|First appearance||The Brave and the Bold #28 (February/March 1960)|
|Created by||Gardner Fox|
|Base(s)||The Hall and the Satellite
|See:List of Justice League members|
The Justice League, formerly also called the Justice League of America or JLA, is a fictional superhero team that appears in comic books published by DC Comics. First appearing in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February/March 1960), the Justice League originally featured Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern, Aquaman, and the Martian Manhunter. The team roster has been rotated throughout the years with characters such as Green Arrow, Captain Atom, Captain Marvel, Black Canary, the Atom, Hawkman, Elongated Man, Red Tornado, Firestorm, Zatanna, Hawkgirl, Cyborg, Vixen, and dozens of others. Sidekicks like Supergirl, Robin, Aquagirl, and Speedy tend to support the main hero or heroine.
The team received its own comic book title in October 1960, when the first issue was published. It would continue to #261 in April 1987, which was the final issue. Throughout the years, various incarnations or subsections of the team have operated as Justice League America, Justice League Dark, Justice League Europe, Justice League International, Justice League Task Force, Justice League Elite, and Extreme Justice.
- 1 Background
- 2 Publication history
- 3 Various origins of the Justice League
- 4 Enemies
- 5 Related series
- 6 Awards
- 7 Collected editions
- 7.1 Silver Age Justice League of America
- 7.2 Justice League/Justice League International/Justice League America (1987–1996)
- 7.3 JLA (1997-2006)
- 7.4 Justice League of America (vol. 2) (2006–2011)
- 7.5 The New 52 Justice League (vol. 2) (2011-present)
- 7.6 The New 52 Justice League of America (vol. 3) (2013-2014)
- 7.7 Miscellaneous reprints
- 8 Attractions
- 9 In other media
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Various comic book series featuring the Justice League have remained generally popular with fans since inception and, in most incarnations, its roster includes DC's most popular characters. The Justice League concept has also been adapted into various other entertainment media, including the classic Saturday morning Super Friends animated series (1973–1986), an unproduced Justice League of America live-action series (for which the pilot film exists), the animated series Justice League (2001–2004) and Justice League Unlimited (2004–2006). A live-action film was in the works in 2008 before being shelved. On June 6, 2012, Warner Bros. announced a new live action Justice League film was in development with Will Beall hired as screenwriter. However, the project is scrapped again. After the success of Man of Steel, a sequel titled, Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice will serve as a prequel or jumping point for a Justice League film set for a 2017 release. Zack Snyder will direct and Chris Terrio is eyed by Warner Bros. to pen the script who also worked for Dawn of Justice.
Silver and Bronze Age / Justice League of America
|Justice League of America|
Cover to Justice League of America #1.
Art by Mike Sekowsky.
|Schedule||Bi-Monthly: #1-8; #105-116
8 Times a Year: #9-32; #96-104
9 Times a Year: #33-95
|Publication date||November–December 1960 – April 1987|
|Number of issues||261 and 3 Annuals|
Having successfully reintroduced a number of DC Comics' (then known as National Periodical Publications) Golden Age superhero characters (Flash, Green Lantern, etc.) during the late 1950s, editor Julius Schwartz asked writer Gardner Fox to reintroduce the Justice Society of America. Schwartz, influenced by the popularity of Major League Baseball's National League and American League, decided to change the name of the team from Justice Society to Justice League. The Justice League of America debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February–March 1960), and after two further appearances in that title, got their own series which quickly became one of the company's best-selling titles. Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky were the creative team for the title's first eight years. Sekowsky's last issue was #63 (June 1968) and Fox departed with #65 (September 1968). Schwartz was the new title's editor and oversaw it until 1979.
The initial Justice League lineup included seven of DC Comics' superheroes who were regularly published at that time: Superman, Batman, Aquaman, Flash, Green Lantern, Martian Manhunter, and Wonder Woman. Rarely featured in most of the stories, Superman and Batman did not even appear on the cover most of the time. Three of DC's other surviving or revived characters, Green Arrow, the Atom, and Hawkman were added to the roster over the next four years.
The title's early success was indirectly responsible for the creation of the Fantastic Four. In his autobiography Stan Lee relates how in 1961, during a round of golf, DC publisher Jack Liebowitz mentioned to Marvel-Timely owner Martin Goodman how well DC's new book (Justice League) was selling. Later that day Goodman, a publishing trend-follower aware of the JLA's strong sales, told Lee, his comics editor, to come up with a team of superheroes for Marvel. According to Lee in Origins of Marvel Comics:
Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The [sic] Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes. ... ' If the Justice League is selling ', spoke he, "why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?"
Other versions of the story suggest that it was Irwin Donenfeld, rather than Liebowitz, who bragged. However, film producer and comics historian Michael Uslan partly debunked the story in a letter published in Alter Ego #43 (December 2004), pp. 43–44:
Irwin said he never played golf with Goodman, so the story is untrue. I heard this story more than a couple of times while sitting in the lunchroom at DC's 909 Third Avenue and 75 Rockefeller Plaza office as Sol Harrison and [production chief] Jack Adler were schmoozing with some of us ... who worked for DC during our college summers.... [T]he way I heard the story from Sol was that Goodman was playing with one of the heads of Independent News, not DC Comics (though DC owned Independent News). ... As the distributor of DC Comics, this man certainly knew all the sales figures and was in the best position to tell this tidbit to Goodman. ... Of course, Goodman would want to be playing golf with this fellow and be in his good graces. ... Sol worked closely with Independent News' top management over the decades and would have gotten this story straight from the horse's mouth.
The Justice League operated from a secret cave outside of the small town of Happy Harbor, Rhode Island. A teenager named Lucas "Snapper" Carr tagged along on missions, becoming both the team's mascot and an official member. Snapper, noted for speaking in beatnik dialect and snapping his fingers, helped the group defeat the giant space starfish Starro the Conqueror in the team's first appearance.
