous games have been produced.

The Jurassic Park Ultimate Trilogy was released on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on October 25, 2011 in North America.

Jurassic Park was re-released in 3D on April 5, 2013.[2]

The fourth film, Jurassic World, was originally scheduled to be released on June 13, 2014 but has since been pushed back to a June 12, 2015 release. In March 2013, Colin Trevorrow was announced as the director.[3] Patrick Crowley and Frank Marshall are still signed on as producers with a script written by Derek Connolly and Colin Trevorrow.

Development[edit]

Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay around a pterosaur being cloned from fossil DNA. After wrestling with this idea for a while, he came up with Jurassic Park.[4] Steven Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the TV series ER. Before the book was published, Crichton put up a non-negotiable fee for $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Sony Columbia Pictures and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante also bid for the rights,[5] Universal further paid Crichton $500,000 to adapt his own novel,[6] but in May 1990, Universal eventually decided on Spielberg making the adaption.[5] Universal desperately needed money to keep their company alive, and partially succeeded with Jurassic Park, as it became a critical[7] and commercial[8] success.

After Jurassic Park was released to home video, Crichton was pressured from many sources for a sequel novel. Crichton declined all offers until Spielberg himself told him that he would be keen to direct a movie adaptation of the sequel, if one were written. Crichton began work almost immediately. After the novel was published in 1995, The Lost World: Jurassic Park began production in September 1996.[9]

Before the production of the second film, Joe Johnston approached Steven Spielberg about directing the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct.[10] Production began on August 30, 2000.[11]

Books[edit]

Jurassic Park stemmed from the idea of a screenplay about cloning a pterosaur from fossilized DNA.[12] Crichton worked on the idea for several years; he decided his first draft would have a theme park for the setting and a young boy as the main character.[12] Response was extremely negative, so Crichton rewrote the story to make it from an adult's point of view, which went over much better.[12]

A sequel novel began after readers and Steven Spielberg himself pressured Crichton for a sequel novel.[13] Crichton confirmed that his novel had elements taken from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novel of the same name.[14] The book was also an outstanding success, both with professional and amateur critics.[13] A film adaptation was released in 1997.

Overview[edit]

InGen (International Genetic Technologies, Inc.) is based in Palo Alto, California, and has one location in Europe.[15] Nevertheless, most of InGen's research took place on both the islands of Isla Sorna and Isla Nublar.[15] While official records indicated InGen was just one of any number of small 1980s genetic engineering start-ups, the events of the novel and film revealed to a select group that InGen had discovered a method of cloning dinosaurs and other animals (including a quagga) using blood extracted from mosquitoes trapped in amber during various periods in time, ranging from the Mesozoic era to the 1800s.[15] Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction describe InGen as comparable to another "sleazy organization".[16] Other sources reference the company's receiving the baby T-Rex as an allusion to other exploitative entrepreneurs depicted in King Kong.[17] Ken Gelder describes InGen as "resolutely secretive, just like the firm in Grisham's novel."[18]

Films[edit]

Jurassic Park (1993)[edit]

The theatrical poster for the 3D re-release of Jurassic Park

Before Crichton's book was even published studios such as Warner Bros., Columbia TriStar, 20th Century Fox, and Universal had already began bidding to acquire the picture rights. Spielberg, with the backing of Universal Studios, acquired the rights to the novel before its publication in 1990, and Crichton himself was hired by Universal Studios for an additional US$500,000 to adapt the novel into a proper screenplay. David Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence, and made numerous changes to the characters.

Jurassic Park is regarded as a landmark in the use of computer-generated imagery, and received positive reviews from critics, who praised the effects, though reactions to other elements of the picture, such as character development, were mixed. During its release, the film grossed more than $914 million worldwide, becoming the most successful film released up to that time (surpassing E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial and surpassed 4 years later by Titanic), and it is currently the 21st highest grossing feature film (taking inflation into account, it is the 20th-highest-grossing film in North America). It is the most financially successful film for NBCUniversal and Steven Spielberg.

