|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2007)|
|Names||Judge, freedoms,and justices magistrate|
|Competencies||Analytical mind, critical thinking, impartiality, commercial sense|
|Usually experience and University degree|
|Barrister, solicitor, prosecutor, professor|
A judge presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the parties of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, and then issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might also be an examining magistrate.
- 1 Symbols of office
- 2 Titles and forms of address
- 2.1 Asia
- 2.2 Europe
- 2.3 North America
- 2.4 Oceania
- 2.5 South America
- 2.6 International courts
- 2.7 Other
- 3 Biblical Judges
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Symbols of office
A variety of traditions have become associated with the rank or occupation.
In many parts of the world, judges wear long robes (often in black or red) and sit on an elevated platform during trials (known as the bench).
In some countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs. The long wig often associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was part of the standard attire in previous centuries. A short wig resembling but not identical to a barrister's wig would be worn in court. This tradition, however, is being phased out in Britain in non-criminal courts.
American judges frequently wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress.
In Italy and Portugal both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes.
In China, judges wore regular street clothes until 1984, when they began to wear military-style uniforms, which were intended to demonstrate authority. These uniforms were replaced in 2000 by black robes similar to those worn in the rest of the world.
In Oman, the judge wears a long stripe (red, green white), while the attorneys wear the black gown.
Titles and forms of address
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2008)|
In the lower courts, magistrates are addressed as sir or madam, and district court judges as Your Honour.
In the superior courts of record, namely the Court of Final Appeal and the High Court (which consists of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance), judges are addressed as My Lord or My Lady and referred to as Your Lordship or Your Ladyship, following the English tradition.
In writing, the post-nominal letters PJ is used to refer to a permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal and NPJ to a non-permanent judge. In the High Court, the abbreviation JA is used to denote a justice of appeal, and the letter J refers to a judge of the Court of First Instance.
Masters of the High Court are addressed as Master.
When trials are conducted in Chinese, judges were addressed, in Cantonese, as Fat Goon Dai Yan (法官大人, literally "Judge, Your Lordship") before the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China, and as Fat Goon Gok Ha (法官閣下, "Judge, Your Honour") since 1997. Fat Goon (法官) means "judge".
In India, judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts were addressed as Your Lordship or My Lord and Your Ladyship or My Lady, a tradition directly attributable to England. The Bar Council of India had adopted a resolution in April 2006 and added a new Rule 49 (1) (j) in the Advocates Act. As per the rule, lawyers can address the court as Your Honour and refer to it as Honourable Court. If it is a subordinate court, lawyers can use terms such as sir or any equivalent phrase in the regional language concerned. Explaining the rationale behind the move, the Bar Council had held that the words such as My Lord and Your Lordship were "relics of the colonial past". The resolution has since been circulated to all state councils and the Supreme Court for adoption but over five years now, the resolution largely remained on paper.
However, in an unprecedented move in October 2009, one of the judges of Madras HC, Justice K Chandru had banned lawyers from addressing his court as My Lord and Your Lordship.
In Israel, judges of all courts are addressed as Sir or Madam (אדוני/גבירתי) or Your Honor (כבודו/כבודה).
In Japan, judges are addressed simply as Saibancho (裁判長, literally "the Chief Justice") or Saibankan (裁判官, literally "Judge").
In Malaysia, judges of the subordinate courts are addressed as Tuan or Puan ("Sir" or "Madam"), or Your Honour. Judges of the superior courts are addressed as Yang Arif (lit. "Learned One") or My Lord or My Lady; and Your Lordship or My Ladyship if the proceedings, as they generally are in the superior courts, are in English.
In Pakistan, judges of the Supreme Court and the high courts are addressed as Your Lordship or My Lord and Your Ladyship or My Lady, a tradition directly attributable to England. There is some resistance to this on religious grounds but more or less continues till this day. In lower courts, judges are addressed as sir, madam or the Urdu equivalent Janab.
In Sri Lanka, judges of most courts are addressed as Your Honour, however the Chief Justice is addressed as Your Lordship. Judges of the Supreme Court and the Appeal Court receives the title The Honourable.