The supervillain Doctor Light first battled the team in issue #12 (June 1962). Justice League of America #21 and #22 (August–September 1963) saw the first team-up of the Justice League and the Justice Society of America as well as the first use of the term "Crisis" in reference to a crossover between characters. The following year's team-up with the Justice Society introduced the threat of the Crime Syndicate of America of Earth-Three. The character Metamorpho was offered membership in the Justice League but declined. Following the departures of Gardner Fox and Mike Sekowsky, writer Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin became the new creative team. Dillin would draw the title from issue #64 (August 1968) through #183 (October 1980).
O'Neil reshaped the Justice League's membership by removing Wonder Woman in issue #69 and the Martian Manhunter in issue #71. Following the JLA-JSA team-up in issues #73-74 and the death of her husband, the Black Canary decided to move to Earth-One to make a fresh start, where she joins the Justice League. The following issue saw the character develop the superpower known as her "canary cry". In issue #77 (December 1969), Snapper Carr is tricked into betraying the cave headquarters' secret location to the Joker, resulting in his resignation from the team.
In need of a new secure headquarters, the Justice League moved into an orbiting satellite headquarters in Justice League of America #78 (February 1970). The Elongated Man, the Red Tornado, Hawkwoman, Zatanna, and Firestorm joined the team, and Wonder Woman returned during this period.
Len Wein wrote issues #100–114, in which he and Dillin re-introduced the Seven Soldiers of Victory in issues #100-102 and the Freedom Fighters in issues #107-108. In the fall of 1972, Wein and writers Gerry Conway and Steve Englehart crafted a metafiction an unofficial crossover spanning titles from both Marvel and DC. Each comic featured Englehart, Conway, and Wein, as well as Wein's first wife Glynis, interacting with Marvel or DC characters at the Rutland Halloween Parade in Rutland, Vermont.
Beginning in Amazing Adventures #16 (by Englehart with art by Bob Brown and Frank McLaughlin), the story continued in Justice League of America #103 (by Wein, Dillin and Dick Giordano), and concluded in Thor #207 (by Conway and penciler John Buscema). As Englehart explained in 2010, "It certainly seemed like a radical concept and we knew that we had to be subtle (laughs) and each story had to stand on its own, but we really worked it out. It's really worthwhile to read those stories back to back to back — it didn't matter to us that one was at DC and two were at Marvel — I think it was us being creative, thinking what would be really cool to do." Justice League of America #103 also featured the Justice League offering membership to the Phantom Stranger. Len Wein commented on the Phantom Stranger's relationship with the JLA in a 2012 interview stating that the character "only sort of joined. He was offered membership but vanished, as per usual, without actually accepting the offer. Over the years, other writers have just assumed [he] was a member, but in my world, he never really said yes." Libra, a supervillain created by Wein and Dillin in Justice League of America #111 (May–June 1974), would play a leading role in Grant Morrison's Final Crisis storyline in 2008.
Wonder Woman rejoined the team following a major two-year story arc, largely written by Martin Pasko. To prove her worthiness to rejoin the JLA, Wonder Woman voluntarily underwent twelve trials analogous to the labors of Hercules, each of which was monitored in secret by a member of the JLA. After the conclusion of the storyline in Wonder Woman #222, the character's return to the JLA occurred in a two-part story in Justice League of America #128-129 (March–April 1976).
Steve Englehart wrote the series beginning with issue #139 and provided another unofficial crossover with Marvel Comics in issue #142 by reworking his character Mantis into the DC Universe as a character named "Willow". Englehart left the title with issue #150. From issue #139 to #157 the issues were giant sized.
Writer Gerry Conway had a lengthy association with the title as well. His first JLA story appeared in issue #125 (December 1975) and he became the series' regular writer with issue #151 (February 1978). With a few exceptions, Conway would write the team's adventures until issue #255 (October 1986). Julius Schwartz, who had edited the title since the first issue, left the series with issue #165 (April 1979). The 1979 crossover with the Justice Society in issues #171 and 172 saw the death of the original Mister Terrific. After Dick Dillin's death, George Pérez, Don Heck, and Rich Buckler would rotate as artist on the title. The double-sized anniversary issue #200 (March 1982) was a "jam" featuring a story written by Conway, a framing sequence drawn by Pérez, and chapters drawn by Pat Broderick, Jim Aparo, Dick Giordano, Gil Kane, Carmine Infantino, Brian Bolland, and Joe Kubert. Bolland's chapter gave the artist his "first stab at drawing Batman." Pérez would leave the title with issue #200 to concentrate on The New Teen Titans although he would contribute covers to the JLA through issue #220 (November 1983). The 1982 team-up with the Justice Society in issues #207-209 crossed over with All-Star Squadron #14-15. A Justice League story by Gerry Conway and Rich Buckler originally intended for publication as an issue of All-New Collectors' Edition saw print in Justice League of America #210-212 (January 1983-March 1983).
Seeking to capitalize on the popularity of their other team books, which focused upon heroes in their late teens/early 20s, Gerry Conway and artist Chuck Patton revamped the Justice League series. After most of the original heroes fail to help fend off an invasion of Martians, Aquaman dissolves the League and rewrites its charter to allow only heroes who will devote their full time to the roster. The new team initially consists of Aquaman, Zatanna, Martian Manhunter, Elongated Man, the Vixen, and a trio of teenage heroes Gypsy, Steel, and Vibe. Aquaman leaves the team after a year, due to marital problems, and his role as leader is assumed by the Martian Manhunter.