Jurassic Park was converted into 3D and it was re-released on April 5, 2013 for its 20th Anniversary.[19][20][21]

The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)[edit]

After the success of the first 1993 film, fans and critics alike pressured Crichton for a sequel novel. Having never done one before, Crichton originally declined, but when Steven Spielberg finally started pressuring Crichton, a sequel novel was announced. As soon as the novel was published, a film was in pre-production, with a target release date of mid-1997. The film was a commercial success, breaking many box-office records when released. The film had mixed reviews, similar to its predecessor in terms of characterization. Although the film is said to be based on Crichton's novel, exactly one scene from the book was actually used in the movie.

The film centers on Isla Sorna, an auxiliary island for the main Jurassic Park island, where dinosaurs have taken over and live in the wild. Ian Malcolm goes to the island to "rescue" his girlfriend who has gone to the island, without his knowledge, to document the dinosaurs in their native habitat, while an InGen team attempts to capture them for a second Jurassic Park in San Diego.

Jurassic Park III (2001)[edit]

Joe Johnston had been interested in directing the sequel to Jurassic Park and approached his friend Steven Spielberg about the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct.[10] Spielberg, nevertheless, stayed involved in this film by becoming its executive producer. Production began on August 30, 2000[11] with filming in California, Oahu, and Molokai.[22] The film was a success and had mixed reviews from critics. Most were split on whether the third installment was better or worse than its predecessor. The film once again suffered reviews mentioning little to no characterization.

No character who was in the second film appears in this one, although Grant and Sattler from the original installment return, and Ian Malcolm and John Hammond are mentioned. The setting is Isla Sorna, the island from the second film, after a couple hires Dr. Grant, ostensibly for a guided tour, but in reality to help rescue their son, Eric. Their plane crashes on the island, and the survivors attempt to escape, while being stalked by a Spinosaurus and Velociraptors.

Jurassic World (2015)[edit]

Within a year after the release of Jurassic Park III, rumors began to circulate regarding a potential fourth film. Over the next 11 years, the film remained in development hell as no concrete information was revealed. In early 2013, Universal Pictures confirmed a release date, as well as a director, Colin Trevorrow.[23][24][25][26] Rumors regarding casting and plot persist, as these two subjects have not yet been elaborated on by Universal. In June 2013, the JP4 logo and a 2015 release date were shown at the Licensing Expo. It was also confirmed to be filmed in 3D.[27] In September 2013, Universal Pictures announced that the fourth film, Jurassic World, would be released on June 12, 2015.[28]

Principal cast[edit]

Character Film
Jurassic Park
(1993)
The Lost World: Jurassic Park
(1997)
Jurassic Park III
(2001)
Jurassic World
(2015)
Dr. Ian Malcolm Jeff Goldblum Mentioned
John Hammond Richard Attenborough Mentioned
Lex Murphy Ariana Richards
Tim Murphy Joseph Mazzello
Dr. Alan Grant Sam Neill Sam Neill
Dr. Ellie Degler (Sattler) Laura Dern Laura Dern
Dr. Henry Wu B. D. Wong B. D. Wong
Robert Muldoon Bob Peck
Ray Arnold Samuel L. Jackson
Dennis Nedry Wayne Knight  
Donald Gennaro Martin Ferrero
Lewis Dodgson Cameron Thor
Dr. Sarah Harding   Julianne Moore
Kelly Curtis Malcolm Vanessa Lee Chester
Nick Van Owen   Vince Vaughn
Roland Tembo   Pete Postlethwaite
Peter Ludlow   Arliss Howard
Ajay Sidhu   Harvey Jason
Dr. Robert Burke   Thomas F. Duffy
Dieter Stark   Peter Stormare
Eddie Carr   Richard Schiff
Paul Kirby   William H. Macy
Amanda Kirby   Téa Leoni
Billy Brennan   Alessandro Nivola
Eric Kirby   Trevor Morgan
Udesky   Michael Jeter
M.B. Nash   Bruce A. Young
Cooper   John Diehl
Ben Hildebrand   Mark Harelik
Owen Chris Pratt
Beth Bryce Dallas Howard
Morton Vincent D'Onofrio
Zach Nick Robinson
Gray Ty Simpkins
Lowery Jake Johnson
Patel Irrfan Khan
? David Oyelowo
? Omar Sy

Crew[edit]

Film Director Producer Writer Composer Editor Cinematographer
Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg Kathleen Kennedy
Gerald R. Molen
Michael Crichton
David Koepp
John Williams Michael Kahn Dean Cundey
The Lost World: Jurassic Park Gerald R. Molen
Colin Wilson
David Koepp Janusz Kamiński
Jurassic Park III Joe Johnston Kathleen Kennedy
Larry J. Franco
Peter Buchman
Alexander Payne & Jim Taylor
Don Davis Robert Dalva Shelly Johnson