The male presiding judge of a court is addressed as herra puheenjohtaja, which means "Mister Chairman" and a female presiding judge is usually addressed as arvoisa puheenjohtaja, which means "esteemed Chairman"; which can be used also when addressing a male presiding judge (Finnish has no grammatical gender). There are no robes or cloaks used in any Finnish courts.
In France, the presiding judge of a court is addressed as Monsieur le président or Madame la présidente, whilst associated judges are addressed as Madame l'Assesseur or Monsieur l'Assesseur. Out of the court room judges are referred to as Monsieur le juge or Madame le juge.
In Germany judges are addressed as Herr Vorsitzender or Frau Vorsitzende, which translate as "Mister Chairman" and "Madam Chairwoman", or as "Hohes Gericht".
Judges of the Supreme Court or High Court are officially titled The Honourable Mr, The Honourable Mrs, The Honourable Ms, or The Honourable Miss Justice; referred to for short as Mr Justice, Mrs Justice, Ms Justice, or Miss Justice; and addressed in court by their respective titles or styles, as The Court, or simply Judge. Some barristers continue occasionally to use the traditional mode of style, My Lord, but this has been discouraged since 2006. In law reports, the Chief Justice of Ireland has the postnominal CJ, the President of the High Court the postnominal P, and all other judges J, e.g. Smith J.
Judges of the Circuit Court are titled His Honour Judge or Her Honour Judge and are addressed in Court as Judge. Before 2006, they were addressed as My Lord. In law reports, Judge.
Judges of the District Court are titled Judge and addressed in Court as Judge. Before 1991 these judges were known as district justices and addressed as Your Worship.
In Italy the presiding judge of a court is addressed as Signor presidente della corte.
In the Netherlands, presiding judges of either sex are, in writing only, addressed edelachtbare ("Your Honor") for judges in the Court of First Instance, edelgrootachtbare ("Your Great Honor") for justices in the Court of Appeal and edelhoogachtbare ("Your High Honor") for justices in the High Council of the Netherlands (Supreme Court).
In Poland, presiding judges of either sex during trial are addressed Wysoki Sądzie ("High Court").
In Portugal, presiding judges during trial are addressed as Meretíssimo Juiz when a man or Meretíssima Juíza when a woman ( meaning "worthy Judge") or as Vossa Excelência ("Your Excellency") when not specifying genera.
In Russia as Your Honor ("Ваша Честь" trans. "Vasha Chest") for criminal cases only with the one judge presiding. For civil, commercial cases and criminal cases with the panel of judges presiding the right version is Respected Court.
In Spain, magistrates of the Supreme Court, magistrates and judges are addressed to as "Your Lordship" (Su Señoría); however, in formal occasions, magistrates of the Supreme Court are addressed to as "Your Right Honorable Lordship" (Vuestra Señoría Excelentísima or Excelentísimo Señor/Excelentísima Señora); in those solemn occasions, magistrates of lower Courts are addressed as "Your Honorable Lordship" (Vuestra Señoría Ilustrísima or Ilustrísimo Señor/Ilustrísima Señora); simple judges are always called "Your Lordship".
In Sweden the presiding judge of a court is normally addressed as Herr Ordförande or Fru Ordförande.
England and Wales
In the Courts of England and Wales, Supreme Court, judges are called Justices of the Supreme Court. Justices of the Supreme Court who do not hold life peerages are now given the courtesy style "Lord" or "Lady." Justices of the Supreme Court are addressed as "My Lord/Lady" in court. In the law reports, the Justices of the Supreme Court are usually referred to as "Lord/Lady N", although the Weekly Law Reports appends the post-nominal letters "JSC" (e.g. "Lady Smith JSC"). The President and Deputy President of the Court are afforded the post-nominal letters PSC and DPSC respectively.
Judges of the Court of Appeal, also called Lords Justice of Appeal, are referred to as "Lord Justice N" or "Lady Justice N." In legal writing, Lords Justices of Appeal are afforded the post nominal letters "LJ:" for example, Smith LJ.
When a judge of the High Court who is not present is being referred to they are described as "Mr./Mrs./Ms. Justice N." In legal writing, the post-nominal letter "J" is used to denote a Judge (male or female) of the High Court: for example, Smith J. Masters of the High Court are addressed as "Master".