The final storyline for the original Justice League of America series (#258-261), by writer J. M. DeMatteis and artist Luke McDonnell, concludes with the murders of Vibe and Steel by long-time League nemesis Professor Ivo, and the resignations of Vixen, Gypsy, and the Elongated Man during the events of DC's Legends miniseries, which sees the team disband.
Justice League International
The 1986 company-wide crossover "Legends" concluded with the formation of a new Justice League. The new team was dubbed "Justice League" then "Justice League International" (JLI) and was given a mandate with less of an American focus. The new series, written by Keith Giffen and J. M. DeMatteis with art by Kevin Maguire (and later Adam Hughes), added quirky humor to the team's stories. In this incarnation, the membership consisted partly of heroes from Earths that, prior to their merging in the Crisis on Infinite Earths, were separate. The initial team included Batman, Black Canary, Blue Beetle, Captain Marvel, Doctor Light (a new Japanese female character, emerging from the Crisis of Infinite Earths, not the supervillain who had appeared previously), Doctor Fate, Martian Manhunter, Mister Miracle, and Guy Gardner; and soon after inception, adds Booster Gold, Captain Atom, Fire (then known as the Global Guardians' Green Flame), Ice (then known as the Global Guardians' Icemaiden), and two Rocket Reds (one was a Manhunter spy, and one was Dimitri Pushkin). The Giffen/DeMatteis team worked on Justice League for five years and closed out their run with the "Breakdowns" storyline in 1991 and 1992. The series' humorous tone and high level of characterization proved very popular.
After Giffen and DeMatteis' departure. DC created numerous spin-off titles. In 1996, the series was canceled, along with spinoffs Justice League Europe, Extreme Justice, and Justice League Task Force.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2010)|
The low sales of the various Justice League spinoff books prompted DC to revamp the League as a single team (all the various branch teams were disbanded) on a single title. A Justice League of America formed in the September 1996 limited series Justice League: A Midsummer's Nightmare by Mark Waid and Fabian Nicieza, which reunited the "Original Seven" of the League for the first time since Crisis on Infinite Earths. In 1997, DC Comics launched a new Justice League series titled JLA, written by Grant Morrison with art by Howard Porter and inker John Dell.
Morrison introduced the idea of the JLA allegorically representing a pantheon of gods, with their different powers and personalities, incorporating such characters as Zauriel, Big Barda, Orion, Huntress, Oracle (Barbara Gordon), Steel (John Henry Irons), and Plastic Man. He also had Aztek, Tomorrow Woman, and Green Arrow (Connor Hawke) as temporaries.
During the 2005-2006 event "Infinite Crisis", the series ended as Green Arrow struggled in vain to keep the League afloat. (JLA #120-125)
In 52 Week 24, Firestorm recruits a group to reform the Justice League. It consists of Firehawk, Super-Chief, Bulleteer, and Ambush Bug. They fight a deranged Skeets who takes Super-Chief's powers, killing him and numerous people who had received powers through Lex Luthor's Everyman Project. Afterward, Firestorm breaks up the team. Also in the series, Luthor's new Infinity, Inc. was informally referred to as a "Justice League" in solicitations and on covers.
Justice League of America (vol. 2)
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
|Justice League of America (vol. 2)|
Variant incentive cover for Justice League of America
(vol. 2) #1. Art by Michael Turner.
|Publication date||September 2006 – October 2011|
|Number of issues||61 (#1-60 plus issue numbered 0)|
One year after the events of Infinite Crisis, Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman reunite in the Batcave to re-form the League in Justice League of America #0, the kick-off for a new series by Brad Meltzer and Ed Benes. The series featured a roster which included Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Black Canary, Red Arrow (Green Arrow's former sidekick), Red Tornado, Vixen, Black Lightning, and Hawkgirl. The first arc of the series focused upon Red Tornado and pitted the team against a new intelligent incarnation of Solomon Grundy and the rebuilt Amazo. The new incarnation of the team has two main headquarters, linked by a transporter. At the first site is The Hall, which in the mainstream DC Universe is a refurnished version of the Justice Society of America and the All-Star Squadron's former headquarters located in Washington, D.C.. Black Canary is elected as the first official Chairperson after the fight against Amazo and Solomon Grundy, and led both the Justice League and Justice Society in a complex quest to reunite time-lost members of the pre-Crisis Legion of Super-Heroes, who had been sent back in time to free both Bart Allen and Flash from the other dimensional realm of the Speed Force. Meltzer left the series at the end of issue #12, with one of his subplots (Per Degaton, a pre-nuclear fire mutation version of Despero, and a circa 1948 version of the Ultra-Humanite gathering for an unknown plot) resolved in the pages of Booster Gold.[volume & issue needed]
Dwayne McDuffie took over the writing job with the Justice League Anniversary Special and the main book with issue #13. Due to DC Comics seeking to launch a spin-off Justice League book led by Hal Jordan, the character was removed from the main League series and replaced by John Stewart. Firestorm also joined the roster, with the series entering into a series of tie-in storylines towards Countdown to Final Crisis, with the arrest of a large number of supervillains (gathered by Lex Luthor and Deathstroke to attack the League on the eve of the wedding of Black Canary and Green Arrow) setting up the Salvation Run tie-in miniseries. Also, roster members Red Tornado and Geo-Force were written out. McDuffie's removed Hal Jordan in favor of Stewart. Jordan was restored to the roster by issue #19 of the series, only to be removed once again by issue #31.