Reception[edit]

Academy Awards[edit]

Award Film
Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park Jurassic Park III
Sound Editing Won
Sound Mixing Won
Visual Effects Won Nomination

Grammy Awards[edit]

Award Film
Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park Jurassic Park III
Best Score Soundtrack Nomination Nomination

Box office performance[edit]

Film Release date Box office revenue Box office ranking Budget Reference
United States Foreign Worldwide All time domestic All time worldwide
Jurassic Park June 11, 1993 $402.453.882 $602.100.000 $1.029.153.882 #16
#16(A)
#13 $63.000.000 [29]
The Lost World:
Jurassic Park
May 23, 1997 $229.086.679 $389.552.320 $618.638.999 #96
#97(A)
#76 $73.000.000 [30]
Jurassic Park III July 18, 2001 $181.171.875 $187.608.934 $368.780.809 #167 #203 $93.000.000 [31]
Total $767.326.501 $1.158.884.425 $2.016.573.690 N/A N/A $229.000.000 N/A
List indicator(s)
  • (A) indicates the adjusted totals based on current ticket prices (calculated by Box Office Mojo).

Critical reaction[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic
Jurassic Park 93% (110 reviews)[32] 68 (20 reviews)[33]
The Lost World: Jurassic Park 52% (64 reviews)[34] 59 (18 reviews)[35]
Jurassic Park III 49% (158 reviews)[36] 42 (30 reviews)[37]
Average ratings 64%

Comic books[edit]

Topps Comics[edit]

From June 1993 to August 1997 the now-defunct Topps Comics published comic adaptions of Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park, as well as several tie-in series.

IDW Comics[edit]

Beginning in June 2010, IDW Publishing began publishing Jurassic Park comics. They also acquired the rights to reprint the issues published by Topps in the 1990s, which they began to do in trade paperback format starting in November 2010. Mark Schultz will be drawing a future cover.

This series has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:

Title Material collected Page Number ISBN
Jurassic Park Jurassic Park #1-4 ISBN 1-85286-502-4
The Lost World: Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1-4 ISBN 1-85286-885-6
Jurassic Park Vol. 1: Redemption Jurassic Park Redemption #1-5 120 pages ISBN 1-60010-850-1
Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert #1-4 104 pages ISBN 1-60010-923-3
Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games #1-5 112 pages ISBN 1-61377-002-2
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 1 Jurassic Park #1-4 104 pages ISBN 1-60010-760-5

Classic Jurassic Park Volume 2: Raptors' Revenge

Juassic Park #0, Jurassic Park: Raptor #1-2, Jurassic Park: Raptors Attack #1-4 192 pages ISBN 1-60010-885-7
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 3: Amazon Adventure! Jurassic Park: Raptors Hijack #1-4, Jurassic Park: Annual #1 124 pages ISBN 1-61377-042-1
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 4: Return to Jurassic Park, Part 1 Return to Jurassic Park #1-4 128 pages ISBN 1-61377-117-7
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 5: Return to Jurassic Park, Part 2 Return to Jurassic Park #5-9 108 pages ISBN 978-1613775332
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 6: The Lost World The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1-4

(Comes out March 18, 2014)

104 pages ISBN 978-1613779156

Video games[edit]

When the first film was released in 1993, two different video game publishers were given the rights to publish games based on it, Sega and Ocean Software. They both produced several different games based on the movie for several different game systems, including the NES and Sega Genesis. In 1994, Ocean Software produced a sequel to the first game in the series for the Game Boy and SNES systems. Universal Interactive also produced an interactive game for the ill-fated 3DO system.

For the second film in the franchise, DreamWorks Interactive released 5 games for the most popular systems at the time. The third film had the biggest marketing push, spawning seven video games for PC and Game Boy Advance. A number of lightgun arcade games were also released for all three films.

In 2003, Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis was released for the Xbox, PlayStation 2, and PC.

A new episodic video game series based on the Jurassic Park franchise, bridging the story of the first two movies and entitled Jurassic Park: The Game, was developed by Telltale Games in a deal with Universal.[38] It was released on November 15, 2011.