Circuit Judges and Recorders are addressed as "Your Honour". Circuit judges are referred to as "His/Her Honour Judge N." In writing, this title is occasionally abbreviated as "HHJ" or "HH Judge N", but not in legal writing. district judges and tribunal judges are addressed as "Sir/Madam".
In the Courts of Scotland judges in the Court of Session, High Court of Justiciary and Sheriff Courts are all addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady" and referred to as "Your Lordship" or "Your Ladyship".
The judicial system of Northern Ireland is very similar to that of England and Wales, and superior court judges are addressed the same way as those in England and Wales. However, there are a few differences at the lower levels.
In Northern Ireland, the equivalent to a Circuit Judge is a County Court Judge, and they are addressed and titled the same way as a Circuit Judge is in England and Wales. The senior County Court Judges assigned to the County Court Divisions of Belfast and Derry have the titles of Recorder of Belfast and Recorder of Londonderry respectively, but are addressed the same as other County Court Judges. A district judge sitting in the County Court is addressed as "Your Honour".
A District Judge (Magistrates' Court) is addressed as "Your Worship". A Lay Magistrate, in cases where they are present, is also addressed as "Your Worship", and may use the post nominals "LM", e.g. "John Smith LM".
In general, Canadian judges are addressed directly as "My Lord", "My Lady", "Your Honour" or "Justice" and are formally referred to in the third person as "The Honourable Mr. (or Madam) Justice 'Forename Surname'". Less formally, judges of a Superior Court are referred to as "Justice 'Surname'", and it is never appropriate to refer to such a judge as "Judge 'Surname.'" When referred to in a decision of a court, judges' titles are often abbreviated to the suffix "J.", so that Justice Smith will be referred to as Smith J. Judges in some superior courts are addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady".
Generally, it is only appropriate to use the term "judge" when speaking of an anonymous or general position, such as "the trial judge," or when referring to a member of an inferior or provincial court such as the Ontario Court of Justice. The exception is Citizenship Judges who are referred to only as "Judge 'Surname.'" in accordance with their appointment as independent decision makers of the Citizenship Commission.
In many states throughout the United States, a judge is addressed as "Your Honor" or "Judge" when presiding over the court. "Judge" may be more commonly used by attorneys and staff, while either may be common with the plaintiff or the defendant. Notably, the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, the largest unified trial court in the United States, has a rule that the judge shall be addressed only as "Your Honor," and never as "Judge," "Judge (name)," "ma'am," or "sir."
The judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the judges of the supreme courts of several US states and other countries are called "justices" or "justice(s) of the peace." Judges of the Supreme Court of the United States are addressed as "Justice (name)." The Chief Justice is addressed as "Chief Justice (name)."
The justices of the supreme courts usually hold higher offices than the justice of the peace, a judge who holds police court in some jurisdictions and who typically tries small claims and misdemeanors. However, the state of New York inverts the usual order, with the Supreme Court of the State of New York being the lowest trial court of general jurisdiction, and the Court of Appeals being the highest court. This is a historical artifact from when the superior trial court in common law jurisdictions was called the "supreme court".
Consequently, New York trial judges are called "justices," while the judges on the Court of Appeals are "judges." New York judges who deal with guardianships, trusts and estates are uniquely known as "surrogates."
Subordinate or inferior jurisdiction judges in US legal practice are sometimes called magistrates, although in the federal court of the United States, they are called magistrate judges. Subordinate judges in US legal practice who are appointed on a case-by-case basis, particularly in cases where a great deal of detailed and tedious evidence must be reviewed, are often called "masters" or "special masters" and have authority in a particular case often determined on a case by case basis.
Judges of courts of specialized jurisdiction (such as bankruptcy courts or juvenile courts) were sometimes known officially as "referees," but the use of this title is in decline. Judges sitting in courts of equity in common law systems (such as judges in the equity courts of Delaware) are called "chancellors."
Individuals with judicial responsibilities who report to an executive branch official, rather than being a part of the judiciary, are often called "administrative law judges" in US practice. They were previously known as hearing examiners. They commonly make initial determinations regarding matters such as workers' compensation, eligibility for government benefits, regulatory matters, and immigration determinations.