Issue #21 saw the return of Libra and the Human Flame, setting up their appearances in Final Crisis. Later issues would resolve issues involving Vixen's power level increase and see the integration of the Milestone Comics characters the Shadow Cabinet and Icon, who fought the Justice League over the remains of the villainous Doctor Light. The group suffered greater losses during Final Crisis with the deaths of Martian Manhunter and Batman, as well as the resignations of Superman and Wonder Woman, who could no longer devote themselves full-time to the League due to the events of the New Krypton and Rise of the Olympian storylines in their respective titles. Hal Jordan would resign as well, clearing the way for John Stewart's return to the team. Black Canary found herself declaring the League no more, though the group would continue with Canary taking a secondary role. Her last act as leader was to assign John Stewart and Firestorm the task of hunting down the Human Flame,[volume & issue needed] for his part in the murder of Martian Manhunter, as seen in the Final Crisis Aftermath: Run! miniseries.
Vixen would take over the team, with Plastic Man rejoining the group. Len Wein wrote a three-part fill-in story for Justice League of America that ran from #35 to #37. McDuffie was fired from the title before he could return, after discussion postings to the DC Comics message board, detailing behind-the-scenes creative decisions on his run, which were republished in the rumor column "Lying In The Gutter". James Robinson was announced as the new Justice League of America writer.
Wein's fill-in run would be published as Justice League: Cry For Justice neared its conclusion, as Vixen and Black Canary's group (sans John Stewart) would confront Hal Jordan and Green Arrow's makeshift Justice League group, which had stumbled upon a plot by the villain Prometheus that had resulted in much death and carnage. During the confrontation over Jordan's group using torture to extract information from the villains being blackmailed into carrying out Prometheus' plan, both Roy Harper and Supergirl would discover that one of Jordan's heroes, Captain Marvel Jr., was really Prometheus in disguise. In the ensuing battle, the League would suffer horrible losses: Roy Harper was maimed and his daughter Lian and hundreds of thousands of people in Star City would be killed by a doomsday device a Prometheus had activated. Vixen would have her leg broken and Plastic Man would have his powers permanently scrambled, making him a slowly disintegrating puddle creature. To save other cities from being destroyed like Star City, the League reluctantly allowed Prometheus to go free. Green Arrow (with help from the Shade) would later track down and kill Prometheus.[volume & issue needed]
Following the events of "Blackest Night", Hal Jordan and Donna Troy begin the task of rebuilding the League, with Green Arrow, the Atom, Batman, Mon-El, Donna, Cyborg, Doctor Light, Starfire, Congorilla, and the Guardian.[volume & issue needed]
At the end of issue #43, the majority of the new members leave. Mon-El and the Guardian leave after Mon-El returns to the future, Black Canary returns to the Birds of Prey, Starfire leaves to join the R.E.B.E.L.S., Green Lantern leaves to locate the other Lantern Corps Entities, and Green Arrow is forced to leave due to his fugitive status. James Robinson said this was due to having second thoughts about his decision to use so many characters, and that the team would have a different roster in the coming months. To replace the departed members, Jade and Jesse Quick were added to the team. Cyborg remained with the team in a reduced capacity, and was eventually given his own co-feature storyline for issues #48–50.
DC announced that Saint Walker of the Blue Lantern Corps would be joining the Justice League during a tie-in to the Reign of Doomsday crossover, but the character did not become a full member due to the cancellation of the title.
The series ended with issue #60 (October 2011), the title being one of the numerous DC books cancelled after the "Flashpoint"crossover. The issue saw Batman disbanding the League due to most of the individual members becoming preoccupied with personal commitments.
The New 52
|Publication date||October 2011 – present|
|Number of issues||37 (#1–32 plus issues numbered 0 and 23.1 through 23.4) (as of September 2014 cover date)|
|Main character(s)||Justice League|
|Penciller(s)||Jim Lee, Gene Ha, Carlos D'Anda, Ivan Reis, Joe Prado, Tony Daniel|
In September 2011, following the conclusion of the Flashpoint miniseries, all DC titles were canceled and relaunched, starting as issue #1 and DC's continuity was rebooted. Justice League of America was relaunched as Justice League, written by Geoff Johns and drawn by Jim Lee, and was the first of the new titles released, coming out the same day as the final issue of Flashpoint. The first six-issue storyline is set five years in the past and features a new origin for the team. The series then shifted to the present in issue #7. After the first 12 issues, Jim Lee was succeeded as artist by Ivan Reis.
The initial roster of the team consists of Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern (Hal Jordan; who has since left the team), Aquaman, the Flash (Barry Allen), and Cyborg, while the Atom (Rhonda Pineda), Firestorm (Ronnie Raymond), and Element Woman join as additional members.
In addition to this series, two other Justice League-related titles were launched during the same month: a new Justice League International; written by Dan Jurgens and drawn by Aaron Lopresti; featuring an initial roster of Batman, Booster Gold, Rocket Red (Gavril Ivanovich), Vixen, Green Lantern (Guy Gardner), Fire, Ice, August General in Iron, and Godiva, and Justice League Dark; written by Peter Milligan and drawn by Mikel Janin; featuring an initial roster consisting of John Constantine, Shade, the Changing Man, Madame Xanadu, Deadman, Zatanna, and new character called Mindwarp. In May 2012, DC announced the cancellation of Justice League International with issue 12 and an annual.
|Justice League of America|
|Publication date||April 2013 – July 2014|
|Number of issues||18 (#1-14 plus issues numbered 7.1 through 7.4)|
|Writer(s)||Geoff Johns, Matt Kindt|
|Artist(s)||David Finch, Scott Clark|
The cancellation of Justice League International led into the launch of a new Justice League of America title (volume 3). The new Justice League of America is entirely separate from the main Justice League as the new team was formed by Amanda Waller and consists of Steve Trevor, Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman, Catwoman, the new Green Lantern Simon Baz, Stargirl, Katana and Vibe. The latter two, Katana and Vibe, have since received their own ongoing titles. The new Atom, Rhonda Pineda, is also a member of the Justice League of America. She works as a spy to gain intel on the Justice League, reporting to Amanda Waller and Steve Trevor. Her placement is unknown to the members of either team. Each member of the Justice League of America is intended to be a counterpart to the members of the Justice League, in case the Justice League would ever go rogue. Catwoman and Green Arrow double up as counterparts for Batman.