A game that is based on the Jurassic Park franchise, Jurassic Park Builder, was released July 23, 2012 as an app for Android and iOS devices, developed by Ludia games. Taking place in a possible future following the events of the first two films (and interestingly not mentioning anything of the third), the player is tasked with building a new park on another island in an undisclosed location and populating it with various species of dinosaurs, both carnivorous and herbivorous. John Hammond, Alan Grant and other characters appear as they did in the films to deliver missions essential to progressing the game. All the dinosaurs seen in the films can be created and added to the park, as well as many new, previously unseen species. Further expansions to the game have introduced both an Aquatic park, featuring Crustaceavores and Piscivores and a Glacier park, featuring Ice Age era mammals. The game has met with generally favourable reviews, with most praising the attention to detail and faithfulness to the source material, while others approved of the interesting new direction presented in the game, referring to the expanded range of species as well as the two new parks.

The Ride[edit]

Jurassic Park water rides can be found in every Universal Studios theme park in the world.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Universal Sets 'Rise of Planet of the Apes' Writers for 'Jurassic Park 4'. Deadline.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-04.
  2. ^ "Jurassic Park Re-release". Universal. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  3. ^ "Colin Trevorrow to Direct Jurassic Park 4". Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Michael Crichton (2001). Michael Crichton on the Jurassic Park Phenomenon (DVD). Universal. 
  5. ^ a b Jurassic Park DVD Production Notes
  6. ^ Appelo, Tim (December 7, 1990). "Leaping Lizards". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 17, 2007. 
  7. ^ Jurassic Park – Movie Reviews, Trailers, Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes. Rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-04.
  8. ^ (1993)]
  9. ^ "The FOUND WORLD JURASSIC PARK". British Film Institute. Retrieved July 7, 2007. 
  10. ^ a b The Making of Jurassic Park III (DVD). Universal Pictures. 2005. 
  11. ^ a b "Jurassic Park III". British Film Institute. Retrieved July 9, 2007. 
  12. ^ a b c "Jurassic Park". MichaelCrichton.com. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  13. ^ a b The Lost World: Jurassic Park DVD Special Features – Production Notes
  14. ^ The Lost World. MichaelCrichton.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-04.
  15. ^ a b c As described in Jurassic Park and Lost World, both novels and films.
  16. ^ Kirk H. Beetz, Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction: biography & resources (Beacham Pub., 1996), 2238.
  17. ^ Nigel Morris, The Cinema of Steven Spielberg: Empire of Light (Wallflower Press, 2007), 249.
  18. ^ Ken Gelder, Popular Fiction: The Logics and Practices of a Literary Field (Routledge, 2004), 113.
  19. ^ "'Jurassic Park' to be re-released in 3D". NME. March 17, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012. 
  20. ^ Rich, Katey (March 16, 2012). "Jurassic Park 3D Coming To Theaters In July 2013". Cinema Blend. Retrieved November 25, 2012. 
  21. ^ Armitage, Hugh (March 16, 2012). "'Jurassic Park 3D' coming in 2013". Digital Spy. Retrieved November 25, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Jurassic Park III". Hollywood.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2007. 
  23. ^ "Jurassic Park 4 Gets a Director (Hint: It's Not Steven Spielberg)". E! Online. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  24. ^ Jurassic Park 4 to be directed by Colin Trevorrow
  25. ^ The Deadline Team (January 11, 2013). "BREAKING: Universal Sets Date for 'Jurassic Park 4'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 27, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Universal sets "Jurassic Park 4" for Summer 2014!". Horror Movies and Stuff. Retrieved January 27, 2013. 
  27. ^ "Exclusive: Jurassic Park 4 Targeted for 2015, to be Shot in 3D". Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  28. ^ http://www.thewrap.com/steven-spielbergs-jurassic-world-to-hit-theaters-in-june-2015/
  29. ^ "Jurassic Park (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  30. ^ "The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Jurassic Park III (2001)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  32. ^ "Jurassic Park". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  33. ^ "Jurassic Park". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  34. ^ "The Lost World: Jurassic Park". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  35. ^ "The Lost World: Jurassic Park". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Jurassic Park III". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  37. ^ "Jurassic Park III". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  38. ^ Kollar, Phil (June 8, 2010). "Telltale Creating Episodic Jurassic Park Game". GameInformer.com. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 

External links[edit]