Judges who derive their authority from a contractual agreement of the parties to a dispute, rather than a governmental body are called arbitrators. They typically do not receive the honorific forms of address nor do they bear the symbolic trappings of a publicly appointed judge. However, it is now common for many retired judges to serve as arbitrators, and they will often write their names as if they were still judges, with the parenthetical "(Ret.)" for "Retired."
Unlike many civil law countries; which have some courts on which panels of judges with nearly equal status composed of both legally trained professional judges and lay judges who lack legal training and are not career judges, the United States legal system (like most Anglo-American legal systems) makes a clear distinction between professional judges and laymen involved in deciding case who are jurors who are part of a jury. Most but not all US judges have professional credentials as lawyers. Non-lawyer judges in the United States are often elected, and are typically either justices of the peace or part-time judges in rural limited jurisdiction courts. A non-lawyer judge typically has the same rights and responsibilities as a lawyer who is a judge holding the same office and is addressed in the same manner.
In Australia judges, and since 2007, magistrates, of all jurisdictions including the High Court of Australia are now addressed as "Your Honour". In legal contexts, they are referred to as "His/Her Honour" and "the Honourable Justice Surname" (for judges of superior courts) or "his/her Honour Judge Surname" (for inferior courts). Outside legal contexts, the formal terms of address are "Judge" (for puisne justices) or "Chief Justice" (for chief justices).
The title for most puisne judges is "Justice", which is abbreviated in law reports to a postnominal "J", in the form "Surname J". Chief Justices of the High Court and of state Supreme Courts are titled "Chief Justice", which is abbreviated in law reports to a postnomial "CJ". Judges in State Supreme Courts with a separate Court of Appeal division (New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia) are referred to as Justices/Judges of the Appeal (abbreviated "Surname JA"), while the President of the Court of Appeal is referred to as "President" (abbreviated "Surname P").
In New Zealand, judges of the High Court and above are referred to as "His/Her Honour Justice Surname" in speech, and "Surname J" in writing. Judges of the District Court and the other statutory courts are referred to as "His/Her Honour Judge Surname" in speech, and "Surname DCJ" or "Judge Surname" in writing. The "Mr" of the title "Mr Justice" was dropped on the appointment of Cartwright J to the High Court. In Court, all judges are addressed as "Your Honour", or "Sir/Madam".
In Brazil, judges are simply called "Juiz" or "Juiza" (male and female forms of "judge") and traditionally addressed to as "Vossa Excelência" (lit. "Your Excellency", translated as "Your Honor") or "Meritíssimo" (lit. "Honorable", but it is used as a pronoun also translated as "Your Honor"). Judges that are part of a panel in a State Court, or Federal Court are called "desembargadores". Judges sitting in the higher courts (Supremo Tribunal Federal, Superior Tribunal de Justiça, Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, Superior Tribunal Militar and Tribunal Superior Eleitoral) are called "ministro" or "ministra" (male and female forms of "minister") and also referred to as "Vossa Excelência".
At the International Court of Justice, judges may be addressed by the titles they received in their countries of origin.
Judges of the International Criminal Court are referred to as "judge."
The Biblical Book of Judges revolves around a succession of leaders who were known as "Judges" (Hebrew shoftim שופטים) but who - aside from their judicial function - were also tribal war leaders. The same word is, however, used in contemporary Israel to denote judges whose function and authority is similar to that in other modern countries.
- Hosted.ap.org[dead link]
- Корнажер, П. - "Съдебна реторика. Избрани съдебни речи", ИК Софи-Р, С., 2000, с. 77
- "Criminal Procedure Code of Russia, Article 257. Regulations of the court session". Consultant.ru. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "Civil Procedure Code of Russia, Article 158. Procedure of the court session". Consultant.ru. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "Arbitral Procedure Code of Russia, Article 154. Procedure of the court session". Consultant.ru. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "Albertacourts.ab.ca". Albertacourts.ab.ca. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- Rule 8.5, Los Angeles Superior Court Rules.
- New South Wales Supreme Court, Addressing Judicial Officers
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M.E.D.E.L European association of judges and public prosecutors.
- CEPEJ European commission for the efficiency of justice.
- CCJE European consultative council of judges.
- How sentencing works: You be the Judge
- Directgov Crown Court - what it does (Directgov, England and Wales)