The Justice League, Justice League of America and Justice League Dark clash in the "Trinity War" storyline; Atom is later revealed to be from a parallel universe; she is in fact a mole on both teams, and a member of the evil Crime Syndicate of Earth-Three. The Syndicate roundly defeats the assembled Leagues, triggering the Forever Evil crossover event. In the aftermath of Forever Evil, following their crucial and public role in defeating the Crime Syndicate, Lex Luthor and Captain Cold join the Justice League.
In August 2013, it was announced that Justice League of America would be retitled Justice League Canada following Forever Evil, with the team relocating to Canada. Adam Strange and a brand new character of Canadian origin will join the team. In December 2013, Jeff Lemire, the writer of the new Justice League Canada series, announced that Animal Man would be a part of the team. However, in January 2014, it was announced that the series would no longer be retitled, instead relaunching as Justice League United. The series, written by Lemire and drawn by Mike McKone, will feature a team consisting of Animal Man, Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman, Stargirl, Supergirl, Adam Strange, Alanna Strange and an all new, super-powered Cree teenager. The Cree teenager was later revealed to be Equinox, a 16-year-old Cree teen from Moose Factory with the civilian name Miiyahbin. Her powers stem from the Earth and change with the seasons.
Various origins of the Justice League
In a story told in flashback in Justice League of America #9 (February 1962), the Appelaxians infiltrated Earth. Competing alien warriors were sent to see who could conquer Earth first, to determine who will become the new ruler of their home planet. The aliens' attacks drew the attentions of Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash (Barry Allen), Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Aquaman and Martian Manhunter. While the superheroes individually defeated most of the invaders, the heroes fell prey to a single competitor's attack; only by working together were they able to defeat the competitor. For many years, the heroes heralded this adventure as the event that prompted them to agree to pool resources when confronted with similar menaces.
In Justice League of America #144 (July 1977), Green Arrow uncovered inconsistencies in the team's records and extracted admissions from his colleagues that the seven founders had actually formed the League after Martian Manhunter was rescued from Martian forces by the other six founders, along with several other heroes including Robin, Robotman, Congo Bill/Congorilla, Rex the Wonder Dog and even Lois Lane.
Green Lantern participated in this first adventure solely as Hal Jordan, as he had yet to become the costumed hero, the biggest inconsistency Arrow found, as they celebrated the earlier incident's date, while recounting only the later one's events. When the group formalized their agreement, they suppressed news of it because of anti-Martian hysteria. Because the heroes had not revealed their identities to each other at the time, they did not realize that Jordan and Green Lantern were one and the same when he turned up in costume during the event described in #9. While most subsequent accounts of the League have made little mention of this first adventure, the animated Justice League series adapted this tale as the origin of the Justice League as well.
Secret Origins (vol. 2) #32 (November 1988) updated Justice League of America #9's origin for post-Crisis continuity. Differences included the inclusion of the Silver Age Black Canary as a founding member and the absence of Batman, Wonder Woman and Superman. The JLA: Year One limited series, by Mark Waid, Brian Augustyn and Barry Kitson, further expanded the Secret Origins depiction.
In Justice League Task Force #16 (Sept. 1994), during Zero Hour, a then unknown superhuman named Triumph appeared. Triumph was revealed to have been a founding member of the Justice League and was their leader. On his first mission with the Justice League, Triumph seemingly "saved the world" but was teleported into a dimensional limbo that also affected the timestream, erasing all memory of him.
In Infinite Crisis #7 (June 2006), the formation of "New Earth" (the new name for the post-Crisis Earth) restored Wonder Woman as a founding member of the Justice League. In Brad Meltzer's Justice League of America (vol. 2) #0 (September 2006), it was revealed that Superman and Batman were again founding members as well. 52 #51 (June 2007) confirmed that the 1989 Secret Origins and JLA: Year One origins were still in continuity at that time, with Superman, Batman and Wonder Woman joining the team with founding members' status shortly after the group's formation with Aquaman, Black Canary, Flash, Green Lantern and Martian Manhunter. In Justice League of America #12 (October 2007), the founding members of the Justice League were shown to be Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Flash (Barry Allen), Aquaman and the Martian Manhunter.
With DC's history rewritten due to the Flashpoint limited series, an entirely new origin for the Justice League appeared in the subsequent Justice League series which debuted with an October 2011 cover date as part of the company-wide event, The New 52. Issue #1 portrayed the first meeting between Batman and Hal Jordan, with the two encountering each other during a battle against a Parademon in Gotham City. After realizing the creature is extraterrestrial in origin, the two heroes head to Metropolis to seek out Superman only to be attacked by him. Later, after a brief fight in which the Flash arrives and Batman convinces Superman they are on the same side, they move to an abandoned building to work on analyzing a mysterious alien box, when it suddenly activates and more Parademons arrive. While fighting the Parademons, Aquaman and Wonder Woman appear and join forces with the other heroes. The mysterious box leads to Darkseid's arrival on Earth, and the heroes come together, along with the newcomer Cyborg, to defeat him. The public becomes enamored with the heroes, and a writer dubs the group the 'Justice League', following the Flash's suggestion of 'Super Seven'.
