Justicia adhatoda (Adulsa, Malabar Nut); syn. Adhatoda vasica Nees, (Bengali: বাসক পাতা) (Kannada: Aadumuttada Soppu)(Tamil: ஆடாதோடை )(Malayalam: ആടലോടകം ("aadalodakam") , Sanskrit: अडुसा adusa, aruha, अरुष arusha, others) is a medicinal plant native to Asia.
This is a shrub with lance-shaped leaves 10 to 15 centimeters in length by four wide. They are oppositely arranged, smooth-edged, and borne on short petioles. When dry they are of a dull brownish-green colour. They are bitter-tasting. When a leaf is cleared with chloral hydrate and examined microscopically the oval stomata can be seen. They are surrounded by two crescent-shaped cells at right angles to the ostiole. The epidermis bears simple one- to three-celled warty hairs, and small glandular hairs. Cystoliths occur beneath the epidermis of the underside of the blade.
Several alkaloids are present in the leaves. The most important is vasicine, a quinazoline alkaloid. The vasicine yield of the herbage has been measured as 0.541 to 1.1% by dry weight.
Vasicine, the active compound, has been compared to theophylline both in vitro and in vivo. Another, vasicinone, showed bronchodilatory activity in vitro but bronchoconstrictory activity in vivo. It is probably biotransformed in vivo, causing bronchoconstriction. Both the alkaloids in combination (1:1) showed pronounced bronchodilatory activity in vivo and in vitro. Vasicine also exhibited strong respiratory stimulant activity, moderate hypotensive activity and cardiac-depressant effect; vasicinone was devoid of these activities. The cardiac-depressant effect was significantly reduced when a mixture of vasicine and vasicinone was used. Vasicinone (dl-form) showed no effect on the isolated heart, but probably the l-form is a weak cardiac stimulant. Clinical trials of a commercial drug containing vasicinone and vasicinone have not revealed any side effects while treating bronchial asthma.[verification needed]
It is the Unofficial provincial flower of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
- sinhala: pawatta(පාවට්ටා)
- Malayalam: Atalotakam (ആടലോടകം)
- Sanskrit: Sinhapuri, Vasaka (वसाका)
- Hindi: Adosa, Arusha, Rus, Bansa
- Bengali: Adulsa, Bakash,Vasok
- Gujarati: Aradusī, Adulso, Aduraspee, Bansa (અરડૂસી)
- Kannada: Adusogae
- Marathi: Adulsa, Adusa (अडुळसा)
- Persian: Bansa
- Punjabi: Bhekkar
- Tamil: Adathodai
- Telugu: Adamkabu, Adampaka, Addasaram (అడ్డసరం)
- Nepali: Asuro, Kalo vasak (नेपाली)
- Roja G., Vikrant B.H., Sandur S.K., Sharma A., Pushpa K.K. "Accumulation of vasicine and vasicinone in tissue cultures of Adhatoda vasica and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activities of the various crude extracts" Food Chemistry 2011 126:3 (1033-1038)
- Dr. K. M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica, Volume 1, Edited by A. K. Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976, pp. 40.
- MONOGRAPH BY Dr AJAY PADMAWAR
- Flora of Nepal: Justicia adhatoda
- Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Justicia adhatoda syn. Adhatoda vasica (Vasa; Vasaka), as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/342-vasaka
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