Cover of JLA: Classified #1 by Ed McGuinness.
|Publication date||January 2005 - May 2008|
|Number of issues||54|
Formerly Known as the Justice League
In 2003, Giffen, DeMatteis, and Maguire returned with a separate limited series called Formerly Known as the Justice League with the same humor as their Justice League run, and featuring some of the same characters in a team called the "Super Buddies" (a parody of the Super Friends). A follow-up limited series, entitled I Can't Believe It's Not the Justice League, soon was prepared, although it was delayed due to the events shown in the Identity Crisis limited series, but was eventually released as the second arc in JLA: Classified. The Super Buddies consisted of Blue Beetle, Booster Gold, Captain Atom, Fire, Mary Marvel, the Elongated Man with his wife, Sue Dibny, Maxwell Lord, and L-Ron. The second story arc of JLA: Classified focuses on the Super Buddies in a humorous story that features Power Girl, Guy Gardner, with and associated by Doctor Fate.
In 2003-2004, George Pérez and Kurt Busiek produced a JLA/Avengers crossover, an idea that had been delayed for 20 years for various reasons. In this limited series, the Justice League and Marvel Comics' superhero team the Avengers were forced to find key artifacts in one another's universe, as well as deal with the threats of villains Krona and the Grandmaster.
In 2004, DC began an anthology series titled JLA: Classified, which would feature rotating writers and artists producing self-contained story-arcs and aborted mini-series projects that were reappropriated for publication within the pages of the series, starring the JLA. While the bulk of the stories took place within the continuity of the series (circa JLA #76–113) some of the stories take place outside of regular DC Universe canon. The series was canceled as of issue #54 (May 2008).
In October 2005, DC began publishing the 12-issue miniseries Justice by writer Jim Krueger, writer/illustrator Alex Ross, and artist Doug Braithwaite. The story, which takes place outside regular DC continuity, has Lex Luthor assembling the Legion of Doom after he and several other villains begin to have nightmares about the end of the world and the failure of the Justice League to prevent the apocalypse. As the Legion begins engaging in unprecedented humanitarian deeds throughout the world, they also launch a series of attacks on the Justice League and their families. The threat that the Legion was warned about destroying the Earth turns out to be caused by Brainiac, who seeks to destroy Earth during the chaos.
Justice League: Cry for Justice
Originally planned as an ongoing title, Justice League: Cry For Justice is a mini-series written by James Robinson and drawn by Mauro Cascioli. The mini-series, set after the events of Final Crisis, has Hal Jordan leaving the League following the deaths of Batman and Martian Manhunter, as their deaths have caused Hal to seek a more proactive manner of dealing with super-villains. Hal, along with Green Arrow, and later joined by Supergirl, Captain Marvel Jr., and Batwoman are then recruited by Ray Palmer to investigate a murder of a former colleague that had been carried out on orders from Prometheus. This ties into another string of murders, bringing Starman Mikaal Tomas and Congorilla together as their investigation of the murders of several European super-heroes are also revealed to be the work of Prometheus.
With help from the Hawkman villain I.Q., Prometheus plans on creating the ultimate weapon in mass murder, a massive doomsday device which he plans on using to destroy entire cities, as part of his revenge scheme against the JLA for lobotomizing him. Disguised as Captain Marvel Jr., Prometheus maims Roy Harper and brutally injures JLA members Dr. Light II, Vixen, and Plastic Man while using the JLA Satellite to activate his doomsday device, which destroys Star City, killing 90,000 innocent civilians, including Roy Harper's young daughter Lian. Prometheus ultimately extorts his freedom from the League in exchange for the codes that will shut down his weapon, much to the horror of the JLA members. Green Arrow (with help from reformed villain the Shade), tracks Prometheus down and kills him by firing an arrow into his head.
The mini-series leads directly into the formation of a brand new JLA roster with Green Lantern Hal Jordan, Donna Troy, Dick Grayson as Batman, Doctor Light (Kimiyo Hoshi), Mon-El, Cyborg, Starfire, Congorilla, Guardian, and Mikaal Tomas.
Launching in October 2010, JLA/The 99 was a crossover mini-series featuring the Justice League teaming up with the heroes of Teshkeel Comics' The 99 series. The JLA consisted of Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern (John Stewart), The Flash (Barry Allen), The Atom (Ray Palmer), Doctor Light (Kimiyo Hoshi), Hawkman, and Firestorm (Jason Rusch).
The original Justice League of America series has won:
- 1961 Alley Awards for Best Comic Book
- 1961 Alley Awards for Best Adventure-Hero Group
- 1963 Alley Awards for Favorite Novel ("Crisis on Earth-One/Crisis on Earth-Two" in Justice League of America #21-22 by Gardner Fox and Mike Sekowsky)
- 1963 Alley Awards for Strip that Should Be Improved
- 1963 Alley Awards for Artist Preferred on Justice League of America (Murphy Anderson)
- 1973 Shazam Awards for Best Inker (Dramatic Division) (Dick Giordano)
Silver Age Justice League of America
This series has been collected in the following:
|1||Justice League of America Archives volume 1||The Brave and the Bold #28-30, Justice League of America #1-6||978-1563890437|
|2||Justice League of America Archives volume 2||Justice League of America #7-14||978-1563891199|
|3||Justice League of America Archives volume 3||Justice League of America #15-22||978-1563891595|
|4||Justice League of America Archives volume 4||Justice League of America #23-30||978-1563894121|
|5||Justice League of America Archives volume 5||Justice League of America #31-38, #40*||978-1563895401|
|6||Justice League of America Archives volume 6||Justice League of America #41-47, #49-50*||978-1563896255|
|7||Justice League of America Archives volume 7||Justice League of America #51-57, #59-60*||978-1563897047|
|8||Justice League of America Archives volume 8||Justice League of America #61-66, #68-70*||978-1563899775|
|9||Justice League of America Archives volume 9||Justice League of America #71-80||978-1401204020|
|10||Justice League of America Archives volume 10||Justice League of America #81-93||978-1401234126|
|11||Showcase Presents Justice League of America volume 1||The Brave and the Bold #28-30; Justice League of America #1-16; Mystery in Space #75||978-1401207618|
|12||Showcase Presents Justice League of America volume 2||Justice League of America #17-36||978-1401212032|
|13||Showcase Presents Justice League of America volume 3||Justice League of America #37-38; #40-47; #49-57; #59-60*||978-1401217181|
|14||Showcase Presents Justice League of America volume 4||Justice League of America #61-66; #68-75; #77-83*||978-1401221843|
|15||Showcase Presents Justice League of America volume 5||Justice League of America #84; #86-92; #94-106*||978-1401230258|
|16||Showcase Presents Justice League of America volume 6||Justice League of America #107-132*||978-1401238353|
|17||Justice League of America Chronicles volume 1||The Brave and the Bold #28-30; Justice League of America #1-3||978-1401240820|
*omitted issues that featured reprints of material from earlier volumes.
Justice League/Justice League International/Justice League America (1987–1996)
This series has been collected in the following collections (there are hardcover and trade paperback versions of all volumes):
|1||Justice League International Volume 1||Justice League #1-6, Justice League International #7||1-4012-1666-8|
|2||Justice League International Volume 2||Justice League International #8-14, Justice League Annual #1||1-4012-1826-1|
|3||Justice League International Volume 3||Justice League International #15-22||1-4012-1941-1|
|4||Justice League International Volume 4||Justice League International #23-25, Justice League America #26-30||1-4012-2196-3|
|5||Justice League International Volume 5||Justice League International Annual #2-3, Justice League Europe #1-6||978-1-4012-3010-4|
|6||Justice League International Volume 6||Justice League America #31-35, Justice League Europe #7-11||978-1-4012-3119-4|
This series has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|1||New World Order||JLA #1-4||1-56389-369-X|
|2||American Dreams||JLA #5-9||1-56389-394-0|
|3||Rock of Ages||JLA #10-15||1-56389-416-5|
|4||Strength in Numbers||JLA #16-23, JLA Secret Files #2, New Year's Evil: Prometheus (one-shot)||1-56389-435-1|
|5||Justice For All||JLA #24-33||1-56389-511-0|
|6||World War III||JLA #34-41||1-56389-618-4|
|7||Tower of Babel||JLA #42-46, JLA Secret Files #3, JLA 80-Page Giant #1||1-56389-727-X|
|8||Divided We Fall||JLA #47-54||1-56389-793-8|
|9||Terror Incognita||JLA #55-60||1-56389-936-1|
|10||Golden Perfect||JLA #61-65||1-56389-941-8|
|11||The Obsidian Age (Book 1)||JLA #66-71||1-56389-991-4|
|12||The Obsidian Age (Book 2)||JLA #72-76||1-4012-0043-5|
|13||Rules of Engagement||JLA #77-82||1-4012-0215-2|
|14||Trial By Fire||JLA #84-89||1-4012-0242-X|
|15||The Tenth Circle||JLA #94-99||1-4012-0346-9|
|16||Pain of the Gods||JLA #101-106||1-4012-0468-6|
|17||Syndicate Rules||JLA #107-114, and a story from JLA Secret Files 2004||4012-0477-5|
|18||Crisis of Conscience||JLA #115-119||1-4012-0963-7|
|19||World Without a Justice League||JLA #120-125||1-4012-0964-5|
This series has been collected in the following Grant Morrison-centric hardcover (and later paperback) collections:
|1||JLA: The Deluxe Edition Vol. 1||JLA #1-9, plus a story included in JLA: Secret Files and Origins #1||1-4012-1843-1|
|2||JLA: The Deluxe Edition Vol. 2||JLA #10-17, Prometheus (one-shot), plus JLA/WILDCATS||1-4012-2265-X|
|3||JLA: The Deluxe Edition Vol. 3||JLA #22-26, 28-31 and 1,000,000||1-4012-2659-0|
|4||JLA: The Deluxe Edition Vol. 4||JLA #34, 36-41, JLA: Classified #1-3, JLA: Earth II||1-4012-2909-3|
Justice League of America (vol. 2) (2006–2011)
This series has been collected in the following hardcover collections:
|1||The Tornado's Path||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #1-7||HC: 978-1401213497
|2||The Lightning Saga||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #0, #8-12;
Justice Society of America (vol. 3) #5-6
|3||The Injustice League||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #13-16;
JLA Wedding Special #1
|4||Sanctuary||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #17-21||HC: 978-1401219925
|5||The Second Coming||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #22-26||HC: 978-1401222529
|6||When Worlds Collide||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #27-28, #30-34||HC: 978-1401224226
|7||Team History||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #38-43||HC: 978-1401228385
|8||The Dark Things||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #44-48;
Justice Society of America (vol. 3) #41-42
|9||Omega||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #49-53||HC: 978-1401232436
|10||The Rise of Eclipso||Justice League of America (vol. 2) #54-60;
Justice Society of America (vol. 3) #43
The New 52 Justice League (vol. 2) (2011-present)
The series has been collected in the following hardcover collections:
|1||Origin||Justice League (vol. 2) #1-6||978-1401234614|
|2||The Villain's Journey||Justice League (vol. 2) #7-12||978-1401237646|
|3||Throne of Atlantis||Justice League (vol. 2) #13-17;
Aquaman (vol. 7) #15-16
|4||The Grid||Justice League (vol. 2) #18-20, 22-23||978-1401247171|
|5||Forever Heroes||Justice League (vol. 2) #24-29||978-1401248573|
|6||Injustice League||Justice League (vol. 2) #30-35||978-1401252366|
The New 52 Justice League of America (vol. 3) (2013-2014)
|1||World's Most Dangerous||Justice League of America Vol. 3 #1-7||978-1401242367|
|2||Survivors of Evil||Justice League of America Vol. 3 #8-14||978-1401247263|
These trades reprint themed issues.
|1||Justice League of America Hereby Elects||Justice League of America #4, 75, 105-106, 146, 161, and 173-174||978-1401212674|
|2||JLA: The Greatest Stories Ever Told||Justice League of America #19, 77, 122, and 166-168,
Justice League #1, JLA Secret Files #1 and JLA #61
|3||Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 1||Justice League of America ##21-22, 29-30, 37-38, and 46-47||978-1563898952|
|4||Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 2||Justice League of America #55-56, 64-65, 73-74, and 82-83||978-1401200039|
|5||Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 3||Justice League of America #91-92, 100-102, 107-108, and 113||978-1401202316|
|6||Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 4||Justice League of America #123-124, 135-137, and 147-148||978-1401209575|
|7||Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 5||Justice League of America #159-160, 171-172, and 183-185||978-1401226237|
|8||Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 6||Justice League of America #195-197, 207-209 and crossover issues All-Star Squadron #15-17||978-1401238223|
In other media
- Extreme Justice
- Justice Leagues
- Justice League Antarctica
- Justice League Dark
- Justice League Elite
- Justice League Europe
- Justice League International
- Justice League Task Force
- Super Buddies
- Young Justice
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- Julius Schwartz' run on the Justice League of America at the Grand Comics Database
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- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 105: "In a tale written by Gardner Fox, with art by Mike Sekowsky, Dr. Light's first [adventure] was almost the JLA's last."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 109: "The two-part 'Crisis on Earth-One!' and 'Crisis on Earth-Two!' saga represented the first use of the term 'Crisis' in crossovers, as well as the designations 'Earth-1' and 'Earth-2'. In it editor Julius Schwartz, [writer Gardner] Fox, and artist Mike Sekowsky devised a menace worthy of the World's Greatest Heroes."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 112: "Writer Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky crafted a tale in which the Crime Syndicate...ambushed the JLA on Earth-1."
- Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Metamorpho Says No!" Justice League of America 42 (February 1966)
- Dick Dillin's run on Justice League of America at the Grand Comics Database. Dillin missed only the planned reprint issues #67, 76, 85 and 93; issue #153 which was pencilled by George Tuska; and issue #157 where Dillin provided the intro and epilogue pages while Juan Ortiz pencilled the main story.
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 133: "In less than a year on the Justice League of America series, scribe Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin had made major changes to the team. Two issues after Wonder Woman left the JLA, the Martian Manhunter did the same."
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- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 135: "November  saw Black Canary both relocate and develop her 'canary cry'...The crime-fighting beauty at the behest of writer Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin, left the JSA on Earth-2 to join the JLA on Earth-1."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 135: "As told by writer Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin, the JLA suffered heartbreak at the hands of Snapper Carr...a disgraced Snapper resigned his JLA honorary membership."
- O'Neil, Denny (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giella, Joe (i). "The Coming of the Doomsters" Justice League of America 78 (February 1970)
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- Englehart, Steve (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Inner Mission!" Justice League of America 146 (September 1977)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "The Reverse-Spells of Zatanna's Magic" Justice League of America 161 (December 1978)
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- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 156 "The annual Justice League-Justice Society get-together resulted in scribe Len Wein and artist Dick Dillin transporting both teams to the alternate reality of Earth-X. There, Nazi Germany ruled after winning a prolonged World War II and only a group of champions called the Freedom Fighters remained to oppose the regime."
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- Amazing Adventures #16 (Jan. 1973), Justice League of America #103 (Dec. 1972), and Thor #207 (Jan. 1973) at the Grand Comics Database
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- Gerry Conway's run on Justice League of America at the Grand Comics Database
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- "Exclusive - Equinox, new Cree teen superhero, joins DC Comics lineup". CBC News. March 28, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 104: "While celebrating their anniversary as a team, the Justice League shared their origin with Snapper Carr and new member Green Arrow. When representatives of the planet Appellax sought to conquer Earth, they drew the individual attentions of the Flash, Green Lantern, Aquaman, Wonder Woman and the Martian Manhunter."
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 174: "Green Arrow thought he had learned the Justice League of America's origin back in issue #9...Now, he found inconsistencies in the story. Writer Steve Englehart and artist Dick Dillin revealed the truth as told by former JLA member J'onn J'onzz."
- Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 282: "It was up to writers Mark Waid and Brian Augustyn and artist Barry Kitson to fill in the blanks. With their twelve-issue maxiseries JLA: Year One, the trio examined the early days of the team...JLA: Year One proved a success and cleaned up decades of convoluted comic history."
- Waid, Mark; Reis, Ivan; Albert, Oclair. "The Origin of the Justice League of America". DC Comics. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- Johns, Geoff (w), Lee, Jim (p), Williams, Scott (i). "Justice League Part One" Justice League v2, 1 (October 2011)
- Johns, Geoff (w), Lee, Jim (p), Williams, Scott (i). "Justice League Part Two" Justice League v2, 2 (December 2011)
- Johns, Geoff (w), Lee, Jim (p), Williams, Scott (i). "Justice League Part Three" Justice League v2, 3 (January 2012)
- Johns, Geoff (w), Lee, Jim (p), Williams, Scott (i). "Justice League Part Six" Justice League v2, 6 (April 2012)
- Cowsill "2000s" in Dolan, p. 311: "In 2003, writers J. M. DeMatteis and Keith Giffen and original artist Kevin Maguire worked on a six-part series reuniting [their version of] the team."
- Cowsill "2000s" in Dolan, p. 311 "[JLA/Avengers] was an event that...proved to be one of the biggest and best of the DC and Marvel crossovers, incorporating many of the two companies' greatest heroes and villains."
- Justice League at DC Comics.com
- Justice League of America at Don Markstein's Toonopedia WebCitation Archive
- The Justice League Library
- Justice League: Mortal at the Internet Movie Database